Trinity Broadcasting Network

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"Praise the Lord" redirects here. For the 2014 Malayalam film, see Praise the Lord (film).
Trinity Broadcasting Network
Type Religious broadcast television network
Country United States
Availability National (broadcast, cable and satellite);
Worldwide (satellite)
Founded 1973
by Paul Crouch & Jan Crouch
Slogan "Worlds Largest Faith Channel"
Headquarters Costa Mesa, California, United States
Owner Trinity Broadcasting Network
Key people
Paul Crouch (co-founder)
Jan Crouch (co-founder)
Jim Bakker (co-founder)
Tammy Faye Bakker (co-founder)
Matt Crouch (president)
Launch date
1973
Former names
Trinity Broadcasting Systems
Picture format
720p/1080i (HDTV)
480i (SDTV)
(broadcast affiliates exclusively transmit TBN programming in SD)
Official website
www.tbn.org
Language English
Trinity Broadcasting Network
Availability
Terrestrial
Available on full-power and some low-power stations in most markets See list of affiliates
Satellite
DirecTV Channel 372 (SD)
Dish Network Channel 260 (SD)
C-Band AMC 18-Channel 223 (H2H 4DTV)
Glorystar Channel 101
Cignal Digital TV Channel 26
Cable
Available on most U.S. cable systems Consult your local cable provider or program listings source for channel availability
(national feed available in markets without a local affiliate)
First Media Channel 60
TelstraClear Channel 18
SkyCable/Destiny Cable Channel 136 (Digital)
IPTV
AT&T U-verse Channel 560 (SD)
Channel 1560 (HD)
Verizon FiOS Channel 295 (SD)
Sky Angel Channel 127
Streaming media
Digital media receiver Roku

The Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) is an international Christian-based broadcast television network.[1][2] Operating as an independent entity, TBN is also the world's largest religious television network.[3] TBN is headquartered in Costa Mesa, California, with auxiliary studio facilities in Irving, Texas; Hendersonville, Tennessee; Gadsden, Alabama; Decatur, Georgia; Miami, Florida; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Orlando, Florida; and New York City. TBN broadcasts programs hosted by a diverse group of ministries from traditional Protestant and Catholic denominations, Interdenominational and Full Gospel churches, non-profit charities, Messianic Jewish and well-known Christian media personalities.[4] TBN also offers a wide range of original programming, and faith-based films from various distributors.[5]

TBN owns and operates five broadcast networks, each reaching separate demographics; in addition to the main TBN network, TBN owns The Church Channel, Smile of a Child TV, TBN Enlace and JUCE TV. It also owns several other religious networks outside of the United States, including international versions of its five U.S. networks. Matt Crouch currently serves as TBN's president and head of operations.[6]

History

The Trinity Broadcasting Network was co-founded in 1973 by Paul Crouch, Jan Crouch, Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye Bakker as Trinity Broadcasting Systems. The Crouches began their broadcasting activities by renting time on independent station KBSA (now UniMás owned-and-operated station KFTR-DT) in Ontario, California. After that station was sold, he began buying two hours a day of programming time on KLXA-TV in Fontana, California in early 1974. That station was put up for sale shortly afterward. Paul Crouch then placed a bid to buy the station for $1 million and raised $100,000 for a down payment. After many struggles, the Crouches managed to raise the down payment and took over the station outright, with the station becoming KTBN-TV in 1977 and its city of license being reassigned to TBN's original homebase, Santa Ana, in 1983. Initially, the station ran Christian programs for about six hours a day. KLXA continued to expand its programming to 12 hours a day by 1975 and began selling time to other Christian organizations to supplement their local programming; the station eventually instituted a 24-hour schedule in 1978.

The fledgling network was so weak in its first days, that, according to Crouch in his autobiography, Hello World!, it almost went bankrupt after just two days on the air. The Bakkers would leave the organization by 1975 to start their own ministry, The PTL Club. TBN began national distribution through cable television providers in 1978. The ministry, which became known as the Trinity Broadcasting Network, gained national distribution via communications satellite in 1982. The network was a member of the National Religious Broadcasters association until 1990.

