Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles) (individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and courts. A juvenile delinquent in the United States is a person who is typically under the age of 17 and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult. Depending on the type and severity of the offense committed, it is possible for persons under 18 to be charged and tried as adults.
In recent years a higher proportion of youth have experienced arrests by their early 20s than in the past, although some scholars have concluded this may reflect more aggressive criminal justice and zero-tolerance policies rather than changes in youth behavior. Juvenile crimes can range from status offenses (such as underage smoking), to property crimes and violent crimes. Youth violence rates in the United States have dropped to approximately 12% of peak rates in 1993 according to official US government statistics, suggesting that most juvenile offending is non-violent. However, juvenile offending can be considered normative adolescent behavior. This is because most teens tend to offend by committing non-violent crimes, only once or a few times, and only during adolescence. Repeated and/or violent offending is likely to lead to later and more violent offenses. When this happens, the offender often displayed antisocial behavior even before reaching adolescence.
- 1 Types
- 2 Risk factors
- 3 Crime Theories Applicable to Juvenile Delinquency
- 4 Juvenile delinquents diagnosed with mental/conduct disorders
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Critique of risk factor research
- 7 Juvenile sex crimes
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Juvenile delinquency, or offending, can be separated into three categories:
- delinquency, crimes committed by minors, which are dealt with by the juvenile courts and justice system;
- criminal behavior, crimes dealt with by the criminal justice system;
- status offenses, offenses that are only classified as such because one is a minor, such as truancy, also dealt with by the juvenile courts.
According to the developmental research of Moffitt (2006), there are two different types of offenders that emerge in adolescence. One is the repeat offender, referred to as the life-course-persistent offender, who begins offending or showing antisocial/aggressive behavior in adolescence (or even childhood) and continues into adulthood; and the age specific offender, referred to as the adolescence-limited offender, for whom juvenile offending or delinquency begins and ends during their period of adolescence. Because most teenagers tend to show some form of antisocial, aggressive or delinquent behavior during adolescence, it is important to account for these behaviors in childhood in order to determine whether they will be life-course-persistent offenders or adolescence-limited offenders. Although adolescence-limited offenders tend to drop all criminal activity once they enter adulthood and show less pathology than life-course-persistent offenders, they still show more mental health, substance abuse, and finance problems, both in adolescence and adulthood, than those who were never delinquent.
Juvenile offending is disproportionately committed by young men. Feminist theorists and others have examined why this is the case. One suggestion is that ideas of masculinity may make young men more likely to offend. Being tough, powerful, aggressive, daring and competitive becomes a way for young men to assert and express their masculinity. Acting out these ideals may make young men more likely to engage in antisocial and criminal behavior. Also, the way young men are treated by others, because of their masculinity, may reinforce aggressive traits and behaviors, and make them more susceptible to offending.
Alternatively, young men may actually be naturally more aggressive, daring and prone to risk-taking. According to a study led by Florida State University criminologist Kevin M. Beaver, adolescent males who possess a certain type of variation in a specific gene are more likely to flock to delinquent peers. The study, which appears in the September 2008 issue of the Journal of Genetic Psychology, is the first to establish a statistically significant association between an affinity for antisocial peer groups and a particular variation (called the 10-repeat allele) of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1).
In recent years however, there has also been a bridging of the gap between sex differences concerning juvenile delinquency. While it is still more common for males to offend than females, the ratio of arrests by sex is one third of what it was 20 years ago (at 2.5 to 1 today). This is most likely due to the combined effects of more females being arrested (for offenses that did not get them arrested before), and a drop in male offenses.
||This article reads like an editorial or opinion piece. (March 2014)|
There is also a significant skew in the racial statistics for juvenile offenders. When considering these statistics, which state that Black and Latino teens are more likely to commit juvenile offenses it is important to keep the following in mind: poverty, or low socio-economic status are large predictors of low parental monitoring, harsh parenting, and association with deviant peer groups, all of which are in turn associated with juvenile offending. The majority of adolescents who live in poverty are racial minorities. Also, minorities who offend, even as adolescents, are more likely to be arrested and punished more harshly by the law if caught. Particularly concerning a non-violent crime and when compared to white adolescents. While poor minorities are more likely to commit violent crimes, one third of affluent teens report committing violent crimes.
