Kachin conflict

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Kachin conflict
Part of the Internal conflict in Burma
Date 1st phase: 5 February 1961 – 24 February 1994
(33 years, 7 months and 6 days)
2nd phase: 9 June 2011 – ongoing
(3 years, 3 months and 3 weeks)
Location Kachin State, and Shan State
Result Peace Talk Continues with preliminary ceasefire agreement
Belligerents
Burma Myanmar Armed Forces Kachin Independence Organisation

All Burma Students' Democratic Front[1]

Arakan Army[2]

Strength
20,000 (Approx) 8,000 (Approx)
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown
Civilians: over 100,000 displaced

The Kachin conflict or Kachin War is one of multiple conflicts collectively referred to as the Burmese Civil War. Fighting between the Kachin Independence Army and Myanmar Army restarted in June 2011 after a 17-year-old ceasefire broke down. The recent conflict has resulted in the deaths of thousands of people, the displacement of over 100,000 civilians and the widespread use of landmines,[3] child soldiers,[4][5] systematic rape[6] and torture.[7][8]

Background[edit]

The Kachin Independence Movement was founded during the British colonial occupation of Burma in the 1940s. Its purpose was to address questions of ethnic group and minority representation and rights in the predominantly Bamar country of Burma.

First conflict (1961–1994)[edit]

Conflicts in Kachin State and other Kachin populated areas have occurred since Burmese independence from the United Kingdom. Kachin troops previously formed a significant part of the Burmese army. With the unilateral abrogation of the Union of Burma constitution by the Ne Win regime in 1962, Kachin forces withdrew and formed the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) under the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO). Aside from the major towns and railway corridor, Kachin State has been virtually independent from the mid-1960s through 1994, with an economy based on smuggling, jade trade with China, and narcotics.

After a Myanmar army offensive in 1994 seized the jade mines from the KIO, the Kachin Independence Army signed a peace agreement with the Government of Myanmar on February 24, 1994, which resulted in an end to large-scale fighting and lasted until June 2011.

Second conflict (2011–present)[edit]

Chronology[edit]

Fighting erupted between Kachin Independence Army and Myanmar Army troops on June 9, 2011, when government forces broke the ceasefire and attacked KIA positions along the Taping river east of Bhamo, Kachin State, near the Ta-pein hydropower plant.[9] Fighting has occurred throughout Kachin State, which is about the size of Portugal, as well as the Northwestern portion of Shan State.[10]

According to news reports fighting broke out as a result of the central government attempting to take control of Kachin Independence Army controlled areas and attempts to secure areas around lucrative energy projects in Kachin and Shan state, the majority of which are backed by the Chinese government.[11] Despite a December, 2011 statement by Myanmar's President Thein Sein that he had ordered the army to cease its campaign in Kachin state the conflict continued into 2012.[12]

In 2012 the largest battles occurred in March along the Myitkyina-Bhamo road,[10] in April during the battle for Pangwa in Chipwi Township near Luchang,[13][14] in August in Hpakant, where rebels claimed to have killed 140 Myanmar Army troops when they exploded mines buried inside the Myauk Phyu (White Monkey) jade mine which is owned by the Wai Aung Kaba Company,[15] and in December and January, 2013 around Laiza where airstrikes and artillery were heavily used against KIA positions.

Ceasefire talks[edit]

Numerous rounds of ceasefire talks have taken place between the Kachin Independence Army and the Government of Myanmar since fighting restarted in June 2011. According to a December 18, 2012 report by the Swedish journalist Bertil Lintner in the Hong Kong-based Asia Times Online, many people have criticized the foreign backed ceasefire efforts for "avoiding discussions of political issues and only emphasizing ceasefires, disarmament and economic development, those interlocutors—including a 'Peace Support Initiative' sponsored by the Norwegian government and in a separate initiative the Switzerland-based Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue—are essentially promoting the government's view".[9] The Australian reported that some Kachin Business leaders were calling on Aung San Suu Kyi to help mediate the dispute[12] and on January 6, 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi said that she could not step into the negotiations without an official invitation from the government to do so, which she had not received.[16]

2013 ceasefire talks[edit]

On 18 January 2013, immediately prior to an international donors conference in Myanmar, President Thein Sein announced a unilateral ceasefire in the war between the army and the KIO.[17] The ceasefire was said to take effect the following day, on 19 January, but light fighting was also reported the following day[18] and a full-scale government assault was reportedly launched on 20 January and included "sustained mortar and artillery fire" followed by "hundreds of Burmese troops" storming a KIA base on the outskirt's of rebel-held town of Laiza.[19]

