Kedareswar Banerjee

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Kedareswar Banerjee
Professor Kedareswar Banerjee.jpg
Kedareswar Banerjee, University of Allahabad
Born (1900-09-15)15 September 1900
Sthal (Pabna), Vikrampur Dacca (now in Bangladesh)
Died 30 April 1975(1975-04-30)
Barasat, Calcutta
Nationality Indian
Fields X-ray Crystallographic
Institutions University of Allahabad, India Meteorological Department, University of Dhaka, and Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Alma mater University of Calcutta
Known for X-ray Crystallographic

Kedareswar Banerjee (15 September 1900 – 30 April 1975) was an X-ray crystallographer and director of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata.[1] Early in his career he determined the structures of naphthalene and anthracene. In 1931, he worked with Sir William Henry Bragg and developed one of the first direct methods of crystal structure determination. He was Professor of Physics at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science from 1943 to 1952 and Director of the Association from 1959 until his retirement in 1965. Between 1952 and 1959 he was Head of the Department of Physics at Allahabad University. His interests in crystallography were widespread and, with his death, India has lost a renowned teacher. K. Banerjee joined the research group of Sir C. V. Raman at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Calcutta, a premier Indian research institute of India. He worked in various institutions including IACS, the India Meteorological Department, University of Dhaka and Allahabad University and finally retired as the Director of IACS, Calcutta in 1965. Prof. Banerjee explained some points of crystal research to Homi J. Bhabha (21 Dec 1956) also .[2][3]

Honors and awards[edit]

At initiative of Murali Manohar Joshi, Allahabad University honoured him with establishing an atmospheric and ocean science centre by his name which is called the K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies (KBCAOS)[4][5] in 2000 with full support of Prem Chand Pandey, the then Director, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) which is first one academic centre of atmospheric and Ocean science in north Indian Universities. The KBCAOS got his name also because of the reason, K. Banerjee was the first scientist from University of Allahabad who worked with the India Meteorological Department.[6][7][8][9]

He was elected Fellow of The National Academy of Sciences, India and Indian Academy of Sciences. He was the sectional President for Physical Science Group at the Indian Science Congress in 1947, Vice-President of NASc during 1958–1960 and General President NASc in 1967. He was a member of the first National Commission for Cooperation with UNESCO during 1947–1951, a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Planning Commission (India) during 1953–1956 and a member of the review committees and advisory boards of several national laboratories. In 1948, he was invited as a 'Guest of Honour' to the Inaugural Conference and General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography. Apart from being a stellar scientist, Prof. Banerjee possessed a rare and pleasing personality. He was extremely kind and affectionate yet strong in his convictions. He lived a life of noble deeds and thoughts that brought him self-composure, freedom from fear and made him a truly international scientist.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]

As first crystallographer of India[edit]

Banerjee laid the foundation of X-ray Crystallographic research in India. In 1924, when only a few crystal structures had been determined throughout the world, Banerjee's work on the determination of atomic arrangements in crystalline naphthalene and anthracene received international attention. Banerjee was awarded the DSc degree of the University of Calcutta in 1930. He had close associations with almost all the leading crystallographers of his time including William Henry Bragg, William Lawrence Bragg, Paul Peter Ewald, John Desmond Bernal, Nikolay Vasilyevich Belov, J. M. Robertson, K. Lonsdale and Melvin Avrami (who known for his Avrami equation of phase transition). In 1933, Banerjee proposed a new approach to the crystallographic phase problem, which not only broke new ground beyond the 'trial and error' structure solution method of that time, but also heralded the extremely powerful direct methods of crystallography of the modern era. His seminal paper (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1933, 141, 188) on direct methods was cited in the Nobel Lecture of Dr. Jerome Karle in 1985. Apart from structural X-ray crystallography, Banerjee's research pursuits covered a wide field of crystal physics. His research contributions in various fields including low angle scattering, thermal diffuse scattering of X-rays from crystals, diffraction of X-rays by liquids, jute fibre and organic polymers, structures of coal and glass, determination of the elastic constants of crystals by X-rays, theoretical modelling of the vibrational spectra of crystal lattices and some topics in crystal optics have received international recognition. Perhaps his most significant contribution to the advancement of science in India was the creation of active schools of research wherever he went leaving behind a band of young, energetic research workers who became the torch bearers of his scientific tradition.[22][23][24] .

Personal life[edit]