Ethnic minority status has been included as a risk factor of psychosocial maladaptation in several studies (e.g., Gutman et al. 2003; Sameroff et al. 1993; Dallaire et al. 2008), and represents a relative social disadvantage placed on these individuals. Though the relation between delinquency and race is complex and may be explained by other contextual risk variables (see, for example, Holmes et al. 2009), the total arrest rate for black juveniles aged 10–17 is more than twice that as of white juveniles (National Center for Juvenile Justice 2008)(p. 1474). This does not seem to be the case for the minority group of East Asian background.
The two largest predictors of juvenile delinquency are
- parenting style, with the two styles most likely to predict delinquency being
- "permissive" parenting, characterized by a lack of consequence-based discipline and encompassing two subtypes known as
- "neglectful" parenting, characterized by a lack of monitoring and thus of knowledge of the child's activities, and
- "indulgent" parenting, characterized by affirmative enablement of misbehavior
- "authoritarian" parenting, characterized by harsh discipline and refusal to justify discipline on any basis other than "because I said so";
- peer group association, particularly with antisocial peer groups, as is more likely when adolescents are left unsupervised.
Other factors that may lead a teenager into juvenile delinquency include poor or low socioeconomic status, poor school readiness/performance and/or failure, peer rejection, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There may also be biological factors, such as high levels of serotonin, giving them a difficult temper and poor self-regulation, and a lower resting heart rate, which may lead to fearlessness. Most of these tend to be influenced by a mix of both genetic and environmental factors.
Individual risk factors
Individual psychological or behavioural risk factors that may make offending more likely include low intelligence, impulsiveness or the inability to delay gratification, aggression, lack of empathy, and restlessness. Other risk factors that may be evident during childhood and adolescence include, aggressive or troublesome behavior, language delays or impairments, lack of emotional control (learning to control one's anger), and cruelty to animals.
Children with low intelligence are more likely to do badly in school. This may increase the chances of offending because low educational attainment, a low attachment to school, and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending in themselves. Children who perform poorly at school are also more likely to be truant, and the status offense of truancy is linked to further offending. Impulsiveness is seen by some as the key aspect of a child's personality that predicts offending. However, it is not clear whether these aspects of personality are a result of "deficits in the executive functions of the brain" or a result of parental influences or other social factors. In any event, studies of adolescent development show that teenagers are more prone to risk-taking, which may explain the high disproportionate rate of offending among adolescents.
Family environment and peer influence
Family factors that may have an influence on offending include: the level of parental supervision, the way parents discipline a child, particularly harsh punishment, parental conflict or separation, criminal parents or siblings, parental abuse or neglect, and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Some have suggested that having a lifelong partner leads to less offending.
Juvenile Delinquency, which basically is the rebellious or unlawful activities by kids in their teens or pre-teens, is caused by four main risk factors namely; personality, background, state of mind and drugs. These factors may lead to the child having low IQ and may increase the rate of illiteracy.
Children brought up by lone parents are more likely to start offending than those who live with two natural parents. It is also more likely that children of single parents may live in poverty, which is strongly associated with juvenile delinquency. However once the attachment a child feels towards their parent(s) and the level of parental supervision are taken into account, children in single parent families are no more likely to offend than others. Conflict between a child's parents is also much more closely linked to offending than being raised by a lone parent.
If a child has low parental supervision they are much more likely to offend. Many studies have found a strong correlation between a lack of supervision and offending, and it appears to be the most important family influence on offending. When parents commonly do not know where their children are, what their activities are, or who their friends are, children are more likely to truant from school and have delinquent friends, each of which are linked to offending. A lack of supervision is also connected to poor relationships between children and parents. Children who are often in conflict with their parents may be less willing to discuss their activities with them.
