Royal Netherlands East Indies Army

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Royal Netherlands East Indies Army
Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Militairen tijdens de Niau (Nederlandsch Indische Athletiek Unie) wandelmars Soerabaja TMnr 60007159.jpg
KNIL troops marching through Surabaya, 1937
Founded 1819 (1830 official)
Disbanded 1950 (1951 Colonial Reserve disbanded)
Headquarters Batavia, Dutch East Indies

The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies, and now modern Indonesia). The KNIL's air arm was the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force. Elements of the Royal Netherlands Navy were also stationed in the Netherlands East Indies.

History 1830–1942[edit]

Isaac Israëls, Het transport der kolonialen (Transport of the Colonial Soldiers), showing recruits for the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army walking through Rotterdam to their transport to the Dutch East Indies[1]
Cavalry of the Royal Dutch East India Army in 1906 during the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906).

The KNIL was formed by royal decree on 10 March 1830. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm specifically formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies. Its establishment coincided with the Dutch drive to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories comprising the Dutch East Indies seventy years later, which remain the present boundaries of Indonesia.[2][not in citation given]

In 1894, Lombok and Karangasem were annexed in response to reports of the local Balinese aristocracy oppressing the native Sasak people.[3] Bali was finally taken under full control with the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906) and the final Dutch intervention in Bali (1908).[3] The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the Netherlands East Indies including the Padri War (1821–1845), the Java War (1825–1830), crushing the final resistance of Bali inhabitants to colonial rule in 1849, and the prolonged Aceh War (1873–1904).[4]

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the KNIL prosecuted the conquest of the Indonesian archipelago. After 1904 the Netherlands East Indies were considered pacified, with no large-scale armed opposition to Dutch rule until World War II, and the KNIL served a mainly defensive role protecting the Dutch East Indies from the possibility of foreign invasion.

Once the archipelago was considered pacified the KNIL was mainly involved with military police tasks. To ensure a sizeable European military segment in the KNIL and reduce costly recruitment in Europe the colonial government introduced obligatory military service for all male conscripts in the European legal class in 1917.[5] In 1922 a supplemental legal enactment introduced the creation of Home Guard (Dutch: Landstorm) for European conscripts older than 32.[6]

No large-scale armed threat to Dutch rule existed until World War II.

World War II[edit]

KNIL troops marching through Melbourne, Australia on 14 June 1943.

Dutch forces in the Netherlands East Indies were severely weakened by the defeat and occupation of the Netherlands itself, by Nazi Germany, in 1940. The KNIL was cut off from external Dutch assistance, except for Royal Netherlands Navy units. The KNIL hastily and inadequately attempted to transform into a modern military force able to protect the Dutch East Indies from foreign invasion. By December 1941, Dutch forces in Indonesia numbered around 85,000 personnel: regular troops comprised about 1,000 officers and 34,000 enlisted soldiers, of whom 28,000 were indigenous. The remainder were made up of locally organised militia, territorial guard units and civilian auxiliaries. The KNIL air force, Militaire Luchtvaart KNIL (Royal Netherlands East Indies Air Force (ML-KNIL))[7] numbered 389 planes of all types, but was largely outclassed by superior Japanese planes. The Royal Netherlands Navy Air Service, or MLD, also had significant forces in the NEI.[8]

During the Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941–42 most of the KNIL and other Allied forces were quickly defeated.[9] Most European soldiers, which in practice included all able bodied Indo-European males, were interned by the Japanese as POWs. 25% of the POWs did not survive their internment.

A handful of soldiers, mostly indigenous personnel, mounted guerilla campaigns against the Japanese. These were usually unknown to, and unassisted by, the Allies until the end of the war.

During early 1942, some KNIL personnel escaped to Australia. Some indigenous personnel were interned in Australia under suspicion of sympathies with the Japanese. The remainder began a long process of re-grouping. In late 1942, a failed attempt to land in East Timor, to reinforce Australian commandos waging a guerrilla campaign ended with the loss of 60 Dutch personnel.