In 1977, the ministry purchased KPAZ-TV in Phoenix, Arizona, becoming its second television station property. During the 1980s and 1990s, TBN purchased additional independent television stations and signed on new stations around the United States; the purchase of the existing stations was done in order to gain cable carriage, due to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)'s must-carry rules. TBN's availability eventually expanded to 95% of American households by early 2005.[7]

Broadcast outlets

Trinity Christian City International – CA.
Trinity Christian City International.

TBN owns 35 full-power television stations serving larger metropolitan areas in the United States; at its peak, the network also owned 252 low-power television stations, which are mixed among stations serving medium-sized cities and rural translator stations in order to maximize the network's reach as much as is permissible. TBN also has several hundred affiliate stations throughout the United States, although just 61 of these are full-power UHF or VHF stations; the rest are low-powered stations, requiring a viewer to be within several miles of the transmitter to receive the signal. According to TVNewsCheck, TBN was the third largest over-the-air television station group in the country as of 2010, besting the station groups of CBS, Fox and NBC, but behind Ion Media Networks and Univision Communications.[8]

Many of TBN's stations are owned by the ministry outright, while others are owned through the subsidiary Community Educational Television, in order to own stations that TBN cannot acquire directly due to FCC ownership limits (which restrict companies from owning stations with a combined market reach of 39% of the United States). TBN's programming is available by default via a national feed distributed to cable and satellite providers in markets without a local TBN station (this contrasts with the major commercial networks, which under FCC regulations, allow providers to import an owned-and-operated or affiliate station from a nearby market if no local over-the-air affiliate exists).

Worldwide, TBN's channels are broadcast on 70 satellites and over 18,000 television and cable affiliates. The TBN networks are also streamed live on the internet globally;[9] the network also provides select archived shows on demand, through the website and select IPTV services.[10][11] TBN also offers mobile apps that are available on the iTunes Store and Google Play,[12] which gives users access to near real-time livestreams of TBN and its channels, as well as the Arabic language Healing Channel, and Nejat TV in Persian.[9][12][13]

During 2010, citing economic problems and a lack of donations, TBN closed down and sold many of its low-powered television repeaters. 17 of these were sold to the competing Daystar Television Network,[14] while 151 of these were donated to the Minority Media and Television Council (MMTC),[15] an organization designed to preserve equal opportunity and civil rights in the media;[16]

MMTC would later sell 78 of these translators to Luken Communications, parent company of the Retro Television Network.[17]

Four more translators in Dothan, Alabama; Kirksville, Missouri; Jonesboro, Arkansas; and Jackson, Tennessee were sold by MMTC to New Moon Communications, with the intent to convert them into NBC affiliates.[18] However, in September 2012, New Moon put all four of these translators for sale.[19] Only Gray Television would purchase a transmitter in Dothan, which was converted into NBC affiliate WRGX-LD; the licenses in Ottumwa (KUMK-LP)[20] and Jackson (WZMC-LP) would later be cancelled[21] (the NBC affiliate in Jackson, WNBJ-LD, operates using a different license). Its Jonesboro transmitter (KJNE-LP) remains silent but with an active license; however, that market's ABC affiliate KAIT ended up obtaining the NBC affiliation instead, via a subchannel.[22]

44 of the licenses that were donated by TBN to the MMTC would later be cancelled on December 1, 2011 due to remaining silent for over a year.[23] On April 13, 2012, TBN sold 36 of its translators to Regal Media, a broadcasting group headed by George Cooney, the CEO of EUE/Screen Gems.[24]

On October 22, 2012, TBN acquired WRBJ-TV in Jackson, Mississippi from Roberts Broadcasting. Following FCC and bankruptcy court approval on January 17, 2013,[25] TBN officially took over operational control of WRBJ on May 24, 2013, dropping all secular and CW network programming and converting it into a full-time satellite of TBN (the network was previously available in the Jackson area on WJKO-LP, which was later sold to Daystar).[26]

On July 8, 2013, TBN announced a partnership with Canadian religious independent station CJIL-DT in Lethbridge, Alberta. The station (branded as the "Miracle Channel") will air some of TBN's flagship programs, including Praise The Lord and Behind The Scenes, while TBN will carry some programs shown on CJIL, including services from the Springs Church (of which Miracle Channel CEO Leon Fontaine is a pastor), and The Leon Show on The Church Channel. Plans were also announced for Fontaine to become a regular host on Praise the Lord, and for four episodes per year to originate from Canada. The two networks also announced plans to co-produce a new weekly program.[27]