The government of Thein Sein was reported to be under pressure from "political and business circles" who believed the "escalating conflict would undermine Myanmar’s emergence from decades of diplomatic isolation" and had passed a resolution in parliament calling on Min Aung Hlaing, the military’s commander-in-chief, to scale down the war.[20] Min Aung Hlaing responded by stating that the military would only carry out attacks only in "self-defense"—the rationale it has consistently given since December, 2011[21] for prosecuting a war against the KIA and the rationale it gave for allowing airstrikes on rebel positions starting on 26 December 2012.[22]

On February 4, Burmese government and the Kachin Independence Army met in Ruili, China and agreed to reduce military tension in Kachin State and hold further peace talks later in February.[23] However no talks took place later in February but almost no armed clash reportedly happened in Kachin State after the peace talks.[24] According to Mizzima news, on February 26 a KIO central committee member claimed that they would not be meeting with the government in February because they needed more time to consult with the "Kachin people" regarding the negotiations.[25] Burmese government and KIA renewed peace talks in Ruili, China on 11 March 2013.[26] The Chinese government’s refusal to allow observers from western countries at peace talks had delayed negotiations, despite the Chinese rejecting the allegations.[27][28]

On May 30, Burmese government and Kachin Independence Army signed a preliminary ceasefire agreement that would lead to further progress towards reaching a peace deal. The parties however, failed to reach an official ceasefire agreement. United Nations special adviser on Myanmar, Vijay Nambiar, also joined the meeting as an observer, along with representatives of China and other ethnic minorities.[29][30]

However, the Burmese government and Kachin Independence Army failed to reach a permanent ceasefire agreement after several peace talks in 2013, but agreed to work together towards permanent ceasefire agreement and reduce hostilities. [31][32]

2014 ceasefire talks[edit]

Renewed fighting broke out in April 2014 when the Burmese army attacked various KIA positions around Mansi Township, Kachin State and northern Shan State to eradicate timber smuggling and to control strategic routes around their strongholds.[33] The Kachin Independence Army requested a meeting in Myitkyina on May 10 in order to lessen tensions between the sides.[34]

Negotiations aimed at drafting a nationwide ceasefire agreement began in April 2014 at Myanmar Peace Centre between representatives of various ethnic armed groups and Burmese government, but KIA and Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA) are the only two armed groups that have not yet signed ceasefire agreement with the government.[35][34]

The KIA's deputy commander-in-chief Gun Maw urged the United States to get involved in the peace process in April 2014.[36]

Airstrikes[edit]

On 2 January 2013, the Burmese government confirmed that it carried out airstrikes a few days earlier against the ethnic rebels in northern Kachin, in response to attacks by the Kachin Independence Army.[37] The U.S. government stated that it would "be formally expressing our concern" over the escalation of force used by Myanmar government.[38] On January 3, 2013, the KIA alleged that air-strikes had continued to occur for the sixth consecutive day in the area around Laiza and there were allegations that the Myanmar Armed Forces was also using chemical weapons[39] UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon stated following the incidents that Burma's authorities should "desist from any action that could endanger the lives of civilians living in the area or further intensify conflict in the region".[40]

According to IHS Jane’s Defence report and Asian Correspondent, at least one or two attack helicopters, and one possibly air craft were shot down by Kachin Independence Army. [41]

Civilians and refugees[edit]

Civilians have also been killed in fighting as well as having been specifically targeted.[42] Civilians were often displaced by fighting and faced dangers such as landmines which were frequently laid by government and rebel forces without regard for civilians. Although some civilians had crossed the border with China most remained in northern Burma as of December 2012.

Refugees were being forced by the Chinese government back into Myanmar in August 2012 despite the continued fighting there and the illegality of forcibly returning civilians to war zones under international law.[43][44] Women have played a significant role in the conflict as both combatants and victims. Time Magazine documented the presence of many female KIA soldiers in 2012.[45]

In February, 2013 the NGO Kachin Women's Association Thailand (KWAT) reported that the fighting had created over 100,000 refugees and that 364 villages had been wholly or partially abandoned since 2011.[46] The organization's report also stated that the Burmese Army deliberately attacked refugee camps and villages as well as committed alleged "war crimes" such as the rape and murder of civilians.[46]

Child soldiers[edit]

Child soldiers have and continue to play a major part in the Burmese Army as well as Burmese rebel movements. The Independent reported in June 2012 that children were being sold to the Burmese military for "as little as $40 and a bag of rice or a can of petrol".[47] The UN's Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Radhika Coomaraswamy, who stepped down from her position a week later, met representatives of the Government of Myanmar on July 5, 2012, and stated that she hoped the government's signing of an action plan would "signal a transformation”.[48]

In September 2012 the Myanmar Armed Forces released 42 child soldiers and the International Labour Organization met with representatives of the government as well as the Kachin Independence Army to secure the release of more child soldiers.[49] According to Samantha Power, a U.S. delegation raised the issue of child soldiers with the government in October 2012, however, she did not comment on the government's progress towards reform in this area.[50] A Bangkok Post article on December 23, 2012, reported that the Myanmar Armed Forces continued to use child soldiers including during the army's large offensive against the KIA.[4][unreliable source?]