Four "NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES" squadrons were formed from ML-KNIL personnel, under the auspices of the Royal Australian Air Force, with Australian ground staff. (See: RAAF-NEI squadrons.)

KNIL infantry forces (much like their counterparts in the UK), were augmented by recruitment among Dutch expatriates around the world and by colonial troops from as far away as the Dutch West Indies. During 1944–45 some small units saw action in the New Guinea campaign and Borneo campaign.

Units in 12 December 1941[edit]

KNIL, commanded by LtGen Hein Ter Poorten.

Military Group Bandoeng, overseeing Java, commanded by MajGen J.J. Pesman. The Military Group Bandoeng divided into three military area commands, i.e. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Military Area Command.

1st Military Area Command, overseeing western part of Java, manned by 1st Infantry division, commanded by Maj Gen W. Schilling. Main combat units

  • 1st Infantry regiment, based in Weltevreden, commanded by Col Struivenberg, manned by personnel from
    • HQ Company
    • Motorized Infantry company
    • 10th Infantry battalion, based in Weltevreden
    • 11th Infantry battalion, based in Meester Cornelis
    • 12th Infantry battalion, based in Meester Cornelis, commanded by Capt F.A.M. Harterink.
    • 14th Infantry battalion, based in Buitenzorg
  • 2nd Infantry regiment, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Col Toorop, manned by personnel from
    • HQ Company
    • Motorized Infantry company
    • 4th Infantry battalion, based in Tjimahi
    • 9th Infantry battalion, based in Bandoeng
    • 15th Infantry battalion, based in Bandoeng
  • Mobile (Armored) battalion, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Capt G.J. Wulfhorst, manned by
    • Reconnaissance platoon, commanded by Lt van Hellenberg Hubar
    • Armored company, commanded by Capt Bakhuis
      • 1st Armored platoon, commanded by Lt Christan
      • 2nd Armored platoon, commanded by Lt Cox
      • 3rd Armored platoon, commanded by SgtMaj Verboeken
    • Mechanized infantry company, commanded by Capt Brendgen
      • 1st Mechanized infantry platoon, commanded by Lt Rheasa
      • 2nd Mechanized infantry platoon, commanded by Lt Reep
      • 3rd Mechanized infantry platoon, commanded by WO Kampers
    • Motorized Antitank column
    • Motorized 2nd battery of 1st Mountain Artillery battalion, commanded by Capt Twiss
  • 1st Cavalry regiment, based in Bandoeng, manned by personnel from
    • 1st Cavalry squadron, based in Meester Cornelis, commanded by Maj Wessel
    • 2nd Cavalry squadron, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Capt Romswinckel
    • 5th (Horsed) Cavalry squadron, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Capt Soerjobroto
  • 1st Conscript battalion
  • 4th Conscript battalion

Detached combat/support units

  • Batavia & Tandjong Priok Coast Defense Area
    • 1st Air Defense Artillery battalion, based in Batavia
    • 1st Coast Artillery battalion, based in Batavia
  • 3rd Air Defense Artillery battalion, based in Bandoeng

Divisional support units

  • 1st Artillery regiment, based in Weltevreden, commanded by Col Koppen, manned by personnel from
    • 1st Howitzer Artillery battalion, based in Weltevreden, commanded by Maj Schmidtz
    • 2nd Field Artillery battalion, based in Tjimahi, commanded by Lt Col Claassen
    • 1st Mountain Artillery battalion, based in Tjimahi, commanded by Capt Hanssen
    • Depot Mobile Artillery, in Tjimahi, commanded by Col P.C. Hoolboom
  • Coastal Artillery unit, based in Merak, Bantam and Pelaboean Ratoe
  • 1st Engineer battalion, based in Weltevreden
  • Technical battalion, based in Tjimahi
  • Pioneer battalion, based in Tjimahi
  • 1st Constabulary battalion, based in Weltevreden
  • 1st Transport company
  • 2nd Transport company
  • 1st (Military Academy) Infantry battalion, based in Bandoeng
  • Military hospital Weltevreden
  • Military hospital Tjimahi

