Kaabong District has a rocky landscape with hills and valleys. The vegetation is primarily bushes and shrubs. The climatic/weather conditions of Kaabong District are more diverse with various soil types, vegetation and altitudes. There are some areas that contain savannah vegetation, but most of the district is semi-arid with thorny shrubs. There is only one annual season of cultivation.Kidepo Valley National Park is located in the district, 66 kilometres (41 mi), by road, north of the district headquarters at Kaabong.
In 1991, the national population census estimated the population of the district at about 91,200. The national census in 2002 estimated the population of the district at approximately 202,800. The annual population growth rate in the district, between 2002 and 2012, was calculated at 7%. In 2012, it is estimated that the population of Kaabong District was about 395,200. The table below illustrates the growth of the district population between 2002 and 2012. All numbers are estimates.
Animal husbandry is the main economic activity in the district. A great majority of the district population are nomadic pastoralists who roam the landscape looking for grass and water for their animals. Agriculture is not widely practiced in the central part of the district, though its importance has increased in recent years. It is the primary activity in the western belt of the district and in the northeastern corner, especially Kamion.