He was born in Bengali Brahmin family on 15 September 1900 in Sthal (Pabna), Vikrampur Dacca (now in Bangladesh). He was educated at Jubilee School, Dacca, at the University of Calcutta, for his undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees in science. His thesis was " Some Problems in Structures of Solid and Liquids" (Cl. V. Raman). He was a reader in physics at the University of Dhaka (1934–43), and a professor of physics at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, in Calcutta (1943–62), a professor of physics at Allahabad University (1952–69), and a director of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. He died on 30 April 1975 at Barasat, a suburb of Calcutta.[25][26][27][28] Kedareswar stands for "Lord Shiva" in Hindi. In Hindu mythology Kedareswar is the Lord of Supreme Sacrifices i.e. the Lord Shiva who also known as Vishveshwar and MahaMritunjay as three part of the Shiva's Trishul in connection with Lord Vishwanath which given base to ground of Kashi i.e. the Varanasi thus Kashi is the 'original ground' created by Lord Shiva and Parvati, upon which they stood at the beginning of time[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “K Banerjee is in list of Directors IACS”. Professor Banerjee Indian Association of Cultivation of Science
  2. ^ “Professor Kedareswar Banerjee – The Crystallographer (15 September 1900 – 30 April 1975)”. Professor Kedareswar Banerjee a brief Introduction from IUCR web page
  3. ^ “Kedareswar Banerjee”. From IISc Bangore web page
  4. ^ "KBCAOS". KBCAOS page
  5. ^ "Kedareswar Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies on Allahabad University official web page". Kedareswar Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studes (KBCAOS) in Au web page
  6. ^ “Allahabad University ordinance:Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies (IIDS) have K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies (KBCAOS) at page 99”. (PDF) Allahabad University official web page reference of KBCAOS
  7. ^ “Academics: IIDS have centre K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies”. KBCAOS in Allahabad University Institute of Interdisplinary section
  8. ^ “KBCAOS in Coordinators section of UoA”. KBCAOS in Coordinators section of Allahabad University page
  9. ^ “Seed R & D activities in the area of Polar Remote Sensing have been initiated in collaboration with other national institutes like SAC, Ahamedabad and K. Banerjee Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Allahabad. ---In addition, a sum of Rs. 3.00 crore is proposed for the initiation of research programmes at the Dr. Kedareswar Banerjee Centre for Atmospheric and Ocean Studies at the Allahabad University”. NCAOR/DOD(MoES) supported initiation establishment of K. Banerjee Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, University of Allahabad
  10. ^ “Professor Kedareswar Banerjee – The Crystallographer (15 September 1900 – 30 April 1975)”. Professor Kedareswar Banerjee a brief Introduction from IUCR web page
  11. ^ “Kedareswar Banerjee”. From IISc Bangore web page
  12. ^ “ K Banerjee was fellow of IAS, Bangalore. Brief Biography
  13. ^ “HALF-DAY SEMINAR ON SOME ASPECTS OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY & MATERIALS PHYSICS”. (A tribute to Professor Kedareswar Banerjee on his 101st. birthday on 15 September 2001)
  14. ^ “A conversation with Satyendranath Bose about five decades ago -Some recollections”. Kedareswar Banerjee recalled with X-ray statistics problem by Hauptmann and Karl
  15. ^ “Biographical notes on individual crystallographers”. K. Banerjee [Memoirs and anecdotes] IUCr Newsletter Kedareswar Banerjee – India's first crystallographer and K. Banerjee [Memoirs and anecdotes] 50 Years of X-ray Diffraction Development of X-ray Crystallography Research in India K. Banerjee is present here
  16. ^ “Professor Kedareswar Banerjee, the pioneer X-ray crystallographer in India, died on 30 April 1975. Early in his career he determined the structures of naphthalene and anthracene. In 1931, he worked with Sir William Bragg and developed one of the first direct methods of crystal structure determination. He was a professor of physics at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science from 1943 to 1952 and its director from 1959 until his retirement in 1965. Between 1952 and 1959 he was head of the department of physics at Allahabad University. His interests in crystallography were widespread and, with his death, India has lost a renowned teacher". Bio of Professor Banerjee
  17. ^ “Banerjee, Kedareswar (1931) Relation of the liquid to the crystalline state Nature, 127 . pp. 92–93. ISSN 0028-0836”. Professor Banerjee's article in nature
  18. ^ “same paper of nature”. K. Banerjee's Paper
  19. ^ “ K. Banerjee developed a quantitative theory of the photo elastic behaviour of the crystals was that made at Raman’s suggestion in 1927”. K. Banerjee and Prof. C V Raman's collaboration
  20. ^ “Kedareswar Banerjee by K C Banerji”. K. Banrejee's biography
  21. ^ “Important contributions to physics were made in Dhaka by K.S. Krishnan, Kedareshwar Banerjee, S. R. Khastgir, and others”. Banerjee at Dhaka University
  22. ^ “Professor Kedareswar Banerjee – The Crystallographer (15 September 1900 – 30 April 1975)”. Professor Kedareswar Banerjee's works from IUCR web page
  23. ^ “Kedareswar Banerjee”. Professor Kedareswar Banerjee's works from IISc Bangore web page
  24. ^ “ K Banerjee was fellow of IAS, Bangalore. Brief Biography
  25. ^ “Banerjee, Kedareswar’s Biography on IUCR web page”. Kedareshwar Banerjee
  26. ^ “ K Banerjee was fellow of IAS, Bangalore. Brief Biography
  27. ^ “K Banerjee pioneered the early development of the direct method of crystallography”. From Indian Association of Cultivation of Science official web pahe history
  28. ^ “Prominent Personalities of Munshiganj (Bikrampur) District of Bangladesh: A Campaign for Public Exposure”. Kedareshwar Banerjee was from Munshiganj (Bikrampur) District of Bangladesh
  29. ^ "Kedareswar and Vishveshwar and MahaMritunjay as three part of the Shiva’s Trishul in connection with Lord Vishwanath which given base to ground of Kashi i.e. the Varanasi thus Kashi is the 'original ground' created by Lord Shiva and Parvati, upon which they stood at the beginning of time". Kedareswar is Lord of Supreme Sacrifices

External links[edit]