KCKN (defunct)

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For the active radio station in Roswell, New Mexico, now using the call sign KCKN, see KCKN.

KCKN was one of the oldest commercial radio stations in the United States and played a significant role in the development of the broadcasting industry. KCKN 1340 AM and KCKN-FM 94.1 were on the air from 1925 until 2000. It was the third radio station to go on the air in Kansas in November 1925. KCKN was one of the first five radio stations to serve the metropolitan Kansas City (MO/KS) media market.[1] (KCKN 1020 AM, Roswell, NM, now uses the call letters, but has no connection to the original Kansas station.)

History[edit]

Entrepreneur and businessman Everett L. Dillard is the individual credited with putting KCKN-AM on the air. The first call letters were WLBF. Dillard began broadcasting from his personal residence. The station's first studio/office location was on the 11th floor of the elegant Elks Lodge Building (905 North 7th Street) in downtown Kansas City, Kansas. The building was last known as the Huron Building and was demolished in 1999. Dillard went bankrupt in the Great Depression. A Wyandotte County District Court Judge granted ownership of the radio station to Alexander Mainland and Herbert Hollister in 1930.[2]

On November 13, 1935, the station was sold to Kansas U.S. Senator Arthur A. Capper who also owned the daily newspaper, The Kansas City Kansan. Capper's other related properties were the Topeka Daily Capital, the Topeka State Journal and WIBW Radio, all in Topeka. Capper purchased the radio station to promote the Kansan and to give him a piece of the growing Greater Kansas City advertising market. When Capper acquired the property, it operated at 1420 Kilocycles.[3]

The Capper organization moved the station one block west into the offices of The Kansas City Kansan at 901 North 8th Street. A new, self-supporting 186-foot box-tower was erected atop the three-story building. On Thanksgiving Day, November 26, 1936, the call letters were officially changed to KCKN, which were derived from the letters in the name of the newspaper and the initials of its city of license.[3]

It was moved from 1420 kilocycles on the AM band to 1310 kilocycles, non-directional, with a power of 250 watts. It was on the air daily between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m. The newspaper reported the station could be heard up to 300 miles away from Kansas City, Kansas with the new broadcast equipment and a higher tower. In 1941, under the North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement, KCKN Radio was moved to 1340 AM kilocycles, a frequency that is assigned to Kansas City, Kansas, to this day. (Now KDTD.)[4]

Personalities in the 1930s and 1940s[edit]

[5]

  • Evan Frye, Station Manager
  • Olaf Sword, News Director
  • Ruth Royal, Musical Director
  • Roland Rexroth
  • Milan Mahale
  • Buddy Wattles
  • Elaine Fasenmeyer
  • Elizabeth Wilkinson
  • Eileen Connell
  • Buddy Wattles
  • Frank Brown
  • Margaret Maddox
  • Dorothy Judy
  • Bill Hazell
  • Florence Barr
  • Ellis Atterbury
  • Larry, Ray, Sports Director
  • Bernard Maltby, Chief Engineer
  • Ed Asner (later film–TV actor)
  • Other personalities included: Walt Bodine, C. E. "Red" Salzer, Jr., Leonard Brann, Walt Lochman (Sr.), John Gibson, Lillian Faust, Dave Chapman, Charlie Bryant, Dave Hamlin, Randell Jesse, Frank Wilcox, John Drake, Francis Ries, KCKN Orchestra Leader Anson Weeks, Ralph Nelson, Owen Balch, Jack Anthony and "Breakfast-with-Bucky" Walters.[6]

[7] KCKN Radio itself became national news in the November 24, 1941, edition of Time Magazine after it broadcast a week-long serial reading of journalist Clarence Streit's famous book, Union Now. Time referred to author Streit as a "level-headed zealot" for advocacy of the immediate federal union of the United States, England and other democratic states as a means of winning World War II. The consensus was that KCKN Radio had broadcast the piece on orders from station owner and known isolationist U. S. Sen. Arthur Capper.[8]