Programming

Overview

TBN produces a variety of original Christian programs, such as gospel music concerts, live coverage of major Christian events, talk shows, health/fitness/nutrition programs with Christian family doctors, children's programs, contemporary Christian music videos, marriage enrichment series, holiday specials, Christian dramas, and full-length, family-oriented movies.[28]

The network's flagship program is Praise The Lord, currently hosted regularly by TBN president Matt Crouch and his wife Laurie Crouch, with occasional guest hosts on some editions. The two-hour program – which was originally hosted by TBN founders Paul and Jan Crouch, and later hosted by Paul Crouch Jr. – features a mix of interviews with celebrities and other performers discussing faith-based topics and their personal relationship with faith, and music performances from various gospel and contemporary Christian artists. The Praise the Lord format is franchised to TBN owned-and-operated stations and affiliates, which air 90-minute local versions of the program two to three times per week in morning time slots, to fulfill public affairs content guidelines.

Children's programming

TBN runs a block of children's programs under the "Smile of a Child" banner on Saturdays from 5:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time (as such, since its further expansion into the latter time period in 2001, it is the only children's program block on any U.S. broadcast television network that runs during the morning and afternoon hours). Programs featured as part of the lineup, which are also broadcast on TBN's Smile of a Child TV network, are intended to fulfill educational programming requirements defined by the Federal Communications Commission's Children's Television Act; these range from contemporary programs (such as 3-2-1 Penguins and Veggie Tales) to classic series (such as Lassie and Davey and Goliath).[29] Some original programming is also featured on the block as well as on Smile of a Child TV, such as iShine Knect and The Lads TV.

Regularly scheduled shows[29]

Notable personalities featured on TBN

Movies

Since 2009, TBN has broadcast feature-length religious- and/or inspirational-themed films; these films air primarily on weekend evenings (with films based on biblical stories most commonly airing on Sundays), with more contemporary films – which often incorporate moral lessons, faith-based lessons or a combination thereof, and are commonly targeted at youth audiences – airing on Saturday nights as part of the network's "preview" block of JUCE TV programs and intermittently on Monday through Fridays during the late-afternoon and overnight hours.

Films produced by or for TBN have included The Revolutionary and The Revolutionary II (based on the life of Jesus); The Emissary (a film on the life of the apostle Paul); The Omega Code and its sequel Megiddo: The Omega Code 2; Carman: The Champion; Time Changer; and Six: The Mark Unleashed (starring Stephen Baldwin and David A.R. White).[9] Some of these films were produced by Gener8Xion Entertainment, TBN's Hollywood, California-based Christian motion picture studio, which was co-founded by Matt and Laurie Crouch.

TBN also broadcasts films from other production companies on its main network and some of its sister networks (in particular, JUCE TV and Smile of a Child TV in the U.S.). One notable film was Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ, which had its television premiere on TBN on April 17, 2011. TBN presented the film with much of the graphic violence included (due to its depiction of the events leading to and including the crucifixion of Jesus Christ as illustrated in Biblical teachings); as a result, TBN assigned a "TV-MA-V" rating for the film – a rarity for many Christian networks.[38][39]

TBN HD

On December 15, 2009, the Trinity Broadcasting Network became the first Christian television network to broadcast completely in high definition.[40] However, only the national cable-satellite feed is transmitted in HD; TBN's owned-and-operated broadcast stations are currently not equipped to allow HD broadcasts due partly to the bandwidth limitations caused by its mandatory carriage of five subchannels over a single broadcast signal and the lack of equipment in each station's master control to transmit the main feed in high definition or widescreen standard definition (this is in comparison to Ion Media Networks, which carries five to six multiplex services on most of its stations – including its flagship network Ion Television, which is transmitted in high-definition); the primary TBN network feed is transmitted in standard-definition by its owned-and-operated stations and affiliates.

Programs produced in the widescreen format that are available in high definition on the cable-satellite HD feed are downconverted to 480i SD and broadcast in a letterboxing (filming)letterboxed 4:3 picture format on all five of TBN's U.S. channels carried on the digital signals of the network's broadcast stations.