Adolescents with criminal siblings are only more likely to be influenced by their siblings, and also become delinquent, if the sibling is older, of the same sex/gender, and warm. Cases where a younger criminal sibling influences an older one are rare. An aggressive, non-loving/warm sibling is less likely to influence a younger sibling in the direction of delinquency, if anything, the more strained the relationship between the siblings, the less they will want to be like, and/or influence each other.
Peer rejection in childhood is also a large predictor of juvenile delinquency. Although children are rejected by peers for many reasons, it is often the case that they are rejected due to violent or aggressive behavior. This rejections affects the child's ability to be socialized properly, which can reduce their aggressive tendencies, and often leads them to gravitate towards anti-social peer groups. This association often leads to the promotion of violent, aggressive and deviant behavior. "The impact of deviant peer group influences on the crystallization of an antisocial developmental trajectory has been solidly documented." Aggressive adolescents who have been rejected by peers are also more likely to have a "hostile attribution bias", which leads people to interpret the actions of others (whether they be hostile or not) as purposefully hostile and aggressive towards them. This often leads to an impulsive and aggressive reaction. Hostile attribution bias however, can appear at any age during development and often lasts throughout a persons life.
Crime Theories Applicable to Juvenile Delinquency
There are a multitude of different theories on the causes of crime, most if not all of are applicable to the causes of juvenile delinquency.
Classical criminology stresses that causes of crime lie within the individual offender, rather than in their external environment. For classicists, offenders are motivated by rational self-interest, and the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasized. Rational choice theory is the clearest example of this idea. Delinquency is one of the major factors motivated by rational choice.
Current positivist approaches generally focus on the culture. A type of criminological theory attributing variation in crime and delinquency over time and among territories to the absence or breakdown of communal institutions (e.g. family, school, church and social groups.) and communal relationships that traditionally encouraged cooperative relationships among people.
Strain theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert Merton. He felt that there are institutionalized paths to success in society. Strain theory holds that crime is caused by the difficulty those in poverty have in achieving socially valued goals by legitimate means. As those with, for instance, poor educational attainment have difficulty achieving wealth and status by securing well paid employment, they are more likely to use criminal means to obtain these goals. Merton's suggests five adaptations to this dilemma:
- Innovation: individuals who accept socially approved goals, but not necessarily the socially approved means.
- Retreatism: those who reject socially approved goals and the means for acquiring them.
- Ritualism: those who buy into a system of socially approved means, but lose sight of the goals. Merton believed that drug users are in this category.
- Conformity: those who conform to the system's means and goals.
- Rebellion: people who negate socially approved goals and means by creating a new system of acceptable goals and means.
A difficulty with strain theory is that it does not explore why children of low-income families would have poor educational attainment in the first place. More importantly is the fact that much youth crime does not have an economic motivation. Strain theory fails to explain violent crime, the type of youth crime that causes most anxiety to the public.
The theory of Differential association also deals with young people in a group context, and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime. It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers, and learn criminal skills from them. The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending. There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves. However it may be the case that offenders prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending. Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially.
Labeling theory is a concept within Criminology that aims to explain deviant behavior from the social context rather than looking at the individual themselves. It is part of Interactionism criminology that states that once young people have been labeled as criminal they are more likely to offend. The idea is that once labelled as deviant a young person may accept that role, and be more likely to associate with others who have been similarly labelled. Labelling theorists say that male children from poor families are more likely to be labelled deviant, and that this may partially explain why there are more working class young male offenders.
Social control theory proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and can reduce the inclination to indulge in behavior recognized as antisocial. The four types of control can help prevent juvenile delinquency are:
Direct: by which punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior, and compliance is rewarded by parents, family, and authority figures. Internal: by which a youth refrains from delinquency through the conscience or superego. Indirect: by identification with those who influence behavior, say because his or her delinquent act might cause pain and disappointment to parents and others with whom he or she has close relationships. Control through needs satisfaction, i.e. if all an individual's needs are met, there is no point in criminal activity.
Juvenile delinquents diagnosed with mental/conduct disorders
Juvenile delinquents are often diagnosed different disorders. Around six to sixteen percent of male teens and two to nine percent of female teens have a conduct disorder. These can vary from oppositional-defiant disorder, which is not necessarily aggressive, to antisocial personality disorder, often diagnosed among psychopaths. A conduct disorder can develop during childhood and then manifest itself during adolescence.