There is no record that this radio station had any network affiliation between 1925 and 1955. A January 13, 1947, Broadcasting article confirmed Dillard founded the radio station and that it was one of the first 300 commercial stations to broadcast in the USA.[9]

KCKN: Post World War II[edit]

[10][11]

Changing American tastes and lifestyles along with new technology changed radio in the wake of the War. Radio was also challenged with the emergence of television in this period.[10]

Much of the live local programming and network soap operas moved from radio to television. Pre-recorded music (plastic discs called records) became the norm in radio and they were played by employees now referred to as "dee-jays" or "disc jockeys". Some of the new performers providing the mass-produced records include memorable names like Little Richard, Bill Haley and the Comets, Rosemary Clooney and Elvis Presley, just to name a few. The format for this new-era radio programming was called "Rock-N-Roll".[12]

Two major carry overs on KCKN included Ray continuing to call the play-by-play of the Kansas City Blues baseball team. The Blues were the Triple-A farm team that supplied talent to Major League Baseball's New York Yankees. The station retained Soward as News Director, along with Max Bicknell, and remained a major source of broadcast journalism.[13]

As the early years of the 1950s came and went, KCKN emerged as a dominant station in the Greater Kansas City radio market. Wayne Stitt was the popular host in the mornings, Joe Farrell shared middays with Frank Hassett and in the evening it was Eddie Clarke 9 to 11pm. Joe Story was station manager. George Stump was the program director. Print (newspapers and magazines still dominated) ahead of radio and television was in its infancy. "Prom Magazine" was a weekly publication targeted at the high school and college audience. The station advertised in every edition and coordinated contests on the air and with retail merchants through the magazine.[14]

In 1954, Kansas City radio was in for a major shake up. An innovative and well-financed entrepreneur, Todd Storz, came from Omaha and purchased WHB across the river in Kansas City, Mo. He pioneered a new concept of pop radio to be known as "Top 40" radio. Storz would survey record sales at retail outlets to determine the top 40 songs being purchased each week and then release WHB's "Top 40 Survey" every Friday afternoon. The survey songs then comprised the station's play list.[15]

Storz knew that to make the new concept successful, he needed to hire the market's highest rated dee-jay talent who would bring their listeners along with them to WHB. Storz raided KCKN...hiring Stitt and Clarke first. The Storz programming at WHB was a huge success, and it led him to develop a chain of stations, all using the same Top 40 format.[16]

The loss of talent at KCKN led to a rapid decline in every aspect of the radio station. long-time announcer Buddy Black went to WGN in Chicago. Stump went to KCMO in Kansas City, Mo. Soward left for WIBW in Topeka and Bicknell ended up at KMBC in Kansas City, Mo. KCKN was to spend the next few years drifting with little creative focus and a much smaller listening audience.[17]

KCKN Pioneers "Countrypolitan" Radio Format[edit]

Sen. Capper died in 1956 and his estate put KCKN Radio up for sale. It was purchased in 1957 by a well-financed country music operator who had been successful in several smaller markets. Cy Blumenthal relished the opportunity to take ownership of KCKN in the same market where Todd Storz had so successfully transformed WHB with the "Top 40" format. KCKN would remain a low-power, 250-watt AM signal at 1340 kilocycles. But there was a distinct difference: it operated 24 hours a day, the signal was non-directional and the call letters were a "brand-name" in the market. Soon he began promoting the station on-air, through advertising and with billboards. The format was called Countrypolitan" Radio.''[18] [19] [20]

