Kachin State

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Kachin State
ကချင်ပြည်နယ်
State
Flag of Kachin State
Flag
Location of Kachin State in Burma
Location of Kachin State in Burma
Coordinates: 26°0′N 97°30′E / 26.000°N 97.500°E / 26.000; 97.500Coordinates: 26°0′N 97°30′E / 26.000°N 97.500°E / 26.000; 97.500
Country  Burma
Region Northern
Capital Myitkyina
Government
 • Chief Minister La John Ngan Sai[1] (USDP)
Area
 • Total 89,041 km2 (34,379 sq mi)
Population (2000)
 • Total 1,270,000
 • Density 14/km2 (37/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnicities Kachin, Bamar, Shan, Naga, Chinese, Indians, Gurkha
 • Religions Majority:Christianity Minority:Buddhism
Time zone MST (UTC+06:30)

Kachin State (Burmese: ကချင်ပြည်နယ်, pronounced: [kətɕʰɪ̀ɴ pjìnɛ̀]; Kachin: Jingphaw Mungdaw), is the northernmost state of Burma. It is bordered by China to the north and east; Shan State to the south; and Sagaing Region and India to the west. It lies between north latitude 23° 27' and 28° 25' longitude 96° 0' and 98° 44'. The area of Kachin State is 89,041 km2 (34,379 sq mi). The capital of the state is Myitkyina. Other important towns include Bhamo.

Kachin State has Myanmar’s highest mountain, Hkakabo Razi (5,889 metres (19,321 ft)), forming the southern tip of the Himalayas, and a large inland lake, Indawgyi Lake.

Demographics[edit]

The majority of the state's 1.2 million inhabitants are ethnic Kachin, also known as Jinghpaw. The state is home to other ethnic groups including the Rawang, Lisu, Zaiwa, Lawngwaw, Lachik, Shan and a small number of Tibetans. Christianity (Protestant and Roman Catholic) is the main religion in Kachin State. The Kachin language is the state's lingua franca. Even though Bamar people (Burmese) were minority in Kachin State before the Burma's Independence from the British, after 1948, groups of Bamar (Burmese) came to Kachin State to settle down so that offices could be run with Bamar (Burmese) language, which is a totally different language for Kachins.

Language[edit]

The main language to communicate among Kachins was Jinghpaw according to JLH (Jinghpaw Laili Laika Hpung) Jinghpaw Literature Organization and many elderly people from Kachin State. But since most of the places that belonged to Kachins became part of Union Of Burma and Burma's official language is Bamar or Burmese or Myanmar Tsar, many of late generation Kachins did not have a chance to speak or learn their language properly at school. Nowadays, even though Lachid, Zaiwa, Jinghpaw and Lhaovo people can speak Proper Jinghpaw, most Lisus and Rawangs do not really want to speak Jinghpaw due to the conflict created between these two kachin tribes and other kachin tribes by the Bamar (Burmese)government.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Kachin State is predominantly agricultural. The main products include rice, teak, sugar cane. Mineral products include gold and jade.[citation needed] Hpakan is a well known place for its jade mines.[2] Over 600 tons of jade stones, which were unearthed from Lone-Khin area in Hpakan aka Pha-Khant Township in Kachine State, had been displayed in Myanmar Naypyidaw to be sold in November 2011. Most of the jade stones extracted in Myanmar, 25,795 tons in 2009-2010 and 32,921 tons in 2008-2009, are from Kachin State. The largest jade stone in the world, 3000 tons, 21 metres long, 4.8 metres wide and 10.5 metres high was found in Hpakan in 2000.[3] The Myanmar government pays little attention to the deterioration of environment in Kachin because of jade mining. There has been erosion, flooding and mudslides. Several houses are destroyed every year.[4]

Kachin has deep economic ties with China, which acts as the regions biggest trading partner and chief investor in development project. One controversial construction project of a huge 1,055 megawatt hydroelectric power plant dam is ongoing.[5][5] It is funded by China Power Investment Cooperation. When completed, the dam will measure 152 metres high and the electricity produced will be sold to China. This project displaced about 15,000 people and is one of 7 projects planned for the Irrawady River. [6]

Bhamo is one of the border trading points between China and Myanmar.[7]

Transportation[edit]

Kachin State is served by the following airports:

There is a railroad between Myitkyina and Mandalay (through Sagaing). The train will takes 24–30 hours from Mandalay to Myitkyina.[8]

Kachin state has many precious and valuable natural resources.

Most areas of Kachin state are undeveloped with many of its people engaged in agriculture.

