King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College

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King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College

Marathi: राजा एड्वर्ड स्मारक रुग्णालय व सेठ गोवर्धनदास सुंदरदास वैद्यकीय महाविद्यालय
GSMC Logo Small Colour.jpg
Official Logo of S.G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital
Established 1926
Type Education and research institution
Endowment Public
Dean Dr. Sandhya Kamath
Academic staff 390
Undergraduates 180 per year
Location Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Affiliations Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik

King Edward Memorial (KEM) Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College (Marathi: राजा एड्वर्ड (सातवे) स्मारक रुग्णालय व सेठ गोवर्धनदास सुंदरदास वैद्यकीय महाविद्यालय) is amongst the foremost teaching and medical care providing institutions in India. It was founded in 1926 in Mumbai. The Seth G.S. Medical College is affiliated to the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (MUHS), Nashik [1] and is consistently ranked amongst the top twenty five medical colleges in India by India Today.[2]

The medical school (Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College) provides training to about 2000 students in undergraduate, postgraduate and super-speciality medical courses. The institute also provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in physical therapy and occupational therapy apart from Master's and PhD courses in various allied specialities. A nursing school is also maintained by the institution.

With about 390 staff physicians and 550 resident doctors, the 1800 bedded hospital treats about 1.8 million out-patients and 78,000 in-patients annually and provides both basic care and advanced treatment facilities in all fields of medicine and surgery.[3]

Funded mainly by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, these institutions render yeomen service - virtually free of cost - mostly to the underprivileged sections of the society.

Dr Sandhya Kamath is the current dean of the college. She took over in January 2013.

Location[edit]

The medical college and hospital is located in central Mumbai in an area called Parel. This locality is home to the middle and lower middle class citizens of Mumbai. It also has many medical centers in an area of a square kilometer. These include, besides the KEM and GS Medical College, the Wadia Maternity Hospital, the Wadia Children's Hospital (both affiliated to the KEM); the Tata Memorial Hospital which is the largest cancer hospital in Asia, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health and the Haffkine Institute, the latter being a premier "basic medical research" institute in the city.[4]

History[edit]

The history of these institutions is closely related to India's struggle for freedom from the British. When qualified Indian nationals were denied attachments as teachers and doctors to the then only Medical College in Bombay (Mumbai), the Grant Medical College, a few pioneering Indian doctors, who had returned from the UK with medical degrees, set about founding a medical college of their own to which only Indian nationals would be admitted as teachers and doctors - this culminated in the establishment of the Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College through a munificent donation from the heirs of Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas - a wealthy Bombay merchant.

Genesis and foundation[edit]

In 1907, under the Police Charges Act, the work of medical relief within the city of Bombay was entrusted to the Municipal Corporation. In 1909, an ad hoc committee of the corporation decided that the time had come for the provision of a fully equipped hospital to meet the growing needs of the north of the island. On 6 May 1910, Edward VII died. He had visited India as Prince of Wales in 1876. The people of the Bombay presidency raised a fund to build a hospital in memory of the late king. The secretaries of the memorial committee asked the Municipal Corporation to use the fund (Rs 575,000) for building the proposed hospital. The Government of Bombay donated 50,000 square yards of land on the estate of the Government House at Parel. (Till then, this former residence of the Governor of Bombay housed the Bombay Bacteriological Laboratory-later to become the Haffkine Institute.)

About that time, Sir Pherozshah Mehta, Sir Chimanlal Setalvad and Sir Narayan Chandavarkar helped settle a dispute among the successors of Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas of the Mulji Jetha family. As a token of gratitude, the heirs offered Rs 1,200,000 for the foundation of a medical school, named after Seth Gordhandas to be associated with the proposed hospital. At the instance of Sir Pherozshah Mehta, the donors also insisted that the professors and teachers to be employed should all be properly qualified independent Indian gentlemen not in government service. The Municipality approached the Bombay Medical Union for a detailed scheme for the organization of the medical college and hospital. Dr Jivraj Mehta, just returned from London after obtaining an MD degree, was approached by the union. He suggested a radical departure from the traditional design of teaching hospitals in India where isolated blocks housed separate departments. Dr. Mehta proposed that the entire medical college be housed in one large building and the hospital (including the out-patient block) in a separate building. This would facilitate coordination between the various departments. The two buildings were to be interconnected by covered corridors so that patients, students and staff could easily go from one building to another during heavy monsoon rains. (The Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital were the first multistoreyed institutions of their kind. The KEM Hospital was the first Indian hospital housing the out-patient department within the main hospital building.)

