Kōan (Muromachi period)
|History of Japan|
Kōan (康安?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Enbun and before Jōji. This period spanned the years from March 1361 through September 1362. The emperor in Kyoto was Go-Kōgon-tennō (後光厳天皇?). Go-Kōgon's Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Go-Murakami-tennō (後村上天皇?)
During the Meiji period, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911 established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the direct descendants of Emperor Go-Daigo through Emperor Go-Murakami, whose Southern Court (南朝 nanchō?) had been established in exile in Yoshino, near Nara.
Until the end of the Edo period, the militarily superior pretender-Emperors supported by the Ashikaga shogunate had been mistakenly incorporated in Imperial chronologies despite the undisputed fact that the Imperial Regalia were not in their possession.
Change of era
- 1361, also called Kōan gannen (康安元年?): The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Embun 6.
In this time frame, Shōhei (1346–1370) was a Southern Court equivalent nengō,
Events of the Kōan era
- 1361 (Kōan 1, 6th month): Snowfall was unusually heavy; and there was also a disastrous fire in Kyoto as well as a violent earthquake.
- 1361 (Kōan 1): Eigen-ji, a Zen Buddhist temple located in modern day Shiga prefecture, was founded Sasaki Ujiyori; and its first Abbot was Jakushitsu Genko.
- 1362 (Kōan 2): Hosokawa Kiyouji and Kusunoki Masanori attack Kyoto, Ashikaga Yoshiakira flees, but regains the capital in twenty days.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kōan" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 535; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 302-305; Nussbaum, p. 175.
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring modernity: concepts of nature in Japanese political ideology, p. 199 n57, citing Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. p. 140-147.
- Titsingh, p. 305.
- Eigen-ji, Joint Council for Japanese Rinzai and Obaku Zen, "head temples;" Dumoulin, Heinrich. (2005). Zen Buddhism: A History, p. 205.
- Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron, p.329.
- Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. 10-ISBN 0-7022-1485-X; 13-ISBN 978-0-7022-1485-1
- Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. New York: St Martin's Press. 10-ISBN 0-312-21160-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-312-21160-8; OCLC 419870136
- Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
- Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring Modernity: Concepts of Nature in Japanese Political Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-22854-5; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-22854-2; OCLC 47916285
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
|Era or nengō