Army Aviation units

  • 1st Air Reconnaissance squadron, based in Soekaboemi, commanded by Lt J.W. Verhoven
  • 3rd Air Reconnaissance squadron, based in Soebang, commanded by Lt D. Berlijn

2nd Military Area Command, overseeing central part of Java, manned by 2nd Infantry division, commanded by MG P.A. Cox. Main combat units

  • 4th Infantry regiment, based in Magelang, commanded by Col de Veer, manned by personnel from
    • HQ Company
    • Motorized Infantry company
    • 1st Infantry battalion, based in Magelang
    • 2nd Infantry battalion, based in Magelang
    • 5th Infantry battalion, based in Semarang
  • 3rd Conscript battalion
  • 5th Conscript battalion
  • 6th Conscript battalion

Detached combat/support units

  • South Group, based in Soerakarta, commanded by Col Scholten
    • Legion Mangkoe Negoro (battalion), based in Soerakarta
    • 21st Infantry battalion, based in Soerakarta
    • Legion Pakoe Alam (company), based in Jogjakarta
    • 4th Cavalry squadron, based in Magelang, commanded by Capt de Boer
    • Life Guards Cavalry squadron, based in Jogjakarta and Soerakarta, commanded by Capt Lips
    • Mountain artillery battery, commanded by Capt van Praag
  • Tjilatjap Brigade, based in Tjilatjap
    • 5th company, 9th Infantry battalion
    • Volunteer company
    • National Reserve company
    • City Watchmen company
    • 6th Coastal and Air Defense Artillery battalion, based in Tjilatjap
  • 5th Coastal and Air Defense Artillery battalion, based in Semarang, commanded by Capt van Dilst
    • Coastal and Air Defense Artillery detachment, based in Cheribon
    • Coastal and Air Defense Artillery detachment, based in Tegal
    • Coastal and Air Defense Artillery detachment, based in Pekalongan
    • Coastal and Air Defense Artillery detachment, based in Semarang

Divisional support units

  • 2nd Mountain Artillery battalion, based in Salatiga, commanded by Lt Col Reerink
  • Signal company
  • 4th Transport company
  • 2nd (Military Academy) Infantry battalion, based in Poerworedjo
  • 3rd (Military Academy) Infantry battalion, based in Gombong
  • (Military Academy) Cavalry battalion, based in Salatiga, commanded by Lt Col Fokkema
  • Military hospital Magelang

Army Aviation units

  • 2nd Air Reconnaissance squadron, based in Jogjakarta, commanded by Capt W.A. Meelhuijsen
  • 4th Air Reconnaissance squadron, based in Semarang, commanded by Lt A.L. Cox

3rd Military Area Command, overseeing eastern part of Java, manned by 3nd Infantry division, commanded by MG G.A. Ilgen. Main combat units

  • 6th Infantry regiment, based in Malang, manned by personnel from
    • HQ Company
    • Motorized Infantry company
    • 3rd Infantry battalion, based in Malang
    • 8th Infantry battalion, based in Malang, commanded by Capt J.W.R.H. Doorman.
    • 13th Infantry battalion, based in Malang, commanded by Maj G.J. van der Meulen.
  • 3rd Cavalry squadron, based in Malang, commanded by Capt de Longh
  • 6th Cavalry squadron, based in Malang
  •  ? Conscript battalion
  •  ? Conscript battalion

