Kęsgailos

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Zadora Coat of Arms, the coat of arms of the family

Kęsgailos (plural; singular: Kęsgaila) was a Lithuanian noble family, one of the largest landowners in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The family traces its roots to the 14th century (Buseika is considered the ancestor of the family). Their seat was in the Samogitia and Trakai regions. Kęsgailos family members had been the Elders of Samogitia from 1412 until 1532.

According to the 1528 military census, the family had to provide the most troops in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[1] The family died out in the 16th century.

Name[edit]

The surname Kęsgaila comes from the first name of Mykolas Kęsgaila son of Valimantas, whose elder brother Jaunutis son of Valimantas was granted the Zadora Coat of Arms in the Union of Horodlo of 1413. In line with the common practice for nobles' names after the Christianization of Lithuania, after his baptism, the Christian name *Mīkālas (Michael) was added to a pagan Lithuanian name, which can be reconstructed as *Kensgaĭla (from kęsti ("be patient") and gailas ("strong")). His son Jonas Kęsgailaitis, mentioned in written sources in Latin as Johannes Kyensgalowicz,[2] was a bearer of the name as a patronymic, which subsequently evolved into a family name. Its Polonized form Kieżgajło is most common in Polish historiography over other variants, such as Kezigal, Kieżgajłła, Gezgajło, Kiezgajło, Kieżgajłło, Kierżgajłło, Kieżgałło and Kieżgało. Kęsgaila (plural Kęsgailos) is a modern Lithuanian spelling of the original family name.

Family tree[edit]

Family is presented based on Rimvydas Petrauskas.[3]

Buškys or Buseika
Valimantas
Rumbaudas
Died in 1432
Grand Marshal of Lithuania
Kęsgaila
Died c. 1449
Elder of Samogitia
Jaunius
Died in 1432
Voivode of Trakai
Gudiginas Šedbaras
Died in 1432?
Starosta of Kaunas
Sudovijus
Died in 1459
Starosta of Kaunas
Mykolas Konradas Gudigirdaitis
(had issue)
Zaviša Gudigirdaitis
(had issue)
Stankus
Died before 1481
Starosta of Hrodna
NN daughter
Wife of Jonas Vėževičius
Mykolas Kęsgaila
Died in 1476
Grand Chancellor of Lithuania
Jonas Kęsgaila
Died in 1485
Elder of Samogitia
Petras Kęsgaila Dobka Kęsgaila
Died c. 1460
Butrimas Kęsgaila
Died before 1445
Dorota
Wife of Jonas Goštautas
Milochna
Wife of Petras Gedgaudas
Mykolas Kęsgaila
Died in 1512
Grand Marshal of Lithuania
Stanislovas Kęsgaila
Died in 1527
Elder of Samogitia
Helena
Wife of Jurgis Mantautaitis
NN daughter
Wife of Ivan Jurscha
Anna?
Mykolas Kęsgaila
Died in 1523
Jonas Kęsgaila Stanislovas Kęsgaila
Died in 1532
Elder of Samogitia
Barbora
Wife of Jan Janowicz Zabrzeziński
Stanislovas Kęsgaila
Died in 1554
Last male heir

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Bumblauskas. Senosios Lietuvos istorija, 1009-1795. Vilnius, 2005. p. 182
  2. ^ Historical Documents of Lithuania
  3. ^ Petrauskas, Rimvydas (2003). Lietuvos diduomenė XIV a. pabaigoje – XV a. (in Lithuanian). Aidai. pp. 244–306. ISBN 9955-445-67-X.