Juvenile delinquents who have recurring encounters with the criminal justice system, or in other words those who are life-course-persistent offenders, are sometimes diagnosed with conduct disorders because they show a continuous disregard for their own and others safety and/or property. Once the juvenile continues to exhibit the same behavioral patterns and turns eighteen he is then at risk of being diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and much more prone to become a serious criminal offender. One of the main components used in diagnosing an adult with antisocial personality disorder consists of presenting documented history of conduct disorder before the age of 15. These two personality disorders are analogous in their erratic and aggressive behavior. This is why habitual juvenile offenders diagnosed with conduct disorder are likely to exhibit signs of antisocial personality disorder early in life and then as they mature. Some times these juveniles reach maturation and they develop into career criminals, or life-course-persistent offenders. "Career criminals begin committing antisocial behavior before entering grade school and are versatile in that they engage in an array of destructive behaviors, offend at exceedingly high rates, and are less likely to quit committing crime as they age."
Quantitative research was completed on 9,945 juvenile male offenders between the ages of 10 and 18 in the 1970s.[where?] The longitudinal birth cohort was used to examine a trend among a small percentage of career criminals who accounted for the largest percentage of crime activity. The trend exhibited a new phenomenon among habitual offenders. The phenomenon indicated that only 6% of the youth qualified under their definition of a habitual offender (known today as life-course persistent offenders, or career criminals) and yet were responsible for 52% of the delinquency within the entire study. The same 6% of chronic offenders accounted for 71% of the murders and 69% of the aggravated assaults. This phenomenon was later researched among an adult population in 1977 and resulted in similar findings. S. A. Mednick did a birth cohort of 30,000 males and found that 1% of the males were responsible for more than half of the criminal activity. The habitual crime behavior found among juveniles is similar to that of adults. As stated before most life-course persistent offenders begin exhibiting antisocial, violent, and/or delinquent behavior, prior to adolescence. Therefore, while there is a high rate of juvenile delinquency, it is the small percentage of life-course persistent, career criminals that are responsible for most of the violent crimes.
Delinquency prevention is the broad term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal, or other antisocial, activity.
Because the development of delinquency in youth is influenced by numerous factors, prevention efforts need to be comprehensive in scope. Prevention services may include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment, family counseling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering. Increasing availability and use of family planning services, including education and contraceptives helps to reduce unintended pregnancy and unwanted births, which are risk factors for delinquency. education Education is the great equalizer, opening doors to lift themselves out of poverty.... Education also promotes economic growth, national productivity and innovation, and values of democracy and social cohesion. Prevention through education aides the young person to interact more effectively in social contexts therefor diminishing need for delinquency.
It has been noted that often interventions may leave at-risk children worse off then if there had never been an intervention. This is due primarily to the fact that placing large groups of at risk children together only propagates delinquent or violent behavior. "Bad" teens get together to talk about the "bad" things they've done, and it is received by their peers in a positive reinforcing light, promoting the behavior among them. As mentioned before, peer groups, particularly an association with antisocial peer groups, is one of the biggest predictors of delinquency, and of life-course-persistent delinquency. The most efficient interventions are those that not only separate at-risk teens from anti-social peers, and place them instead with pro-social ones, but also simultaneously improve their home environment by training parents with appropriate parenting styles, parenting style being the other large predictor of juvenile delinquency.
Critique of risk factor research
Two UK academics, Stephen Case and Kevin Haines, among others, criticized risk factor research in their academic papers and a comprehensive polemic text, Understanding Youth Offending: Risk Factor Research, Policy and Practice.
The robustness and validity of much risk factor research is criticized for:
- Reductionism, e.g. over-simplfying complex experiences and circumstances by converting them to simple quantities, relying on a psychosocial focus while neglecting potential socio-structural and political influences;
- Determinism, e.g. characterising young people as passive victims of risk experiences with no ability to construct, negotiate or resist risk;
- Imputation, e.g. assuming that risk factors and definitions of offending are homogenous across countries and cultures, assuming that statistical correlations between risk factors and offending actually represent causal relationships, assuming that risk factors apply to individuals on the basis of aggregated data.