Blumenthal began transforming KCKN. Ed Charles was named general manager. Dal Stallard was named operations manager and Jack Call was program director. In 1959, a Top 40 format was tried. Stallard was promoted to general manager. Ron Elz was hired as program director. By 1960, Top 40 was not working. Blumenthal brought Charles back and fired Dal Stallard. Ted Cramer, then program director across the metropolitan area at KANS (KIMO), (1510AM), a country station in Independence, Mo., took the same position at KCKN in 1960. Charles' tenure was relatively short during both stints. Radio's first, fast-paced Country format debuted in 1960 using the slogan "Countrypolitan" radio. Glen M. George was appointed the next GM at KCKN. George has had a long and productive run as sales manager at KFEQ (680AM), St. Joseph, Mo. He was soon to produce similar profitability for KCKN with a 16-year run as GM. Cramer then took a job in West Virginia and native Kansas Citian Harry Becker returned from Texas in 1961 to become program director. Becker brought "Uncle Don" Rhea with him to work the vital 5-to-9am morning drive time. In 1962, Blumenthal received FCC permission to operate full-time at 1,000 watts. Cramer returned from West Virginia to become PD and Becker took a midday air shift. [21] [22]

Blumenthal had to move the station out of The Kansas City Kansan's offices. He purchased a three-story, wood-frame farm house on the edge of town (4121 Minnesota Avenue, 66102) and converted it into studios and offices. A new, 150-foot guy-wired tower was constructed at the rear of the property. The large, open acreage, accessible by an asphalt road, was named "Radio Park".[23] [24] [25]

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, there were no consultants, no mentors and no home office to give direction. Radio formatting was all by trial and error in the 50s through the early 60s. There are two sub-slogans: KCKN...The Family Station and KCKN...Fun Radio. All of these slogans had the goal of positioning KCKN as an anti-hick country radio station. Such subtle references freshen an on-air image, but did not substantially change the actual format commitment.[26] [27] [28]

These kinds of changes Blumenthal had found successful in the smaller markets with the country audience, he put in practice at KCKN. On-air voices were more professional and with a higher energy level than the hokey, down-home approach used in earlier years. The broadcast equipment was new and production values were high. The dee-jays were tight, with no dead air or long pauses. These changes got the positive results Blumenthal wanted.[29] [30] [31]

When Blumenthal undertook the change to a full-time country music format, the competitive environment of broadcasting in the Kansas City market had become much more intense than it was when KCKN had been one of the original five radio stations in the market. Broadcasting Yearbook chronicled that by 1960, Kansas City (KS/MO) had a total of nine AM stations, nine FM stations, two public radio stations, four commercial television stations and one public television outlet.[32]

The Kansas City broadcast market was ranked the 22nd largest in the USA with a population in 1960 of 1.3-million in five metropolitan counties. The counties included Clay, Platte and Jackson in Missouri and Wyandotte and Johnson counties in Kansas. In the broadcast industry, it was considered a "major market".[33] [34]

The full-time country music format on KCKN Radio was a grew steadily in listenership in competition with other formats in the market. In August 1960, the FCC approved KCKN increasing power to 1,000 watts daytime and to remain at 250-watts after sundown. Blumenthal received preliminary approval and a construction permit to begin building an FM station.[35] [36]

The FM antenna was added near the top of the tower built in 1957. The FCC authorized a 24-hour FM signal to broadcast at 94.1 megacycles with a power of 50,000 watts. On May 28, 1963, KCKN-FM, Kansas City, Kansas debuted on the air. It was authorized to simulcast the KCKN-AM programming fifty percent of the day and originate its own country music format the other fifty percent of each day. It had an effective signal for approximately 50 miles and was non-directional.[37] [38]

KCKN AM & FM: Among the Leading Country Stations from the Mid 60s-80s[edit]

One of the methods of attracting listeners and building loyalty for Storz and WHB was applied by Country Music Hall of Fame (1999) program director Ted Cramer. Each week, retailers at geographically even locations across the metropolitan area were surveyed to determine the lists of the best selling songs. Then Cramer, using an intricate points system, determined the sales level 1 through 50 and the KCKN Fabulous 50 countdown survey was developed. This, along with the major-market sounding dee-jays, quality production values, reliable news, weather and traffic elements, were key reasons KCKN became a dominant station again in a much more competitive marketplace than it had in those early years of radio.[39]

