Justo José de Urquiza

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"Urquiza" redirects here. For other uses, see Urquiza (disambiguation).
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Urquiza and the second or maternal family name is García.
Justo José de Urquiza
Justo José de Urquiza MHN.JPG
3rd President of Argentina
In office
March 5, 1854 – March 4, 1860
Vice President Salvador María del Carril
Preceded by Himself as Provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation
Succeeded by Santiago Derqui
Provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation
In office
September 11, 1852 – March 4, 1854
Preceded by None, post established
Succeeded by None, post abolished
24º Governor of Entre Ríos
4 Term
In office
May 1, 1868 – April 11, 1870
Preceded by José María Domínguez
Succeeded by Ricardo López Jordán
22º Governor of Entre Ríos
3 Term
In office
May 1, 1860 – April 30, 1864
Preceded by
Succeeded by José María Domínguez
21º Governor of Entre Ríos
2 Term
In office
April 7, 1842 – September 10, 1852
Preceded by Francisco Dionisio Álvarez
Succeeded by
17º Governor of Entre Ríos
1 Term
In office
January 1, 1842 – January 28, 1842
Preceded by Vicente Zapata
Succeeded by Pedro Pablo Seguí
Governor of Buenos Aires
In office
July 26, 1852 – September 3, 1852
Preceded by Vicente López
Succeeded by José Miguel Galán
Personal details
Born (1801-10-18)October 18, 1801
Talar de Arroyo Largo, Entre Ríos
Died April 11, 1870(1870-04-11) (aged 68)
San José Palace, Entre Ríos
Nationality Argentine
Political party Federalist Party
Spouse(s) Segunda Calvento
Dolores Costa
Cruz López Jordán

Justo José de Urquiza y García (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxusto xoˈse ðe urˈkisa]; October 18, 1801 – April 11, 1870) was an Argentine general and politician. He was president of the Argentine Confederation from 1854 to 1860.

He was governor of Entre Ríos during the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires with powers delegated from the other provinces. Rosas presented a resignation to his charge frequently, but only as a political gesture, counting that the other governments would reject it. However, in 1851, resentful of the economic and political dominance of Buenos Aires, Urquiza accepted Rosas' resignation and resumed for Entre Rios the powers delegated in Buenos Aires. Along with the resuming of international commerce without passing through the port of Buenos Aires, Urquiza replaced the "Death to the savage unitarians!" slogan with "Death to the enemies of national organization!", requesting the making of a national constitution that Rosas had long rejected. Corrientes supported Urquiza's action, but Rosas and the other provinces condemned the "crazy, traitor, savage, unitarian" Urquiza. Supported by Brazil and the Uruguayan liberals, he created the "Big Army" and forced Manuel Oribe to capitulate, ending the long siege of Montevideo in October 1851, and finally defeating Rosas on 3 February 1852 at the Battle of Caseros. The other provinces that supported Rosas against Urquiza's pronunciation changed sides and supported his project of creating a National Constitution.

Urquiza immediately began the task of national organization. He became provisional director of the Argentine Confederation in May 1852. In 1853, a constituent assembly adopted a constitution based primarily on the ideas of Juan Bautista Alberdi, and Urquiza was inaugurated president in March 1854.

During his administration, foreign relations were improved, public education was encouraged, colonization was promoted, and plans for railroad construction was initiated. His work of national organization was, however, hindered by the opposition of Buenos Aires, which seceded from the Confederation. Open war broke out in 1859. Urquiza defeated the provincial army led by Bartolomé Mitre in October 1859, at the Battle of Cepeda, and Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the Confederation.

Constitutional amendments proposed by Buenos Aires were adopted in 1860 but the settlement was short-lived, and further difficulties culminated in civil war. Urquiza met the army of Buenos Aires, again led by Mitre, in September 1861. The battle was indecisive, but Urquiza withdrew from the field, leaving the victory with Mitre. He retired to San José Palace, his residence in Entre Ríos, where he ruled until he was assassinated at age 69 (along with his sons Justo and Waldino) by followers of dissident and political rival Ricardo López Jordán.

Political offices
Preceded by
Vicente López y Planes
President of Argentina
1854–1860
Succeeded by
Santiago Derqui