Juvenile sex crimes
||The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with USA and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (July 2010)|
Juveniles who commit sexual crimes refer to individuals adjudicated in a criminal court for a sexual crime. Sex crimes are defined as sexually abusive behavior committed by a person under the age of 18 that is perpetrated "against the victim's will, without consent, and in an aggressive, exploitative, manipulative,and or threatening manner". It is important to utilize appropriate terminology for juvenile sex offenders. Harsh and inappropriate expressions include terms such as "pedophile, child molester, predator, perpetrator, and mini-perp" These terms have often been associated with this group, regardless of the youth’s age, diagnosis, cognitive abilities, or developmental stage. Using appropriate expressions can facilitate a more accurate depiction of juvenile sex offenders and may decrease the subsequent aversive psychological affects from using such labels. In the Arab Gulf states [sic], homosexual acts are classified as an offense, and constitute one of the primary crimes for which juvenile males are charged.
Examining prevalence data and the characteristics of juvenile sex offenders is a fundamental component to obtain a precise understanding of this heterogeneous group. With mandatory reporting laws in place, it became a necessity for providers to report any incidents of disclosed sexual abuse. Longo and Prescott indicate that juveniles commit approximately 30-60% of all child sexual abuse. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports indicate that in 2008 youth under the age of 18 accounted for 16.7% of forcible rapes and 20.61% of other sexual offenses. Center for Sex Offender Management indicates that approximately one-fifth of all rapes and one-half of all sexual child molestation can be accounted for by juveniles.
Official record data
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention indicates that 15% of juvenile arrests occurred for rape in 2006, and 12% were clearance (resolved by an arrest). The total number of juvenile arrests in 2006 for forcible rape was 3,610 with 2% being female and 36% being under the age of 15 years old. This trend has declined throughout the years with forcible rape from 1997–2006 being −30% and from 2005 to 2006 being −10%. The OJJDP reports that the juvenile arrest rate for forcible rape increased from the early 1980s through the 1990s and at that time it fell again. All types of crime rates fell in the 1990s. The OJJDP also reported that the total number of juvenile arrests in 2006 for sex offenses (other than forcible rape) was 15,900 with 10% being female and 47% being under the age of 15. There was again a decrease with the trend throughout the years with sex offenses from 1997 to 2006 being −16% and from 2005 to 2006 being −9%.
Males who commit sexual crimes
Barbaree and Marshall indicate that juvenile males contribute to the majority of sex crimes, with 2–4% of adolescent males having reported committing sexually assaultive behavior, and 20% of all rapes and 30–50% of all child molestation are perpetrated by adolescent males. It is clear that males are over-represented in this population. This is consistent with Ryan and Lane’s research indicating that males account for 91-93% of the reported juvenile sex offenses. Righthand and Welch reported that females account for an estimated 2–11% of incidents of sexual offending. In addition, it reported by The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention that in the juvenile arrests during 2006, African American male youth were disproportionately arrested (34%) for forcible rape. In one case in a foster home a 13 year old boy raped a 9 year old boy by having forced anal sex with him, in a court hearing the the 9 year old boy said he has done this multiple times, that the 13 year old boy was charged for sexual assult.
- Young offender
- Antisocial personality disorder
- Deviance (sociology)
- Juvenile delinquency in the United States
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
- Person in need of supervision
- Status offense
- Teen courts
- Youth court
- Anti-Social Behaviour Order
- Conduct Disorder
- Kazan phenomenon
- Siegel, Larry J.; Welsh, Brandon (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: The Core (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/cengage Learning. ISBN 0534519326.
- Goode, Erica (December 19, 2011). "Many in U.S. Are Arrested by Age 23, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
- Steinberg, L. (2008). Adolescence (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780073405483.