There were several other innovative and creative methods that were used in the 1960s and 1970s to enable the low-powered, 1,000 watt KCKN-AM to get the most reach possible from its signal. Chief Engineer Jim Jett was using several equalizing techniques to make the signal sound brighter, fuller and bigger than it was to the listener. Cramer came up with the concept that reverberation or reverb would give the AM signal a sound of more depth. Jett purchased a $10 reverb section from an old Hammond organ and integrated it into the transmitter's audio processing chain. This made the small signal sound huge for only 1,000 watts. A simple doorbell chime was installed and every time an on-air time check was given, the chime was rung. The chime gave both AM and FM the most identifiable sounder in Kansas City radio and it took positive advantage of the other enhancements made to the AM side.[40]

In July 1965, Cy Blumenthal sold the radio stations to entertainer Danny Kaye and his business manager Lester Smith. He sold them the AM station, but gave them the FM station at no cost as a bonus. While many FM stations were going on the air, it would be another decade before the significant listener migration from AM to FM would begin in earnest. The new enterprise was known as Seattle, Portland and Spokane Radio—the names of the cities where Kaye and Smith owned other radio stations. With the Kansas City, Kansas acquisition, the operation was renamed Kaye-Smith Radio, Inc., and was headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. Because of the success George and Cramer were having with the country music format, Kaye and Smith agreed to hands off policy and completely supported KCKN AM & FM continuing the same on-air product.[41]

By 1970, the U. S. Census Bureau reported the Kansas City region had a total population of 1.7-million people. On the Kansas side, Leavenworth and Miami Counties had been added to Wyandotte and Johnson counties, while on the Missouri side, Lafayette, Ray and Clinton Counties were now included with Clay, Platte and Jackson counties to form the 11-county Metropolitan Kansas City Area. For broadcast rankings, it was the nation's 27th largest market in 1970.[42]

As the fortunes of KCKN AM & FM continued into the new decade, Kaye-Smith Radio, Inc., made big investments in studios, offices, production and broadcasting equipment that reflected the operation's status as both a market and an industry leader. A new custom-designed building, (construction $500,000 at 1971 building costs) was constructed to the east of the old farmhouse which was demolished.[43]

Kansas City, Kansas built a previously non-existent street, 41st Terrace, one-third of a mile from U. S. 24-40 (State Avenue) to the station's parking lot. Adjacent property was sold to a company which built a big box store. The address remained 4121 Minnesota Avenue, 66102. Interstate 635 was built along the west side of the property which would assure KCKN AM & FM easy accessibility to the entire region.[44]

A new, 460-foot guy-wired tower was built in the summer of 1971 to replace the tower constructed in 1957. The additional height was need to accommodate an increase in the power of KCKN-FM (94.1) to non-directional 100,000 watts, 24-hours a day. KCKN-AM transmitted from the same tower, but continued to operate at 1340 kilocycles, 1,000-watts day, 250-watts night, non-directional.[45]

Throughout the history of country music radio, the station most associated with the format was WSM (650AM), a 50,000 station in the Country Music Capitol of Nashville. It broadcast the Grand Ole Opry and the huge signal covered most of the USA. However, when Time published a full-page article on the growth of country music in 1972, GM Glen George and PD Ted Cramer were featured about the success of KCKN AM&FM in Kansas City, Kansas[46]

While Program Director for Kaye-Smith Radio at KCKN AM&FM, the corporation had Cramer successfully revamp two other stations in the chain in Cincinnati in the image of the Kansas City, Kansas operation. They were WUBE (AM1230) and WUBE-FM (105.1). Those stations also simulcast fifty percent of the broadcast day and identified on-air as "WUBE AM&FM, Cincinnati".[47]

