National Museum of Afghanistan

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National Museum of Afghanistan
National museum of Afghanistan.jpg
Outside the Afghan National Museum in 2010
Established 1922
Location Kabul, Afghanistan
Collection size approx. 100,000 before 1978; now about 30,000

Coordinates: 34°28′03″N 69°07′12″E / 34.46750°N 69.12000°E / 34.46750; 69.12000

The National Museum of Afghanistan (Persian: موزیم ملی افغانستان, Muzem-e milli-ye Afghanistan; Pashto: د افغانستان ملی موزیم‎, De Afghanistan Milli Meauziam), also known as the Afghan National Museum or sometimes the Kabul Museum, is a two-story building located 9 km southwest of the center of Kabul City in Afghanistan. As of 2014, the museum is under major expansion according to international standards, with a larger size adjoining garden for visitors to relax and walk around.[1][2]

The museums collection had earlier been one of the most important in Central Asia,[3] with over 100,000 items dating back several millennia. With the start of the civil war in 1992, the museum was looted numerous times resulting in a loss of 70% of the 100,000 objects on display.[4] Since 2007, a number of international organizations have helped to recover over 8,000 artifacts, the most recent being a limestone sculpture from Germany.[5] Approximately 843 artifacts were returned by the United Kingdom in 2012, including the famous 1st Century Bagram Ivories.[6]

History[edit]

The Afghan National Museum was built in 1919 during the reign of King Amanullah Khan.[7] The collection inside the museum was transferred from another location in the city and began as a 'Cabinet of Curiosities' in 1922.[8] In 1973, a Danish architect was hired to design a new building for the museum, but the plans were never carried out due to political instability.[9]

Inside the museum in 2008

The museum's collection had been one of the most important in Central Asia,[3] with over 100,000 items dating back several millennia. After the collapse of President Najibullah's government and during the start of the civil war in the early 1990s, the museum was looted numerous times resulting in a loss of 70% of the 100,000 objects on display.[4] In 1989, the Bactrian Gold had been moved to an underground vault at the Central Bank of Afghanistan.[4]

In March 1994, the museum, which had been used as a military base, was struck by rocket fire and largely destroyed. The Ministry of Information and Culture of President Rabbani's government ordered that the 71 museum staff begin moving the inventory to Kabul Hotel (now Serena Hotel) in order to rescue them from further rocketing and shelling.[9] In September 1996, staff at the museum completed the cataloging of the remaining materials.[3] Between 2003 and 2006, about $350,000 was spent to refurbish the building. Fortunately, many of the most precious objects had been sealed in metal boxes and removed for safety and were recovered and inventoried in 2004.[10] Some archeological objects were found in vaults in Kabul,[11] while a collection was also discovered in Switzerland.[12] Since 2007, UNESCO and Interpol have helped to recover over 8,000 artefacts, the most recent being a limestone sculpture from Germany[5] and 843 artefacts returned by the British Museum in July 2012, including the famous 1st Century Begram Ivories.[6]

In 2012, an architecture firm from Spain won a competition for the new design of the Afghan National Museum.[1] Work began in 2013 to expand the museum according to international standards, with a large adjoining garden for visitors to relax and walk around.[2]

Collections[edit]

Ivory carving from Kapissa, capital of the Kushan Empire, 1st to 2nd Century AD.

Many treasures of ivory are stored there, as are antiquities from Kushan, early Buddhism, and early Islam. One of the most famous pieces in the museum, and known to have survived the turbulent period in the 1990s is the Rabatak Inscription of King Kanishka.

