Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan

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Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan
K. S. Krishnan.jpg
Born (1898-12-04)December 4, 1898
Watrap, India
Died June 14, 1961(1961-06-14) (aged 62)
Nationality Indian
Fields Physics
Institutions Madras Christian College
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Dacca University
Allahabad University
National Physical Laboratory of India
Alma mater The American College in Madurai
Madras Christian College
Calcutta University
Known for Raman effect
Crystal Magnetism
Magneto Chemistry
Technique for measuring Magnetic anisotropy of magnetic crystals
Notable awards Padma Bhushan
FRS[1]
Knighthood
Bhatnagar Award

Padma Bhushan Sir Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan, FRS, (4 December 1898 – 14 June 1961) was an Indian physicist. He was a co-discoverer of Raman scattering,[2] for which his mentor C. V. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Early life[edit]

Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan, Iyengar generally referred to as K. S. Krishnan or KSK, was born on December 4, 1898 in Watrap, Tamil Nadu. His father was a farmer-scholar deeply versed in Tamil and Sanskrit literature. He had his early schooling in G.S. Hindu Higher Secondary school, Srivilliputhur near to his native village, after which he attended the American College, Madurai and the Christian College, Madras where after gaining his degree in Physics he became a Lecturer in Chemistry.[3]

Early career[edit]

In 1920, Krishnan went to work with C.V. Raman at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (then Calcutta). There he engaged himself in experimental study of the scattering of light in a large number of liquids and its theoretical interpretations. He played a significant role in the discovery of the Raman Effect.

In 1928 he moved to the Dacca University (now in Bangladesh) as the Reader in the physics department where he studied magnetic properties of crystals in relation to their structure. Krishnan, along with other rising scientists such as Santilal (S.) Banerjee, B.C. Guha, and Asutosh Mookerjie developed an elegant and precise experimental technique to measure the magnetic anisotropy of dia - and paramagnetic crystals. Their findings were published by the Royal Society of London in 1933 under the title, Investigations on Magne-Crystallic Action.[4] [5]

In 1933 he returned to Kolkata to take up the post of Mahendralal Sircar Professor of Physics in the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science where he continued to collaborate fruitfully with Dr. Santilal Banerjee to elaborate on the magnetic properties of crystals in relation to their structure. Their joint papers and communications (published in Nature, Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, and by the Royal Society), remain to this day, aside from a number of other pathbreaking contributions they also published in various Physics journals, the most definitive scientific studies on the structure and tendencies of small crystals. Their experiments in Dhaka and continued collaborative research in Kolkata led to what is now known as the Krishnan Banerjee method in measuring the magnetic susceptibility of small crystals.[6][7]

In 1940 Krishnan was elected as Fellow of the Royal Society. His Royal Society candidature certificate in 1935 read: "Distinguished for his investigations in molecular optics and in magne-crystalline action:collaborated with Sir C.V. Raman in extensive theoretical and experimental studies on light scattering, molecular optics and in the discovery of the Raman Effect (1928). More recently has been publishing many valuable investigations (Phil Trans Royal Society and elsewhere) on the significance of magnetic anisotropy in relation to crystal architecture and thermo-magnetic behaviour at the lowest temperatures. Has published important work on pleochroism in crystals and its relation to photo-dissociation. Leader of an active school of research in Calcutta." [8]

In 1942, he moved to Allahabad University as Professor and Head of the Department of Physics where he took up the physics of solids, in particular of metals.

He was knighted in the 1946 Birthday Honours List[9] and awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in 1954.[10] He was the first recipient of the prestigious Bhatnagar Award in 1958.

Quotes about Krishnan[edit]

  • What is remarkable about Krishnan is not that he is a great scientist but something much more. He is a perfect citizen, a whole man with an integrated personality. - Jawaharlal Nehru [11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lonsdale, D. K.; Bhabha, H. J. (1967). "Kariamanikkam Srinivasa Krishnan 1898-1961". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 13: 244. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1967.0012.  edit
  2. ^ Singh, R. (2002). "C. V. Raman and the Discovery of the Raman Effect". Physics in Perspective 4 (4): 399–420. Bibcode:2002PhP.....4..399S. doi:10.1007/s000160200002.  edit
  3. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/769381
  4. ^ by K.S. Krishnan, S. Banerjee, Volume 234, Issue 739 of Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London: Mathematical and physical sciences (1935). Further Studies on Organic Crystals. Harrison & Sons. p. 34. 
  5. ^ Santilal Banerjee, Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan. Modern Magnetism. Cambridge University Press. p. 165. 
  6. ^ By A. B Pippard. Response and stability: an introduction to the physical theory. Cambridge University Press. p. 134. 
  7. ^ Mahanti, Dr Subodh. "Kariamanikkam Srinivasa Krishnan". Vigyan Prasar Science Portal. 
  8. ^ http://www2.royalsociety.org/DServe/dserve.exe?dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqSearch=RefNo==%27EC%2F1940%2F12%27&dsqCmd=Show.tcl
  9. ^ London Gazette, 4 June 1946
  10. ^ http://www.mha.nic.in/pdfs/PadmaAwards1954-2007.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.vigyanprasar.gov.in/scientists/KS_Krishnan/KariamanikkamSKrishnan.htm

External links[edit]