Detached combat/support units

  • Soerabaja Defense Zone
    • Barisan Korps Madoera (regiment), based in Soerabaja
      • 1st (Barisan Korps) infantry battalion
      • 2nd (Barisan Korps) infantry battalion
      • 3rd (Barisan Korps) infantry battalion
      • 4th (Barisan Korps) infantry battalion
      • (Barisan Korps) Artillery battery
    • 2nd Air Defense Artillery battalion
    • Coastal Artillery battalion, based in Soerabaja, commanded by Maj von de Eem
    • 2nd Conscript battalion
    • Marine infantry battalion
    • 2nd Constabulary battalion, based in Soerabaja
    • Radar company
  • Bali Detachment
    • Korps Prajoeda (battalion), based in Bali
    • Coastal Artillery team

Divisional support units

  • 2nd Artillery regiment, based in Malang, commanded by Col van Dijk, manned by personnel from
    • 1st Field Artillery battalion, based in Malang, commanded by Maj Stenger
  • 2nd company, 2nd Constabulary battalion, based in Malang
  • 3rd Transport company
  • Military hospital Malang

Army Aviation unit

  • 5th Air Reconnaissance squadron, based in Malang

Sumatra High Command, overseeing the island of Sumatra, commanded by MG R.T. Overakker. The Sumatra High Command divided into four territorial commands, i.e. North Sumatra, West Sumatra, Riouw and South Sumatra.

North Sumatra Territorial Command, overseeing northern part of Sumatra, commanded by Col G.F.V. Gosenson. Territorial units

  • North Sumatra 1st Garrison battalion, based in Koetaradja
  • North Sumatra 2nd Garrison battalion, based in Koetaradja
  • Constabulary battalion, based in Koetaradja
  • Composite battalion, based in Medan
  • City Watchmen company, based in Medan
  • Composite detachment, based in Sabang

Support units

  • Coastal Artillery detachment, based in Medan
  • Coastal Artillery units, based in Belawan and Deli
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

West Sumatra & Tapanoeli Territorial Command, overseeing western part of Sumatra, commanded by Lt Col J.H.M. Blogg. Territorial units

  • West Sumatra 1st Garrison battalion, based in Padang
  • City Watchmen company, based in Padang
  • City Watchmen company, based in Padang
  • West Sumatra 2nd Garrison battalion, based in Fort de Kock
  • 2 companies of West Sumatra 2nd Garrison battalion, based in Padangpandjang

Support units

  • Coastal Artillery battery, based in Emmahaven
  • Air Defense Artillery battery, based in Pakanbaroe
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Riouw Territorial Command, overseeing eastern part of Sumatra, commanded by Maj J.H. de Vries. Territorial units

Support unit

  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

South Sumatra Territorial Command, overseeing southern part of Sumatra, commanded by Lt Col L.W.N. Vogelsang. Territorial units

  • South Sumatra Garrison battalion, based in Palembang
  • City Watchmen company, based in Palembang
  • Infantry company, based in Djambi
  • Composite company, based in Djambi

Support units

  • Coastal Artillery battery, based in Palembang
  • Air Defense Artillery battery, based in Palembang
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

West Borneo Territorial Command, overseeing western part of Borneo, commanded by Lt Col D.P.F. Mars. Territorial units

  • West Borneo Garrison battalion, based in Pontianak
  • City Watchmen company, based in Pontianak
  • City Watchmen platoon, based in Singkawang
  • City Watchmen platoon, based in Sintang

Support units

  • Air Defense Artillery battery, based in Singkawang
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

South and East Borneo Territorial Command, overseeing southern and eastern part of Borneo, commanded by Lt Col H.T. Halkema. Territorial units

Support units

  • Air Defense Artillery section, based in Bandjermasin
  • Air Defense Artillery section, based in Koetawaringin Air
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Balikpapan Local Command, overseeing the city of Balikpapan, commanded by Lt Col C. van den Hoogenband. Local unit

Support units

  • 2nd Coastal and Air Defense Artillery battalion, based in Balikpapan, commanded by Capt Fergusen
  • Engineer company, based in Balikpapan
  • Engineer squad, based in Sambodja
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Tarakan Local Command, overseeing the city of Tarakan, commanded by Lt Col S. de Waal. Local unit