Charitable and humanitarian initiatives

Smile of a Child Foundation

The Smile of a Child Foundation is a compassion-focused ministry, founded in 2005 by TBN co-founder Jan Crouch initially as a vehicle to reach the children of Haiti, providing food, medical care, toys and disaster relief to people in need. Crouch has over 20 years of personal involvement with the island country, having established a children’s hospital, an orphanage and a school in Haiti. TBN spent millions in donations and other funding on these humanitarian projects.[41]

Following the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake, TBN made immediate contributions of $100,000 through Lake Charles, Louisiana-based Friend Ships, which speeds emergency relief aid and medical expertise all over the world in its fleet of dedicated cargo/ministry ships.[42] Friend Ships has been partnering with TBN and Smile since 1992, Paul Crouch personally donated a Bell 206 Jet Ranger helicopter to the humanitarian organization.

In May 2009, the United Nations officially recommended the Smile of a Child Foundation to receive special consultative status with the Economic and Social Council for the Democracy Coalition Project.[43]

Hurricane Katrina relief

TBN partnered with Friend Ships to assist thousands of individuals and families affected by the flooding in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The group's 180-foot (55 m) cutter, named the "Hope", sailed out of Lake Charles on September 5 for Gretna, Louisiana, near New Orleans. "Hope" delivered food, water and other needed supplies. The Crouches authorized an initial gift of $100,000 specifically for Friend Ships' effort, and also sent 10,000 Bibles for distribution to affected areas. Jan Crouch arranged to have over 85,000 dolls and other toys shipped for children whose families lost homes and possessions in the storm.[44]

TBN Second Chance

TBN Second Chance is a free, 24-hour faith-based rehabilitative television programming service, which aims to help rebuild the lives of imprisoned inmates and reduce recidivism. Four TBN networks are offered to prisons across the U.S. via satellite, including free satellite reception equipment and installation to qualified prisons and re-entry centers.[45]

Attractions

Overview

Aside from its television ministry, TBN also maintains several attractions that are used as outreach services. Three of these – Trinity Music City, Trinity Christian City International and the International Production Center – include special virtual reality theaters, with two more planned to be built in Hawaii and Jerusalem. The 50-seat theaters feature high definition digital video technology and a 48-channel digital audio system. The theaters showcase four original productions from TBN Films: The Revolutionary, parts I and II (portraying the life and miracles of Jesus Christ); The Emissary (depicting miraculous events from the book of Acts and the life of Paul), and The Omega Code.[46]

Trinity Music City

Trinity Music City, USA TN
Trinity Music City.

Trinity Music City[47] is an entertainment complex in Hendersonville, Tennessee operated by TBN. Formerly known as "Twitty City", the former estate of country music legend Conway Twitty, the complex includes the 2,000-seat Trinity Music City Church Auditorium, which is used for TBN-produced concerts, dramas, seminars and special events. A 50-seat virtual reality theater showcases four original productions from TBN Films.[48]

Trinity Christian City International

Trinity Christian City International is a complex in Costa Mesa, California, which serves as the headquarters for TBN as well as a tourist attraction. It features a high definition virtual reality theater with a 48-channel sound system; the theater was used to premiere TBN Films-produced motion picture The Revolutionary, which was filmed entirely on location in Israel. Trinity Christian City also features a recreation of the Via Dolorosa, the street in the old walled city of Jerusalem where Jesus carried His cross to Calvary. The Demos Shakarian Memorial Building houses the TBN studios that are seen regularly on international television broadcasts.[49]

Lake Trinity Estates

Lake Trinity Estates (formerly known as Trinity Towers) is an 11-acre (45,000 m2) RV park in Hollywood, Florida, located adjacent to the studios of TBN's Miami owned-and-operated station WHFT-TV. The facility features full hook-ups with 30 AMP sites and propane sales. Swimming, fishing, shuffleboard, petanque, basketball, and nearby golfing are available for guests.[50]

International Production Center

International Production Center - Irving, Texas
International Production Center

The International Production Center (co-located with the broadcasting facilities of TBN owned-and-operated station KDTX-TV) in the Dallas suburb of Irving, Texas offers tours through a recreation of the Via Dolorosa (as featured at Trinity Christian City International), and the Virtual Reality Theater, featuring a 48-channel sound system. The complex also features The Angel Gardens walk-through attraction, and the Family Christian Store. Some TBN programs, including the network's flagship program Praise the Lord, are also broadcast from the facility.[51]