The plans were submitted to WA Pite who had designed the Kings College Hospital in London and was then a leading authority on hospital construction. The local architect was George Wittet. In those days it was thought that if an architect happened to be an Englishman, he was not only a fit person to draw up plans for a hospital but also to select its equipment. Wittet drew up a long list of equipment to be imported from England, including even ordinary beds for the wards, lockers and mobile screens.

The equipment committee (consisting of Dr Rustom Cooper, Dr PT Patel and Col. Hamilton) insisted on obtaining most items from Bombay. Wittet strongly expressed his resentment but was disregarded. When the hospital and the college were formally inaugurated on 22 January 1926, Wittet was presented a gold cigarette case by the Governor of Bombay, Sir Leslie Orme Wilson, in appreciation of his services. In the very first week, however, a large piece of the plastered ceiling of the operation theatre came down and within the first fortnight, the tiled floor cracked! The total cost of construction of the hospital was Rs 2,527,699 and that of the college Rs 1,364,574.

In making the first appointments to the staff, the Municipal Corporation was largely guided by Dr. GV Deshmukh—a very active member of the corporation and also a big noise in the profession (Cooper). Dr Jivraj Mehta was elected Dean of the college and hospital. The first batch of teachers included Dr MDD Gilder, Dr PC Bharucha, Dr. AS Erulkar, Dr PT Patel, Dr GV Deshmukh, Dr RN Cooper, Dr VL Parmar, Dr NA Purandare, Dr. VR Khanolkar and Dr. BB Yodh, who, according to Dr Jivraj Mehta, were individuals of the highest capability and deepest integrity. There was a great bond of striving towards a common aim—-ensuring a brilliant success for these institutions. Remember, these were the first medical institutions in the country staffed by Indians at the professorial and other levels and there was a great sense of pride in all of us.

The list of members of the staff in 1926 shows their designations as Honorary surgeon and lecturer in surgery, Honorary physician and lecturer in medicine and so on. Dr Rustom Cooper explained: To ensure smooth working, some departures from accepted policies were instituted. It was the usual practice in hospitals to have surgeons in order of seniority. The senior surgeon became, ipsottfacto, professor of surgery. The surgeons at the KEM Hospital decided differently. It was resolved to drop the high sounding title of professor and call the surgeons just lecturers. It must be said to the credit of Drs GV Deshmukh and AP Bacha that, though they had a senior standing in the profession, they agreed to this arrangement. This plan was accepted by all the other departments and has been responsible for the great fellow-feeling that has always prevailed. Many heartaches and petty jealousies were thus averted.

Part of the success was also due to the extraordinary qualities of Dr Jivraj Mehta. “I would come over to the hospital in the middle of the night . . . keep my car outside the hospital compound so that no one knew in advance of my presence and moved about the hospital, entering the wards through the servants staircase to check for myself that no one on duty misused his time. I preferred using the small, winding staircases near the toilet blocks so that I could check on the sanitary facilities. Call books were checked regularly and doctors not attending within a reasonable period were disciplined. I would taste the patient’s food from time to time and walk into the students hostel and resident’s quarters at midnight to see how they lived and worked. ...”

Past deans of the institutions[edit]

  • Dr. Jivraj N Mehta
  • Dr JP Padshah
  • Dr. RP Koppikar
  • Dr. RG Dhayagude
  • Dr. SG Vengsarker
  • Dr. dd Joglekar
  • Dr. dd Rindani
  • Dr. dd Deshpande
  • Dr. GB Parulkar
  • Dr. PM Pai
  • Dr. RG Shirhatti
  • Dr. Nilima Kshirsagar
  • Dr. M Yeolekar
  • Dr. Sanjay Oak

Important milestones[edit]

1888

  • Bombay Police Charges Act passed, making it mandatory for municipal corporation to provide medical relief

1910

  • Governor of Bombay appealed for donation in memory of King Edward VII

1916

  • CR 8246 Passed Proposal for college
  • Endowment by Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas

1924

  • CR 6575 passed Only Indians to be employed in KEM hospital

1925

  • Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College started as the 12th medical college in India.

1926

  • Seth GS Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial Hospital inaugurated, with 46 students and 100 patient beds.

1928

  • MD, MS recognized

1946

  • Sion Hospital started with 50 beds under KEMH

1955

1965

  • First renal transplantation in India at KEM Hospital

1966

  • First ICCU in India

1968

  • First Liver Transplantation in India at KEM Hospital
  • World’s 5th and 6th heart transplants

1984

  • KEM Hospital became the first teaching institute to start emergency clinical microbiology laboratory services

1988

  • National Plasma Fractionation Center started
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance center started

1992

  • Level III pediatric and neonatal intensive care units started

2007

  • A tastefully renovated, OPD block inaugurated on the first floor of the main building.