  • 7th Infantry battalion, based in Tarakan

Support units

  • 3rd Coastal and Air Defense Artillery battalion, based in Tarakan, commanded by Capt Bakker
  • Engineer platoon
  • Engineer platoon
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Samarinda Local Command, overseeing the city of Samarinda, commanded by Capt G.A.C. Monteiro. Local units

Support units

  • Coastal and Air Defense Artillery battery, based in Sanga-sanga
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Samarinda II Air Base Local Command, overseeing Samarinda II Air Base, commanded by Maj G. du Rij van Beest Holle. Local unit

Support units

Celebes Territorial Command, overseeing the island of Celebes, commanded by Col M. Vooren. The Celebes Territorial Command divided into three local commands, i.e. Manado, Kendari and Makassar.

Manado Local Command, overseeing the northern part of Celebes, commanded by Maj B.F.A. Schilmöller. Local units

  • National Reserve battalion, based in Manado, commanded by Capt W.C. van den Berg.
  • Infantry company, based in Manado, commanded by Capt W.F.J. Kroon.
  • Volunteer company, commanded by Capt J.D.W.T. Abbink.
  • Conscript company, commanded by Lt F. Masselink.
  • Militia company, commanded by Capt J.H.A.L.C. de Swert.
  • City Watchmen company, commanded by Lt M.A. Nolthenius de Man.
  • Mobile column, commanded by SgtMaj A.J. ter Voert.

Support units

  • National Reserve depot in Manado
  • Coastal and Air Defense Artillery battery, based in Manado
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Kendari II Airbase Garrison, overseeing Kendari II Airbase Local units

  • Infantry company
  • Infantry company

Support units

  • Air Defense Artillery detachment
  • Air Defense Artillery detachment

Makassar Local Command, overseeing the southern part of Celebes Local units

  • Infantry company
  • Infantry platoon
  • Constabulary platoon
  • Volunteer company
  • National Reserve company
  • Conscript company
  • City Watchmen company
  • Mobile column
  • Militia company

Support units

  • Militia depot in Makassar
  • Coastal Artillery detachment, based in Makassar
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Timor Territorial Command, overseeing Lesser Sunda Islands, commanded by LtCol W.E.C. Detiger. Territorial units

  • Timor Garrison battalion, based in Koepang, commanded by LtCol N.L.W. van Straten.
  • 3rd company, 8th Infantry battalion, based in Koepang
  • Machine gun platoon, based in Koepang

Support unit

  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Moluccas Territorial Command, overseeing Moluccas Islands, commanded by Lt Col J.L.R. Kapitz. Territorial units

  • Moluccas Garrison battalion, based in Amboina, commanded by Maj H. H. L. Tieland.
  • Militia battalion
  • City Watchmen company, based in Amboina
  • City Watchmen company, based in Laha
  • National Reserve company, based in Amboina
  • National Reserve company, based in Saparoea

Support units

  • 4th Coastal and Air Defense Artillery battalion, based in Amboina, commanded by Maj Buur.
  • Engineer platoon
  • Mobile Auxiliary First-Aid detachment

Military Aviation of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, based in Soerabaja, commanded by Lt Gen L.H. van Oyen, acting commander Col E.T. Kengen.