Holy Land Experience

Holy Land Experience - Orlando, Florida
Holy Land Experience.
Main article: Holy Land Experience

In June 2007, TBN purchased the bible-themed adventure park Holy Land Experience in Orlando, Florida for $37 million.[52][53]

Controversies

Theology

Trinity Broadcasting Network has come under heavy criticism for its promotion of the prosperity gospel, teaching viewers that they will receive a reward if they donate or give offerings.[54] In a 2004 interview with the Los Angeles Times, Paul Crouch, Jr. expressed his disappointment that "the prosperity gospel is a lightning rod for the Body of Christ. It's not what drives TBN."[55]

Non-denominational programmers on TBN's schedule include Joel Osteen, Nasir Siddiki, Steve Munsey, Benny Hinn, Rod Parsley, Creflo Dollar, Joyce Meyer, Eddie L. Long, Jesse Duplantis, Paula White and Kenneth Copeland. Traditional Protestant pastors that air on TBN include Dr. Charles Stanley, Franklin Graham, Billy Graham, Michael Youseff, David Jeremiah and Robert Jeffress. Senator Chuck Grassley, the chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Finance has conducted investigations into whether Hinn, White, Copeland, Dollar, Meyer or Long mishandled their finances; none were found to have committed wrongdoing.[56][57]

Wealth and transparency

TBN is a 501(c)(3) non-profit company. Full disclosure of TBN's financial statements have been evaluated by Charity Navigator, the largest evaluator of charities and non-profit companies in the U.S. TBN has received a three out of four star rating for four consecutive years, and in 2009 earned a rating of two out of four stars due to a 2% increase in administrative costs in 2009; the report also revealed that for the fiscal year ending December 2009, TBN president Paul Crouch, Sr. earned $419,500; co-vice president Jan Crouch earned $361,000; and co-vice president Paul Crouch, Jr. earned $214,137. TBN is currently under Donor Advisory status with Charity Navigator.[58]

Another charity watchdog group, Ministry Watch, gave TBN an "F" in 2011 for its failure to provide financial statements, lack of timeliness in responding to correspondence, and its lack of clarity in the provided information. As a result, TBN was placed on the group's alert list annually since 2009.[59][60]

TBN’s annual financial information is monitored by the Chronicle of Philanthropy, where it is ranked 243 out of the top 400 non-profit corporations in the United States.[61] TBN is not a member of the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability.

In 2011, Paul Crouch, Jr. resigned from his position as co-vice president on TBN. On November 10 of that year, Crouch, Jr. joined The Word Network as its Director of Project Development.[62]

In February 2012, Brittany Koper, TBN's former Director of Finance (and the granddaughter of Paul Sr. and Jan Crouch), filed a lawsuit against her former attorneys, Davert & Loe. The three counts of the complaint were for breach of fiduciary duties, intentional infliction of emotional distress, and professional negligence. In this lawsuit, Koper alleged that TBN unlawfully distributed over $50 million to the ministry's directors. Koper filed the suit following the termination of her employment with TBN. Davert & Loe, who also represented TBN, denied her claims. Koper's suit against Davert & Loe is pending; no official judicial ruling has been made in this matter.[63][64] In a May 2012 interview with The New York Times, Koper claimed, "My job as finance director was to find ways to label extravagant personal spending as ministry expenses." Koper alleged that the network had herself and chauffeurs and sound engineers ordained as ministers in order to avoid paying Social Security taxes on their salaries.[63]

Lawsuits

In September 2004, the Los Angeles Times reported that Paul Crouch had paid former TBN employee Enoch Lonnie Ford a $425,000 formal settlement to end a wrongful termination lawsuit in 1998.[65] Ford alleged that he and Crouch had a homosexual tryst during his employment with the ministry.[66] TBN officials acknowledged the settlement but contested Ford's credibility, noting that he had previously been convicted for child molestation and drug abuse. In 1996, Ford was fired by TBN after he was arrested for drug-related violations and returned to prison for a year. Ford allegedly threatened to sue TBN for wrongful termination and sexual harassment after the network refused to hire him following his release, resulting in his claims against Paul Crouch. TBN officials stated that the settlement was made in order to avoid a lengthy and expensive lawsuit.[67]

