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K21 on combat firing practice
|Type||Infantry fighting vehicle|
|Place of origin||South Korean|
|Weight||25 t (25 long tons; 28 short tons)|
|Length||6.9 m (23 ft)|
|Width||3.4 m (11 ft)|
|Height||2.6 m (8.5 ft)|
|Crew||3 crew + 9 passengers|
Layers consisting of glass fiber reinforced ceramic armor
All round protection against 14.5 mm API projectiles.
Frontal armour is resistant to 30 mm APDS rounds fired from a 2A72 autocannon (standard on BMP-3 turrets)
Roof armour is resistant to 155 mm artillery shell fragmentsSoft- and hard-kill anti-missile defense systems, ERA, NERA (only for the K21 PIP)
|40 mm AutoCannon
Two ATGM Launchers
|7.62 mm MG|
|Engine||Doosan- D2840LXE diesel
740 hp (840 hp for the PIP)
|Suspension||In-arm Suspension Unit|
|500 km (310 mi)|
|Speed||70 km/h (43 mph) (road)
40 km/h (25 mph) (cross-country)
7 km/h (4.3 mph) (water)
A replacement for the South Korean K200 series infantry fighting vehicles, formerly designated as K300 or XK21 KNIFV (Korea Next-generation Infantry Fighting Vehicle), is currently called the K21 NIFV. The initial production was set for 2008, with the Republic of Korea Army planning to field approximately 466 units. It is designed to effectively defeat other IFVs as heavily armed and armored as the BMP-3.
Development began in 1999. A $77 million contract was awarded to Doosan DST for the NIFV prototype in 2003. Three prototype vehicles were delivered to the ROK Army in 2005. A contract for the first batch of K21 vehicles was signed in October 2008 worth $386.7 million. Production began in November 2009 after a ten-year development period. K21s will be deployed from 2013 through 2016.
The K21 KNIFV's chassis is constructed entirely out of fiberglass, reducing the weight of the vehicle and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines. The NIFV is to be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series, increasing both speed and payload.
The design was finally deemed production-ready in 2009, following 10 years in development and a research budget expenditure of approximately USD $80m. More than 85% of the vehicle's design is domestic. However a redesign is in order following the sinking of two vehicles while engaged in amphibious operations, a board of inquiry found that the problem was a lack of buoyancy, a malfunctioning wave plate and a technical problem with the drain pump, all of which will be corrected for in the new design.
The two-man turret on the K21 is armed with an S&T Dynamics K40 40 mm cannon capable of firing APFSDS, high-explosive, smoke and multipurpose munitions, and a 7.62 mm machine gun. This is combined with an advanced fire-control system and gun stabilizer usually found on third-generation main battle tanks that makes the K21, together with the German Puma, able to move and engage the targets with high degree of accuracy at the same time. The ammunition for the autocannon is stored under the turret.
The 40 mm cannon can fire up to 300 rounds per minute, with a projectile velocity of up to 1,005 m/s. The improved APFSDS rounds fired from it is able to penetrate up to 160–220 mm of armor, slightly higher than other APFSDS rounds, due to the self-sharpening process as the round penetrates the armour.
The multipurpose munition (한글: 복합기능탄) has several modes including proximity, air burst, armour-piercing and fragmentation. The mode is configured by the K21's FCS, which then transmits the necessary data to a small programmable fuse system inside the round before it is fired. This allows more control over the trajectory and impact of the round, expanding the scope of possible targets from medium armored vehicles to aircraft and infantry personnel.
Anti-tank armament includes an indigenous 3rd-generation ATGM, with performance similar to the Israeli Spike and armour penetration from 700 mm to 1,000 mm of RHA base.
Doosan DST and Belgian firm Cockerill have joined to develop the Cockerill XC-8 turret for the K21 to provide a medium weight direct fire capability. The XC-8 is based on the Cockerill CT-CV 105HP turret and is fitted with a 105 mm or 120 mm gun. The 105 mm version fires all NATO 105 mm ammunition and can also use the Cockerill Falarick 105 Gun-Launched Anti-Tank Guided Missile (GLATGM). It has a maximum elevation of 42 degrees, allowing for a max indirect fire range of 10 km (6.2 mi). The 120 mm version fires all NATO 120 mm ammunition and can utilize the Cockerill Falarick 120 GLATGM. The missile can engage heavy armor beyond 5 km (3.1 mi). Both turrets have a two-man crew and are autoloaded. They are digital, fully stabilised, day/night weapon systems.
The fire-control system is able to spot and track targets as far away as 6,000 meters away and identify them from up to 3,000 meters away. IFF sensors are also present. The vehicle also has hunter-killer capabilities with its separate commander's sight (IFV Commander's Panoramic Sight or ICPS) and gunner's sight (IFV Gunner's Primary Sight or IGPS), which can detect both ground and aerial targets. The sights are designed by Samsung Thales.
The gunner's sight is equipped with a third generation thermal viewer and a 1.54 μm laser range-finder. It can detect targets from 6,000 meters away and identify them from 3,000 meters away. The commander's sight is equipped with the same system as the gunner's. This allows the gunner to use the commander's sight to engage targets if his own sight is disabled or destroyed. The commander of the vehicle also has the ability to override the command to take control of the turret and gun from the gunner.
Although not much is known about the composition of the K21's armour, the frontal armour of the vehicle is specifically designed to protect against large caliber automatic cannon rounds, primarily the 30 mm APDS munitions (30x165mm) for 2A72 automatic cannon used on BMP-3, which has approximately 50 mm armour penetration at ranges of 1,000 m. The side armour is designed to protect against 14.5 mm AP rounds, which has approximately 25 mm armour penetration at ranges of 1,000 m. The top can withstand fragments from 152 mm artillery shells exploding as close as 10 meters. Speculations have been made and it is assumed that the KNIFV has multiple layer armour (with S-2 glass fiber and ceramic complex) including lightweight aluminium alloy.
The vehicle has a soft self-sealing fuel tank that can absorb the impact of a projectile. There is also an automatic fire suppression system inside the vehicle to extinguish any internal fires that might erupt.
The K21 PIP will include an active protection suite and hard-kill anti-missile system similar to the AWiSS that will also be utilized for the K2 PIP. This will increase the vehicle's ability to defend itself against various ATGMs.
The K21 is able to carry a total of 9 passengers and 3 more vehicle crew members. With the Battle Management System, the vehicle crew and passengers inside the vehicle can be instantly notified about the environment around them, improving their situational awareness. A 15-inch screen is installed inside the passenger compartment, which provides various data from the BMS. The vehicle is mounted with an external CCD camera, and the passengers inside can survey the environment using the same screen.
The K21 is equipped with Doosan D2840LXE V-10 diesel engine, equipped with a turbocharger. The vehicle itself is approximately 25 tonnes which, combined with the total output of the engine, gives it a power/weight ratio of approximately 27 hp/t. The K21 PIP will feature an improved version of the engine that will give the vehicle an increased power of 840 hp.
A newly developed semi-active ISU, or In-arm Suspension Unit, is available for the K21. The same unit is to be used on the K2 Black Panther. Despite having the same ISU used on the K2 Black Panther, the K21 cannot change its posture.
The vehicle can travel on both land and water. "Pontoon System" gives more buoyancy to float on water when additional weight is put on to the vehicle.
The estimated cost of the vehicle is approximately US$3.67million(Updated in 2013)
- "Defence Industry Fire Division 40mm Single Cannon (K40)". S&T Dynamics.
- CMI Defence and Doosan DST Present a New 120/105mm Medium Tank Concept - Defense-Studies.blogspot.com, 19 February 2013