  • 1st group, based in Bandoeng
    • 1st squadron of 1st group, based in Samarinda, commanded by Capt W.F.H. van Rantwijk
    • 2nd squadron of 1st group, based in Singkawang, commanded by Capt R. De Seneport Domis
  • 2nd group, based in Malang
    • 1st squadron of 2nd group, based in Malang, commanded by Lt. H.M.E. van Leyden
    • 2nd squadron of 2nd group, based in Malang, commanded by Capt. D.L. Asjes
  • 3rd group, based in Meester Cornelis, commanded by Lt Col W.J. van Gulik
    • 1st squadron of 3rd group, based in Singapore, commanded by Lt F.R. Letting
    • 2nd squadron of 3rd group, based in Soebang, commanded by Lt E.W.H. Spiekerman
    • 3rd squadron of 3rd group, based in Singapore, commanded by Lt A.B. Wolff
  • 4th group, based in Madioen
    • 1st squadron of 4th group, based in Meester Cornelis, commanded by Lt M.W. van der Poel
    • 2nd squadron of 4th group, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Lt R.A.D. Anemaet
      • 4th flight of 2nd squadron of 4th group, based in Amboina, commanded by Lt F.E. Broers
    • 3rd squadron of 4th group, based in Madioen
  • 5th group, based in Buitenzorg
    • 1st squadron of 5th group, based in Singkawang, commanded by Lt A.A.M. van Rest
      • 1st flight of 1st squadron of 5th group, based in Samarinda, commanded by Lt P.A.C. Benjamins
      • 2nd flight of 1st squadron of 5th group, based in Samarinda, commanded by 2Lt J.N. Droog
    • 2nd squadron of 5th group, based in Singapore, commanded by Capt J.P. van Helsdingen
    • 3rd squadron of 5th group, based in Singapore
  • 6th (Depot) group, based in Madioen
    • 1st squadron of 6th group, based in Bandoeng, commanded by Capt S. de Mul

1945–1950[edit]

KNIL Soldier with an M1928 submachine gun, circa 1948.

Following World War II, the KNIL was used in two large military campaigns in 1947 and 1948 to re-establish Dutch control of Indonesia. The KNIL and its Ambonese auxiliaries have been accused of committing war crimes during this "police action". Dutch efforts to re-establish their colony failed and Netherlands recognition of Indonesian sovereignty came on 27 December 1949.[10] On 26 January 1950, elements of the KNIL were involved in an abortive coup in Bandung planned by Raymond Westerling and Sultan Hamid II. The coup failed and only accelerated the dissolution of the federal Republic of the United States of Indonesia.[11]

The KNIL was disbanded by 26 July 1950 with its indigenous personnel being given the option of demobilizing or joining the Indonesian military.[12] However, efforts to integrate former KNIL units were impeded by mutual distrust between the predominantly Ambonese KNIL troops and the Javanese-dominated Republican military; leading to clashes at Makassar in April and the attempted secession of an independent Republic of South Maluku (RMS) in July.[11] These revolts were suppressed by November 1950 and approximately 12,500 Ambonese KNIL personnel and their families opted for temporary resettlement in the Netherlands.[13] Following this, the KNIL ceased to exist but its traditions are maintained by the Regiment Van Heutsz of the modern Royal Netherlands Army. At the time of disbandment the KNIL numbered 65,000, of whom 26,000 were incorporated into the new Indonesian Army. The remainder were either demobilised or transferred to the Netherlands Army.[14]

Recruiting[edit]

Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927.

During the 19th century the KNIL recruited Dutch volunteers, European mercenaries of other nationalities (especially Germans, Belgians and Swiss).[15] During the protracted Aceh War the numbers of European troops were kept to 12,000 but continued Achenese resistance necessitated the deployment of up to 23,000 indigenous soldiers (mainly from Java, Ambon, and Manado).[16] Even slaves of the Ashanti (Ivory Coast and Ghana) were recruited in limited numbers for service in the East Indies (see Belanda Hitam).[17] The ratio of foreign and indigenous troops to those of Dutch origin was reported to be 60% to 40%. After the Aceh War, the enlistment of non-Dutch European troops ceased and the KNIL came to consist of Dutch regulars recruited in the Netherlands itself, Indonesians, Indos (Eurasians), and Dutch colonists living in the East Indies and undertaking their military service.