In late 2003, Ford attempted to extort Crouch, threatening to release an autobiographical manuscript of their alleged affair if TBN did not purchase the document for $10 million. In October 2004, Judge Robert J. O'Neill awarded Crouch $136,000 in legal fees to be paid by Ford for his violation of the terms of the settlement agreement, specifically the prohibition of discussing the details of the settlement. On March 15, 2005, Ford appeared on the Pax TV reality series Lie Detector to be given a polygraph test; the results of the test were never broadcast or made public.[68]

In June 2012, the Orange County Register reported that Carra Crouch, the granddaughter of Paul and Jan Crouch, filed a lawsuit claiming that TBN covered up her rape by a network employee when she was 13-years-old.[69] Carra claimed to have been given a date rape drug and was sexually abused while staying at an Atlanta, Georgia, hotel during TBN's "Spring Praise-a-Thon" in 2006. She also claimed that when she informed Jan Crouch and TBN attorney John Casoria of the rape, they professed disbelief in her claims and blamed her for the incident. However, according to the lawsuit, Crouch and Casoria fired the employee, agreeing to not turn him in to the authorities if he did not file for unemployment, worker's compensation or EEOC benefits. As ordained ministers, Crouch, Casoria and other Crouch family members are legally obligated to report a sexual assault. TBN attorney Colby May "vehemently denied" Carra Crouch's claims, calling them "without merit and baseless."[70] Her lawsuit against TBN is ongoing.

Pre-emption of programs due to criticism of other religions

Bible prophecy scholar Hal Lindsey hosted International Intelligence Briefing, a program that ran on TBN from 1994 to 2005 in which Lindsey occasionally aired commentary segments criticizing Muslims and Islam. In December 2005, TBN pre-empted the program for the entire month. Lindsey accused the network of censorship, saying, "some at the network apparently feel that my message is too pro-Israel and too anti-Muslim."[71] Paul Crouch issued a press release insisting that Lindsey's show was only pre-empted for Christmas programming,[72] but eventually admitted that TBN management was concerned that Lindsey "placed Arabs in a negative light." Lindsey resigned from TBN on January 1, 2006, effectively cancelling International Intelligence Briefing. However, one year later, Crouch and Lindsey reconciled and a new program, The Hal Lindsey Report, premiered on the network.[73]

In June 2011, TBN refused to rebroadcast an episode of Jack Van Impe's weekly television program Jack Van Impe Presents, in which the evangelist criticized pastors Rick Warren and Robert Schuller for participating in interfaith conferences alongside Muslim leaders and accused them of promoting "Chrislam". Both Warren and Schuller denied the accusations.[74] Paul Crouch defended TBN's decision, stating that it is against network policy for personalities to attack each other on-air.[75] As a result, Jack Van Impe Ministries announced that it would no longer air Van Impe's program on TBN.[76]

Travel the Road in Afghanistan

TBN produces and airs the Christian reality show Travel the Road, which features missionaries Tim Scott and Will Decker in remote and often war-torn locations overseas in search of converts. In December 2008, the program attracted criticism from the Military Religious Freedom Foundation (MRFF), a watchdog group that looks for acts of religious discrimination in the United States military. The MRFF claimed that Scott and Decker were embedded with American troops stationed in Afghanistan, despite the fact that, according to MRFF president Mikey Weinstein, the military exercises a "complete prohibition of the proselytizing of any religion, faith, or practice...You see [Scott and Decker] wearing American helmets. It is obvious they were completely embedded." When ABC News contacted the U.S. Army in Afghanistan about Scott and Decker's alleged embed, which had taken place four years previously, they said that they no longer had the documentation of the missionaries' status with the troops.[77]

Scott defended the trip to Afghanistan, telling ABC, "It wasn't like we were hiding in the back saying we're going to preach. [The military] knew what we were doing. We told them that we were born again Christians, we're here doing ministry, we shoot for this TV station and we want to embed and see what it was like. We were interviewing the chaplains and we talked to them. We spoke at the services and things like that. So we did do our mission being over there as far as being able to document what the soldiers go through, what it's like in Afghanistan. So I could say that we were on a secular mission as well as far as documenting. I would say we were news reporters as well, we were delivering news of what was actually happening there, but we were also there to document the Christian side." Scott argued that since the pair were acting as Christian journalists, they had the same right to cover the war in Afghanistan as secular networks.[77]

Awards and honors

See also

References

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