Under the current regime, the government exploits the region by taking land to harvest timber. Although the government has been extracting the natural resources of the Kachin people, there is little or no development in infrastructure, health care, and other basic necessities.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

The Education system in Myanmar does not emphasis learning but rather memorization facts. in 1990's the Education minister asked all the states and division Education Chiefs to pass all the students who failed the mathematics examination with a score of at least 30 points though the normal passing score was actually 40. Educational opportunities in Myanmar are extremely limited outside the main cities of Yangon and Mandalay. It is especially a problem in Kachin State where over 60 years of fighting between the government and insurgents has displaced thousands of people. The following is a summary of the education system in the state.[9]

AY 2002-2003 Primary Middle High
Schools 1183 86 41
Teachers 3700 1500 600
Students 168,000 80,000 24,100

Health care[edit]

The general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world.[10][11] Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. In general, the health care infrastructure outside of Yangon and Mandalay is extremely poor but is especially worse in remote areas like Kachin State. The following is a summary of the public health care system in the state.[12]

2002–2003 # Hospitals # Beds
Specialist hospitals 2 125
General hospitals with specialist services 2 500
General hospitals 17 553
Health clinics 22 352
Total 43 1530

History[edit]

The Burmese government under Aung San reached the Panglong Agreement with the Shan, Kachin, and Chin peoples on 12 February 1947. The agreement accepted "Full autonomy in internal administration for the Frontier Areas" in principle and envisioned the creation of a Kachin State by the Constituent Assembly. Kachin State was formed in 1948 out of the British Burma civil districts of Bhamo and Myitkyina, together with the larger northern district of Puta-o. The vast mountainous hinterlands are predominantly Kachin, whereas the more densely populated railway corridor and southern valleys are mostly Shan and Bamar. The northern frontier was not demarcated and until the 1960s Chinese governments had claimed the northern half of Kachin State as Chinese territory since the 18th century. Before the British rule, roughly 75% of all Kachin jadeite ended up in China, where it was prized much more highly that the local Chinese nephrite.

Kachin troops formerly formed a significant part of the Burmese army. With the unilateral abrogation of the Union of Burma constitution by the Ne Win regime in 1962, Kachin forces withdrew and formed the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) under the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO). Aside from the major towns and railway corridor, Kachin State has been virtually independent from the mid-1960s through 1994, with an economy based on smuggling, jade trade with China and narcotics. After a Myanmar army offensive in 1994 seized the jade mines from the KIO, a peace treaty was signed, permitting continued KIO effective control of most of the State, under aegis of the Myanmar military. This ceasefire immediately resulted in the creation of numerous splinter factions from the KIO and KIA of groups opposed to the SPDC's sham peace accord, and the political landscape remains highly unstable.

Traditional Kachin society was based on shifting hill agriculture. Political authority was based on chieftains who depended on support from immediate kinsmen. Considerable attention has been given by anthropologists of the Kachin custom of maternal cousin marriage, wherein it is permissible for a man to marry his mother’s brother’s daughter, but not with the father’s sister’s daughter. Traditional religion was animist, but missionary activity since the British period have converted the vast majority of the population to Christianity (many Protestant and few of Roman Catholics).

2011 Outbreak of Civil War[edit]

Renewed fighting between the Kachin Independence Army and the Burmese army began on June 9, 2011 at Ta-pein hydropower plant and continued throughout 2012. Initial reports suggested that from June to September 2011 a total of 5,580 Internally Displaced Persons from 1,397 households arrived at 38 IDP camps under Myanmar Government control.[13] In August, 2012 Thousands of Kachin refugees were forced by the Chinese Government back into Myanmar despite the continued fighting there, calls to cease such action by NGOs like Human Rights Watch and the illegality of doing so under international law.[14] As of Oct 9, 2012, over 100,000 IDPs are taking shelter in various camps across Kachin State. The majority of IDPs (est. 70,000) are currently sheltering in KIA controlled territory.[15] Fatality estimates were difficult to estimate but most reports suggested that between government troops, Kachin Independence Army rebels, and civilians upwards of 1,000 people had died in the conflict. Eventhough many kachins were already displaced internally, only around 150,000 people are reported as IDPs. The Kachins are currently the major target for the Burmese government who were obviously dictactors. Yet only few kachins are resettled in the United States or in Australia compared to other Myanmar ethnics: Karens and Chins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Division and State Administrations". Alternative Asean Network on Burma. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  2. ^ "Heaven and Hell: Burma's jade mines, Part 1". Ruby-sapphire.com. 2010-05-18. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  3. ^ http://www.baganland.net/2010/10/myanmar-jade-production-up.html
  4. ^ http://www.shaneabrahams.com/2009/10/environmental-damage-causing-health-problems-in-kachin-state/
  5. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "KIO warns China: Myitsone Dam could spark ‘civil war’". Burma Rivers Network. 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  7. ^ "Myanmar Times & Business Reviews". Mmtimes.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  8. ^ "Kachin state, northern Myanmar, Burma, travel info & maps". Asterism.info. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  9. ^ "Education statistics by level and by State and Division". Myanmar Central Statistical Organization. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  10. ^ "PPI: Almost Half of All World Health Spending is in the United States". 2007-01-17. 
  11. ^ Yasmin Anwar (2007-06-28). 06.28.2007 "Burma junta faulted for rampant diseases". UC Berkeley News. 
  12. ^ "Hospitals and Dispensaries by State and Division". Myanmar Central Statistical Organization. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  13. ^ UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Kachin fighting hits IDP health, MYITKYINA, 15 November 2012 (IRIN), http://www.irinnews.org/Report/96785/MYANMAR-Kachin-fighting-hits-IDP-health
  14. ^ BBC, 24 August 2012 Last updated at 08:02 GMT, China 'forcing Kachin refugees back to Burma', http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-19365075
  15. ^ Page 8 Col 4

External links[edit]