One of the first promotional tools used on the street was striking green Nash Metropolitan car. Those cars were compacts before compacts had officially been created. The station call letters were painted across each side and the rear in garish yellow. It was equipped with a two-way radio to go on the air from the street and a speaker so people could hear what was on the air at promotional events. The mobile unit was packed with give-a-ways galore every trip out on the streets. Later promotions built on this theme under PD Mike Shanin. The "Fun Spot"van (which cruised KC streets looking for bright yellow decals on vehicles) was driven by an attractive personality, K C Denim, who gave away prizes to listeners with the Funspot.[48]

"Happy Harry" Becker held down the 9 a.m. to noon slot for more than 15 years. Harry attracted a following by interspersing "Becker's-Bargain-Basement" in five minute segments during each hour of the three-hour show. Listeners could call in with one item to sell or buy, give a phone number and get right off. Becker was quick and the calls were tight with no dead air. Following Becker's hemorrhoid surgery, he had to sit on an inflated plastic ring for several weeks. A contest was created so that a listener would win a prize by guessing the day Harry no longer had to sit on the rubber ring! Just about everybody has or knows someone who has hemorroids—it was a huge success! Becker ended his show each day at 11:58 with Kansas City, Kansas Deputy Fire Chief George Casey who would list the department's runs and the outcomes with his monotone voice: "Fire calls the past 24-hours in Kansas City, Kansas...".[49]

George and Cramer established a growth pattern for the station with revenue being generated by the added FM signal, the audience gains generated by Rhea and Becker and the goal that KCKN AM & FM be "full-service" stations. In the news department, the much larger AP replaced the UPI radio news wire. The ABC Information Network audio service was added. A direct-line National Weather Service wire was added. Morning and afternoon drive time traffic reports were added with Kansas City, Mo., Police Officer Steve Untriff. And the latest MLB and NFL game day scores were available from a Western Union teletype. The local news staff was built up to four full-time people who eventually produced 24-hour-a-day sponsored newscasts. Newscasts were seven minutes at the top of each hour with half-hour headlines during morning and afternoon drive time.

The Associated Press cited KCKN News for nationally breaking the news of former President Harry S. Truman's fatal illness in December 1972. The AP recognized the station's news department again in 1974 for "Best Weekend News Coverage - State of Kansas". KCKN AM & FM became widely respected radio stations in every competitive aspect of the broadcast industry.[50]

Other on-air DJs and newscasters include: Dave Estes (employed 1967–77), Doug Dillon (1966–1975), Bill Abbott (1967–72), Gary Brazeal (1968–73), Jim Beedle (1969–74), JB Carmicle (1972–77), "Moon" Mullins (1961–66, Country Music Hall of Fame inductee, 2009); Dave Morton (News 1965-83), Bill Freeman (ND 1966-1970), Jack Emmerson (ND 1970-72), Mike Shanin (ND 1972-1980), Joe Vaughan (1972–77), Jim Bowlin (1969–73), Pam Voreis, Neil Stempleman, Jim Clark, Tim Wallace, "Uncle" Don Rhea, Noel Scott (1977–1981), Dan Roberts, John Leslie, Don Perry, John Duncan, Roger Carson, "Cactus Jack" Call, Don Burley, Charlie Knight, Don Register, Wes Cunningham, Chris Collier, Bill Honeycutt, Jesse Sherwood, Jay Sanders, Bob Compton, Dan Crary, Jack Rudnay (Sports) and Lupe Quintana (one hour weekly Spanish language program for more than 20 years).

Long term d.j. Jack Wesley "Cactus Jack" Call moved to KCMK a week before he died on January 23, 1963 in a car crash U.S. 40 Highway and Sterling in Independence, Missouri. Singer Patsy Cline sang at a benefit for him on March 3, 1963 at Memorial Hall. She was killed in a plane crash while flying back from Fairfax Airport to Nashville on March 5.[51]

KCKN's Blumenthal Inducted into Country Hall of Fame[edit]

