Kütahya Clock Tower
Location of Kütahya within Turkey.
|• District||2,484.16 km2 (959.14 sq mi)|
|• District density||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Kütahya (Turkish pronunciation: [cyˈtahja]) is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 564 294 people (2011 estimate). The region of Kütahya has large areas of gentle slopes with agricultural land culminating in high mountain ridges to the north and west. The city's Greek name was Kotyaion[pronunciation?], Latinized in Roman times as Cotyaeum[pronunciation?].
- 3rd millennium BCE: Settled, and known as Kotiaion or Cotyaeum, "the city of the goddess Kotys". It was an important stopover on the road from the Marmara region to Mesopotamia.
- 12th century BCE: Incorporated into the Phrygian kingdom, becoming one of the country's most important cities.
- Around 700 BCE: Phrygia collapses, but the city survives.
- The city became part of the Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris, but in about 820 became the capital of the new province of Phrygia Salutaris III. Its bishopric thus changed from being a suffragan of Synnada to a metropolitan see, although with only three suffragan sees according to the Notitia Episcopatuum of Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise (886-912), which is dated to around 901-902. According to the 6th-century historian John Malalas, Cyrus of Panopolis, who had been prefect of the city of Constantinople, was sent there as bishop by Emperor Theodosius II (408-450), after four bishops of the city had been killed. Two other sources makes Cyrus bishop of Smyrna instead. The bishopric of Cotyaeum was headed in 431 by Domnius, who was at the Council of Ephesus, and in 451 by Marcianus, who was at the Council of Chalcedon. A source cited by Lequien says that a bishop of Cotyaeum named Eusebius was at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. Cosmas was at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680–681. Ioannes, a deacon, represented an unnamed bishop of Cotyaeum at the Trullan Council in 692. Bishop Constantinus was at the Second Council of Nicaea in 692, and Bishop Anthimus at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879), No longer a residential bishopric, Cotyaeum is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
- 1071 : Conquered by the Seljuks.
- Around 1095: Conquered by the Crusaders.
- 1182: Reconquered by the Seljuks.
- 1302: Becomes capital of the Germiyanid Turkmen principality.
- It was taken and plundered by Timur-Leng (Tamerlane) in 1402.
- 1428: Becomes part of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1514: Sultan Selim I resettled tile-workers from Tabriz in Kütahya and İznik after defeating the Persians. With this, Kütahya emerges as a centre for the Ottoman ceramic industry, producing tiles and faience for mosques, churches and official buildings in places all over the Middle East.
- 19th century: With the fast growth of Eskişehir 70 km away, Kütahya lost much of its regional and economic importance.
The industries of Kütahya have long traditions, going back to ancient times. Kütahya is famous for its kiln products, such as tiles and pottery, which are glazed and multicoloured. Modern industries are sugar refining, tanning, nitrate processing and different products of meerschaum, which is extracted nearby. The local agricultural industry produces cereals, fruits and sugar beet. In addition stock raising is of much importance. Not far from Kütahya there are important mines extracting lignite.
Kütahya has a warm summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsb), with cold and snowy winters and warm and dry summers. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn, but can be observed throughout the year.
|Climate data for Kütahya|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.1
|Average high °C (°F)||4.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−20.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||69.7
|Avg. rainy days||14.3||12.8||12.9||13.0||11.8||7.1||4.4||3.9||4.8||8.8||10.7||14.2||118.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||62||86.8||142.6||174||229.4||279||310||291.4||225||151.9||102||58.9||2,113|
|Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü |
Kütahya's old neighbourhoods are dominated by traditional Ottoman houses made of wood and stucco, some of the best examples being found along Germiyan Caddesi. It has many historical mosques such as Ulu Camii, Cinili Camii, Balikli Camii and Donenler Camii. The Şengül Hamamı is a famous Turkish bath located in the city
The town preserves some ancient ruins, a Byzantine castle and church. During late centuries Kütahya has been renowned for its Turkish earthenware, of which fine specimens may be seen at the national capital. The Kütahya Museum has a fine collection of arts and cultural artifacts from the area.
The Main Campus and the Germiyan Campus of the Kütahya Dumlupınar University are located in the city.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Kütahya is twinned with:
- Abdullah Aymaz, writer and journalist
- Ahmet İhsan Gürsoy, politician
- Alexander of Cotiaeum, ancient Greek grammarian
- Ali Mesut Erez, politician
- Aydilge Sarp, singer.
- Âsım Gündüz, military officer in the Ottoman and Turkish armies
- Ayla Dikmen, singer
- David Ohannessian, Armenian ceramist
- Evliya Çelebi, Turkish globe traveler and author.
- Halil Akkaş, middle distance runner
- Kadri Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier (1880)
- Komitas Vardapet, Armenian composer, musicologist
- Mustafa Kalemli, politician
- Osman Albayrak, politician who was state minister
- Ömer Rüştü Paşa, military commander
- Özge Kırdar, volleyball player
- Rauf Onursal, politician and governor
- Refik Tulga, politician and governor
- Seda Akman, actress
- Veli Kızılkaya, football player
- Nafi Güral, businessman
- Cüneyt Canatan, ceramist
- "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04422a.htm Catholic Encyclopaedia: Cotiaeum.
- Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 540, nº 338.
- Gelzer, op. cit., p. 559, nnº 650-653.
- Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 851-852
- Raymond Janin, v. Cotyaeum, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIII, Paris 1956, coll. 938-940
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 447
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 875
- Henry Glassie, Turkish Traditional Art Today (Indiana University Press 1993), 435 ff.
- The Government of Kütahya
- Province Culture And Tourism Drectorate
- City of Tiles
- Pictures from Kütahya
- Kütahya weather forecast information
- Photos of ancient Roman city of Aizanoi in Kütahya
- Photos from another source of ancient Roman city of Aizanoi in Kütahya province
- A website about a nitrate processing factory in Kütahya
- A website about the sugar refinery facility in Kütahya
- Official website of Kütahya Ceramic Company
- Kütahya Photo Forum