Archaeological Materials[edit]

As the National Museum Kabul has been the repository for many of the most spectacular archaeological finds in the country. These include the painted frescos from Dilberjin; inscriptions, fragments of architecture, sculpture, metal objects, and coins rescued from the French excavations at Ai-Khanoum and Surkh Kotal; the spectacular collection of objects found at a merchants warehouse in the city of Bagram, which include ivories from India, mirrors from China, and glassware from the Roman Empire; the stucco heads of Hadda; Buddhist sculpture from Tepe Sardar and other monastic institutions in Afghanistan; and a large collection of Islamic art from the Ghazvanid and Timurid periods found at Ghazni.[13]

Numismatic Collection[edit]

The National Museum has a large collection of coins, the Austrian numismatist Robert Göbl [14] reported it contained 30,000 objects during a UNESCO sponsored audit of the collection. It is unknown how much the collection has grown since or what was lost during the various wars since. The collection contains the bulk of archaeological material recovered in Afghanistan. It has not been published, but individual hoards and archaeological sites have been. DAFA (Delegation Archaeologie Francais Afghanistan) published the coin finds made at the town of Surkh Kotal. Some of the coins found at the excavation of Begram have been published.[15] Part of the Mir Zakah hoard, a very unusual deposit containing enormous numbers of coins from the fourth century BC to third century AD, totalling 11,500 silver and copper coins were kept in the museum. Part of the hoard was published by DAFA.[16] The museum has appointed a curator for Numismatics but the collection remains closed to scholars and the general public.[17]

The travelling collection[edit]

Certain important parts of the collection, including material from Begram, Ai Khanum, Tepe Fullol, and the gold jewellry from all six of the excavated burials at Tillya Tepe, have been on travelling exhibition since 2006. They have been exhibited at the Guimet Museum in France, Four museums in the USA, the Canadian Museum of Civilization, the Bonn Museum in Germany, and most recently to the British Museum. They continue to tour and will eventually return to the National Museum.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/winners_of_the_national_museum_of_afghanistan_competition
  2. ^ a b "U.S. and Afghan Officials Inaugurate New Facilities for the National Museum". kabul.usembassy.gov. December 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-24. 
  3. ^ a b c Girardet, Edward and Jonathan Walter, eds., ed. (1998). Afghanistan. Geneva: CROSSLINES Communications, Ltd. p. 291. 
  4. ^ a b c Lawson, Alastair (1 March 2011). "Afghan gold: How the country's heritage was saved". BBC. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  5. ^ a b (31 January 2012) Germany returns Afghan sculpture bbc.co.uk/news/
  6. ^ a b (19 July 2012) Looted art returned to Afghanistan, bbc.co.uk
  7. ^ Afghanistan: Hidden Treasures from the National Museum, Kabul (2008), p. 35. Eds., Friedrik Hiebert and Pierre Cambon. National Geographic, Washington, D.C. ISBN 978-1-4262-0374-9.
  8. ^ Meharry, Joanie The National Museum of Afghanistan: In Times of War, The Levantine Review, http://www.levantinecenter.org/arts/cultures/central-asia/afghan/national-museum-afghanistan-times-war
  9. ^ a b Grissmann, Carla (February 19, 2004). "KABUL MUSEUM". In Ehsan Yarshater. Encyclopædia Iranica (Online Edition ed.). United States: Columbia University. 
  10. ^ Afghanistan: Hidden Treasures from the National Museum, Kabul (2008), pp. 37-53. Eds., Friedrik Hiebert and Pierre Cambon. National Geographic, Washington, D.C. ISBN 978-1-4262-0374-9.
  11. ^ Priceless Afghan Treasures Recovered | NPR
  12. ^ "Afghan treasures return to Kabul". BBC News. 17 March 2007. 
  13. ^ Tissot, F (2006) Catalogue of the National Museum of Afghanistan 1931-1985, UNESCO Publishing
  14. ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001569/156972eb.pdf
  15. ^ Ghrishman, 1946
  16. ^ Curiel, R and Schlumberger, D (1953) Tresors Monetaires D'Afghanistan MDAFA XIV: 65-97
  17. ^ Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society, No.207
  18. ^ Cambon, P Afghanistan les tresors retrouves, Paris 2007

External links[edit]