Indigenous KNIL troops, 1938

It was against the law to send Dutch conscripts from the Netherlands to the Netherlands East Indies but Dutch volunteers continued to enlist for colonial service. In 1890 a Colonial Reserve (Koloniale Reserve) was established in the Netherlands itself to recruit and train these volunteers and to re-integrate them into Dutch society upon the conclusion of their overseas service. On the eve of the Japanese invasion in December 1941, Dutch regular troops in the East Indies comprised about 1,000 officers and 34,000 men, of whom 28,000 were indigenous. The largest contingent of these indigenous troops had always consisted of Javanese and Sundanese soldiers.[18][19] During the Japanese occupation, most of the Dutch and Ambonese personnel were interned in POW camps.

During the Indonesian National Revolution, the KNIL's officers were still largely Dutch and Eurasians although most of its troops were recruited from predominantly Christian eastern Indonesia, particularly the South Moluccas, Timor and Manado. Although there were smaller numbers of Javanese, Sundanese, Sumatran and other Muslim troops in Dutch service, these received comparatively lower rates of pay than their Christian counterparts, leading to resentment and distrust. The Dutch sought to take advantage of these ethnic tensions by claiming that the Ambonese would lose their special privileges and pensions under a Javanese-dominated government.[11] As noted above, these factors contributed to clashes between demobilized KNIL units and the Republic of Indonesia's military throughout 1950.[11]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.googleartproject.com/en-gb/collection/the-kroller-muller-museum/artwork/transport-of-colonial-soldiers-isaac-israels/440388/details/
  2. ^ The Royal Netherlands Indies Army
  3. ^ a b Vickers, Adrian. (2005) A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p10–11
  4. ^ Ibrahim, Alfian. "Aceh and the Perang Sabil." Indonesian Heritage: Early Modern History. Vol. 3, ed. [[Anthony Reid (academic)|]], Sian Jay and T. Durairajoo. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2001. p132–133
  5. ^ Willems, Wim ‘Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600-1942).’ (COMT, Leiden, 1994). Chapter I, P.32-33 ISBN 90-71042-44-8
  6. ^ Willems, Wim ‘Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600-1942).’ (COMT, Leiden, 1994). Chapter I, P.32-36 ISBN 90-71042-44-8
  7. ^ Broshot, James (1999–2000). "Dutch Air Force Order of Battle in the Dutch East Indies, 30 November 1941". Dutch East Indies Campaign website. 
  8. ^ "Armed Forces of World War II" Andrew Mollo ISBN 0-85613-296-9
  9. ^ Klemen, L (1999–2000). "Dutch East Indies 1941-1942". Dutch East Indies Campaign website. 
  10. ^ "Last Post – the End of Empire in the Far East", John Keay ISBN 0-7195-5589-2
  11. ^ a b c d Kahin, George McT. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1952. p452
  12. ^ plechtigheden in Djakarta bij de opheffing van het KNIL Polygoon 1950 3 min. 20;embed=1 Video footage showing the official ceremony disbanding the KNIL
  13. ^ The complicated story of the disbanding of the KNIL is set out briefly here. For a more extended analysis see Manuhutu (1987); Steylen (1996: 33–63); van Amersfoort (1982: 101–8). The psychological impact of the dissolution of the KNIL on the Ambonese servicemen is described in Wittermans (1991).
  14. ^ John Keegan, page 314 "World Armies", ISBN 0-333-17236-1
  15. ^ Blakely, Allison (2001). Blacks in the Dutch World: The Evolution of Racial Imagery in a Modern Society. Indiana University Press. p. 15 ISBN 0-253-31191-8
  16. ^ Vickers (2005), p. 13
  17. ^ Radio Netherlands Worldwide – Ghana's Java connection
  18. ^ Javanese have always been the largest indigenous element of the colonial army. Cribb, R.B. (2004) ‘Historical dictionary of Indonesia.’ Scarecrow Press, Lanham, USA.ISBN 0 8108 4935 6, p. 221 [1]
  19. ^ The KNIL statistics of 1939 show at least 13,500 Javanese and Sundanese under arms compared to 4,000 Ambonese soldiers.Source: Netherlands Ministry of Defense.

References[edit]

External links[edit]