Academics[edit]

The various courses offered by the institute are as follows,

Undergraduate courses[edit]

Post-graduate courses[edit]

  • M.D./M.S.
  • M.Sc.
  • Diploma in Diabetology
  • M.O.TH(MASTERS IN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY)

Superspeciality Courses[edit]

Admissions[edit]

Undergraduate courses[edit]

All admissions to the graduate courses in medicine and allied specialties in Maharashtra are administered centrally by the Directorate of Medical Education and Research (DMER). The Common Entrance test is called MHT CET. 15% of total seats are reserved for All India quota to be filled through All India Premedical entrance test conducted by the CBSE.[5]

Post-graduate courses[edit]

For students who have completed their MBBS from any medical college in Maharashtra state admission to post graduate course is through state level postgraduate medical entrance test. While for student from other parts of India who have passed MBBS from any college recognized by the Medical Council of India admission is through All India postgraduate medical courses entrance test conducted by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi[6] Information from Official website of KEM Hospital.

Achievements[edit]

  • The first Indian Medical College of modern medicine to be fully staffed by qualified Indian doctors.
  • The first Occupational Therapy School in Asia
  • The first Physiotherapy School in Southeast Asia
  • The first Plasma Fractionation Unit in Asia
  • The first Indian hospital to have an Ayurveda Research Centre in conjunction with an allopathic set-up
  • The first Indian Medical College and Hospital having an indexed medical journal (Journal of Postgraduate Medicine)
  • The only Department of Sexology for a billion people
  • The first clinical pharmacology ward in the country
  • The first dedicated Orthopaedic department in the country
  • The first department of Cardio-thoracic Pathology in India
  • The first Nutrition Research Unit attached with a physiology department in India
  • The first department of cardiovascular and thoracic anaesthesia in India
  • First specialized epilepsy surgery department in Western India
  • First department of interventional electrophysiology in western India
  • First dedicated Esophageal Laboratory in the country
  • First Intensive Cardiac Care Unit in India
  • The first Indian hospital to perform a live donor kidney transplant in India
  • The first liver transplant in India (1968)
  • The first documented test-tube baby in India
  • The first Indian hospital to acquire an ECG machine
  • The first mitral commisurotomy in India (1952)
  • The first Indian hospital to perform craniofacial surgery
  • Pioneering work on the use of diethylcarbamazine in tropical eosinophilia
  • Pioneering work on the use of Rauwolffia serpentina in hypertension
  • First balloon atrial septostomy procedure in the country
  • First balloon dilatation of cor-triatriatum in the world
  • First fetal echocardiography-guided interventional therapy in the country
  • First transcatheter closure of ASD in Western India
  • The first cadaveric temporal bone and micro ear surgery workshops (1976)
  • The first Department of Preventive and Social Medicine to start a Mobile Health Unit in India (1964)
  • Highest annual processing of blood samples in India (about 36,000/year in 1998, 1999)
  • Highest annual collection of blood unit in India (about 30,000/year in 1998, 1999)
  • Highest number of blood donation camps held by a single blood bank in India
  • Single largest collection in India with a single Blood Bank in a day: 5679 units of blood
  • Pioneering work on in-vitro testing of Indian hepatoprotective agents
  • First intravenous anesthesia with Thipentone sodium (1940s)
  • First hypothermia technique for ASD (1953)
  • First All India Conference of Indian Society of Anesthetists (1949)
  • First total spinal technique for controlled hypotension (1954)
  • Largest numbers of presidents of Indian Society of Anesthetists from a single Institution (five)
  • First cardiac catheterisation in India 1959-60
  • Pioneering work on recreation of reptilian heart vascular pattern in mammalian heart (1965)
  • Pioneering work on the association of tuberculosis with non-specific aortoarteritis (1963)
  • First interventional radiological procedures in India 1975
  • Discovery of Bombay Blood group
  • Pioneering work on release and grafting of trismus in submucus fibrosis

Source and acknowledgement[edit]

On the wings of time .... A saga of Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital 1926-2001: The Platinum Jubilee Souvenir of the Institutions

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.muhsnashik.com/college1.asp M.U.H.S. College Information
  2. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/gallery/indias+top+medical+colleges/1/1363.html#photo8
  3. ^ http://www.kem.edu/hospital.htm Information from Official website of KEM Hospital
  4. ^ http://www.kem.edu/college/directions.htm Information from Official website of KEM Hospital
  5. ^ http://www.kem.edu/college/add_pmt.htm Information from Official website of KEM Hospital
  6. ^ http://www.kem.edu/college/pg_mbbs.htm

Coordinates: 19°00′06″N 72°50′30″E / 19.0017°N 72.8418°E / 19.0017; 72.8418