On February 23, 2010, Cy Blumenthal (1913–1983) was posthumously inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame during the annual induction ceremonies in Nashville. He was recognized as the first man to own a chain of Large Market radio stations in the Country format. His first acquisition was WARL in Arlington, VA., in 1951, followed by the purchase of WCMS (Norfolk, VA) in 1954, WHMS (Memphis, TN) in 1955, KCKN (Kansas City, KS) in 1957 and WABB (Mobile, AB)in 1958. Blumenthal began his career in Chester, PA, in 1949 where he learned the radio business from his brother-in-law. Some of Blumenthal's former staff includes Country Radio DJ Hall of Fame inductees Don Owens, Ted Cramer, Don Rhea, Joe Hoppel, Moon Mullins and Dale Carter (successor call letters when Carter was inducted are KFKF-FM). The Kansas City, Kansas operation was considered the flagship of the chain. Cramer made the speech for Blumenthal's induction in Nashville. Blumenthal's son-in-law, Steve April, accepted the honor on behalf of the family. <<CountryMusicBroadcastersIncPressReleaseFebruary262010>>

References[edit]

  1. ^ Broadcasting Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, Inc.  Jack Lester's reference 1 to Trade Publication, "Broadcasting Yearbook"
  2. ^ Clipping file, "Kansas Room", Kansas City, Kansas Public Library.
  3. ^ a b Clipping file, "Kansas Room", Kansas City, Kansas (66101) Public Library
  4. ^ Kansas City Kansan(?) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 1 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper)
  5. ^ Kansas City Kansan(?) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 2 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper)
  6. ^ Kansas City Kansan(?) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 3 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper)
  7. ^ Kansas City Kansan(?) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 4 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper)
  8. ^ Kansas City Kansan(?) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 5 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper)
  9. ^ from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's new reference 1 to Clipping file)
  10. ^ a b Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  11. ^ The Kansas City Star(??) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 1 to Microfilm of the Kansas City Star)
  12. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  13. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  14. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  15. ^ The Kansas City Star(??) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 2 to Microfilm of the Kansas City Star)
  16. ^ The Kansas City Star(??) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 3 to Microfilm of the Kansas City Star)
  17. ^ The Kansas City Star(??) (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 4 to Microfilm of the Kansas City Star)
  18. ^ Broadcasting Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, Inc.  from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 2 to Trade Publication, "Broadcasting Yearbook")
  19. ^ Kansas City Kansan (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's reference 6 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper)
  20. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  21. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  22. ^ from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's new reference 2 to Clipping file)
  23. ^ Broadcasting Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, Inc.  Jack Lester's reference 3 to Trade Publication, "Broadcasting Yearbook"
  24. ^ Kansas City Kansan (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 7 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper
  25. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  26. ^ Broadcasting Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, Inc.  Jack Lester's reference 4 to Trade Publication, "Broadcasting Yearbook"
  27. ^ Kansas City Kansan (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 8 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper
  28. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  29. ^ Broadcasting Yearbook, Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, Inc.  Jack Lester's reference 5 to Trade Publication, "Broadcasting Yearbook"
  30. ^ Kansas City Kansan (Microfilm)  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 9 to Microfilms/KCKansan newspaper
  31. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  32. ^ from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's new reference 3 to Clipping file was "a b c d e f g h i j")
  33. ^ from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's new reference 4 to Clipping file was "a b c d e f g h i j")
  34. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  35. ^ from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's new reference 5 to Clipping file was "a b c d e f g h i j")
  36. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  37. ^ from the clipping file in "Kansas Room" of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library (Jack Lester's new reference 6 to Clipping file was "a b c d e f g h i j")
  38. ^ Kansas Resources, Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  39. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 1 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  40. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 2 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  41. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 3 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  42. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 4 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  43. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 5 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  44. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 6 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  45. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 7 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  46. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 8 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  47. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 9 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  48. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 10 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  49. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 11 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  50. ^ Cramer, Ted (September 21, 2007), "History of the Modern Country Radio Format", Great Plains Radio History Symposium, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas  Missing or empty |title= (help) Jack Lester's reference 12 to the Ted Cramer presentation at Great Plains Radio History Symposium
  51. ^ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6826468