- Moffitt (2006). "Life course persistent versus adolescent limited antisocial behavior". In Cicchetti, D.; Cohen, D. Developmental Psychopathy (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
- Woolard; Scott (2009). "The legal regulation of adolescence". In Lerner, R.; Steinberg, L. Handbook of Adolescent psychology 2 (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley. pp. 345–371. ISBN 9780470149225.
- Aguilar, Sroufe, Egeland, & Carlson, 2000
- "Violence by Teenage Girls: Trends and Context", Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice
- Eadie, T.; Morley, R. (2003). "Crime, Justice and Punishment". In Baldock, J.; et al. Social Policy (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199258945.
- Brown, S. (1998) Understanding Youth and Crime (Listening to youth?), Buckingham: Open University Press. p. 109
- Walklate, S (2003). Understanding Criminology – Current Theoretical Debates, 2nd edition, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
- "Study Reveals Specific Gene in Adolescent Men with Delinquent Peers" Newswise, Retrieved on October 1, 2008.
- Steffensmeier; Schawrtz; Zhong; Ackerman (2005). "An assessment of recent trend in girl's violence using diverse longitudinal sources: Is gender gap closing?". Criminology 43 (2): 355–406. doi:10.1111/j.0011-1348.2005.00011.x.
- Cauffman; et al. (2008). "Bad boys or poor parents: Relations to female juvenile delinquency". Journal on Research on Adolescence 18 (4): 119–142. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00577.x.
- Farrington, D. P. (2002). "Developmental criminology and risk-focused prevention". In Maguire, M.; et al. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199256098.
- Cauffman; Piquero; Kimonis; Steinberg; Chassin (2007). "Legal, individual, and environmental predictors of court disposition in a sample of serious adolescent offenders". Law and Human Behavior 31 (6): 519–535. doi:10.1007/s10979-006-9076-2.
- Aaron, L.; Dallaire, D. H. (2010). "Parental Incarceration and Multiple Risk Experiences: Effect on Family Dynamics and Children's Delinquency". Journal of Youth and Adolescence 39 (12): 1471–1484. doi:10.1007/s10964-009-9458-0.
- Bartol, Curt & Bartol, Anne (2009). Juvenile Delinquency and Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Perspective, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
- "Juvenile Arrest and Collateral Educational Damage in the Transition to Adulthood". JournalistsResource.org, retrieved June 18, 2012
- Kirk, David S.; Sampson, Robert J. (2012). "Juvenile Arrest and Collateral Educational Damage in the Transition to Adulthood". Sociology of Education. doi:10.1177/0038040712448862.
- Graham, J. & Bowling, B. (1995). Young People and Crime, Home Office Research Study No. 145, London: Home Office.
- Jack, Steve. "juvenile delinquency". http://www.writengine.com/. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Dodge et el., (2003), "A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence". Developmental Psychology, 39, 349-371
- Monea J, Thomas A (June 2011). "Unintended pregnancy and taxpayer spending". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 43: 88–93. doi:10.1363/4308811. PMID 21651707.
- "Family Planning - Healthy People 2020". Retrieved 2011-08-18. "Which cites:
- Logan C, Holcombe E, Manlove J, et al. (May 2007). "The consequences of unintended childbearing: A white paper". Washington: Child Trends, Inc.
- Cheng D, Schwarz E, Douglas E, et al. (March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception 79 (3): 194-8. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.09.009. PMID 19185672.
- Kost K, Landry D, Darroch J. (Mar–Apr 1998). "Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: Does intention status matter?". Fam Plann Perspectives 30 (2): 79-88. doi:10.2307/2991664. PMID 9561873.
- D'Angelo, D, Colley Gilbert B, Rochat R, et al. (Sep–Oct 2004). "Differences between mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among women who have live births.". Perspect Sex Reprod Health 36 (5): 192-7. doi:10.1363/3619204. PMID 15519961."
- Brown, S (1998) Understanding Youth and Crime (Listening to youth?), Buckingham: Open University Press.
- Hare (1991). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems.
- Holmes, S. E.; James, R. S.; Javad, K. (2001). "Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder". Child Psychiatry and Human Development 31 (3): 183–193. doi:10.1023/A:1026425304480.
- DeLisi, Matt (2005). Career Criminals in Society. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications. p. 39. ISBN 1412905532.
- Marvin, Wolfgang; Figlio, Robert M.; Sellin, Thorsten (1972). Delinquency in a Birth Cohort. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226905535.
- Raine, A. (1993). The Psychopathology of Crime: Criminal Behavior as a Clinical Disorder. San Diego, California: Academic Press. ISBN 0125761600.
- World Bank. "Education and development". Retrieved 18 January 2012.
- Dishion & McCord (1999). When interventions harm :Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755-764.
- Barbaree, H. E., Marshall, W. L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
- Ryan, G., Lane, S. (Eds.). (1997). Juvenile Sexual Offending: Causes consequences and correction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Longo, R. E., Prescott, D. S. (2006). Introduction: A brief history of treating youth with sexual behavior problems. Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems, (pp. 31-43). Massachusetts: NEARI Press.
- Booth, Marilyn. 2002. "Arab adolescents facing the future". pp. 232 in Brown et. al., (eds.) The World's Youth: Adolescence in Eight Regions of the Globe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052180910x
- Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Report (2009). Crime in the United States 2008. Retrieved on October 11, 2009, from http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm.
- Hunter, J. (1999, December). The Center for Sex Offender Management. Understanding juvenile sex offending behavior: Emerging research, treatment approaches, and management practices. Retrieved October 11, 2009 from http://www.csom.org/pubs/juvbrf10.html.
- Snyder, H. M. (November 2008). "Juvenile arrests 2006". Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Righthand, S.; Welch, C. (2004). "Characteristics of youth who sexually offend". Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 13 (3): 15–32. doi:10.1300/J070v13n03_02.
- Kalra, Michelle (1996). Juvenile delinquency and adult aggression against women (M.A. thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University.
- E. Mulvey, MW Arthur, ND Reppucci, "The prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency: A review of the research", Clinical Psychology Review, 1993.
- Edward P. Mulvey, Michael W. Arthur, & N. Dickon Reppucci, "Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency: A Review of the Research", The Prevention Researcher, Volume 4, Number 2, 1997, Pages 1-4.
- Regoli, Robert M. and Hewitt, John D. Delinquency in Society, 6th ed., 2006.
- Siegel, J Larry. Juvenile Delinquency with Infotrac: theory, practices and law, 2002.
- United Nations, Research Report on Juvenile Delinquency (pdf).
- Zigler E, Taussig C, Black K., "Early childhood intervention. A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency", Am Psychol. 1992 Aug;47(8):997-1006.
- Gang Cop: The Words and Ways of Officer Paco Domingo (2004) by Malcolm W.Klein
- The American Street Gang: Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control (1995), by Malcolm W. Klein
- American Youth Violence (1998) by Franklin Zimring
- Street Wars: Gangs and the Future of Violence (2004) by Tom Hayden
- Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun (1995) by Geoffrey Canada
- Violence: Reflections on a National Epidemic (1996) by James Gilligan
- Lost Boys: Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them (1999) by James Gabarino
- Last Chance in Texas: The Redemption of Criminal Youth (2005) by John Hubner
- Breaking Rank: A Top Cop's Expose of the Dark Side of American Policing (2005) by Norm Stamper
- Peetz P., "Youth, Crime, and the Responses of the State: Discourses on Violence in Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Nicaragua", GIGA Working Papers, Number 80, 2008.
- Harnsberger, R. Scott. A Guide to Sources of Texas Criminal Justice Statistics [North Texas Crime and Criminal Justice Series, no. 6]. Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2011. ISBN 978-1-57441-308-3
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Juvenile Offenders.|
- Delinquency Prevention - Clearinghouse of juvenile delinquency prevention information
- Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime - major study at Edinburgh Law School
- "State Responses to Serious and Violent Juvenile Crime." - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
- A Voyage into the Mind of Delinquent and Destitute Adolescents
- Guide to Juvenile Justice in New York City
- Juvenile Sex Offenders and Juvenile Sex Crimes in California - Overview of juvenile sex crimes and juvenile sex offender registration in California.