References[edit]

  1. ^ No Christmas Armistice in Kachin State, By SIMON ROUGHNEEN, THE IRRAWADDY, December 24, 2012, http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/22042
  2. ^ Irrawaddy, Far From Home, Arakan Rebels Fight on Kachin Frontline, December 28, 2012, http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/22475
  3. ^ Untold Miseries: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State, Human Rights Watch report,March 2012,p.62, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1_0.pdf
  4. ^ a b No end in sight amid season of slaughter, Published: 23/12/2012 at 12:00 AM Newspaper section: Spectrum, Bangkok Post, http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/investigation/327559/no-end-in-sight-amid-season-of-slaughter
  5. ^ Untold Miseries: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State, Human Rights Watch report,March 2012,p.54-58, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1_0.pdf
  6. ^ Untold Miseries: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State, Human Rights Watch report,March 2012,p.43-46, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1_0.pdf
  7. ^ Untold Miseries: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State, Human Rights Watch report,March 2012,p.40-43, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1_0.pdf
  8. ^ Oxford Monitor of Forced Migration, Vol.2, No. 2, Nov. 2012, Barriers to Reform in Myanmar: Displacement of Civilians in Kachin State Corey Pattison, http://oxmofm.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Pattison-FINAL.pdf
  9. ^ a b More war than peace in Myanmar, By Bertil Lintner, Asian Times, December 18, 2012
  10. ^ a b Burma army buildup near Laiza suggests push for KIO capital, April 10, 2012, Kachin News, http://www.kachinnews.com/news/2269-burma-army-buildup-near-laiza-suggests-push-for-kio-capital.html
  11. ^ Kachin army ambush leaves 30 dead, By DVB Published: 8 July 2011, http://www.dvb.no/news/kachin-army-ambush-leaves-30-dead/16494
  12. ^ a b Suu Kyi 'should' help with Kachin , The Australian, January 05, 2013 8:34PM , http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/breaking-news/suu-kyi-should-help-with-kachin/story-fn3dxix6-1226548136647
  13. ^ KIO tightens grip on former NDA-K stronghold Pangwa, Kachin News, April 30, 2012, http://www.kachinnews.com/news/2285-kio-tightens-grip-on-former-nda-k-stronghold-pangwa.html
  14. ^ Siege on Pangwa, Conflict and Human Rights Abuses in Burma, U.S. Campaign for Burma, Apr 30 2012, https://conflictsinburma.crowdmap.com/reports/view/821
  15. ^ KIA says 211 army soldiers die in two-month fighting in Hpakant, Kachin News, Oct. 10, 2012, http://www.kachinnews.com/news/2418-kia-says-211-army-soldiers-die-in-two-month-fighting-in-hpakant.html
  16. ^ Suu Kyi refuses to intervene in Kachin conflict, Mizzima News, 7 January 2013, Xiao Ting Shirley, http://www.mizzima.com/special/kachin-battle-report/8695-suu-kyi-refuses-to-intervene-in-kachin-conflict.html
  17. ^ Free Radio Asia, Kachin Ceasefire Ignored 2013-01-19, http://www.rfa.org/english/news/burma/kachin-01192013175226.html
  18. ^ New York Times, A Cease-Fire With Rebels in Myanmar Doesn’t Hold, Thomas Fuller, January 19, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/20/world/asia/cease-fire-in-myanmar-with-kachin-rebels-fails-to-take-hold.html?_r=0
  19. ^ BBC, Burma attack breaks Kachin truce near China border, 20 January 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-21107440
  20. ^ Financial Times, January 18, Myanmar’s military to end Kachin attacks, Gwen Robinson in Naypyidaw, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/458cdcba-618d-11e2-82cd-00144feab49a.html#axzz2IXwqgOtm
  21. ^ Special Reports Hope and suspicion dog Myanmar cease-fire, 13 January, 2012, UPI, http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2012/01/13/Hope-and-suspicion-dog-Myanmar-cease-fire/UPI-22521326469272/#ixzz2IZEDRwWR
  22. ^ Govt says Kachin air strikes ‘self-defence’, AFP, Published: 4 January 2013, http://www.dvb.no/news/govt-says-kachin-air-strikes-self-defence/25551
  23. ^ "Myanmar govt, KIO agree to reduce ‘tension’, hold more talks". Mmtimes.com. Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  24. ^ "Myanmar military denies scaling up operations in conflict areas". Eleven. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  25. ^ KIO postpones talks with govt peace committee, Tuesday, 26 February 2013 12:57, Phanida, Mizzima News, http://www.mizzima.com/special/kachin-battle-report/8966-kio-postpones-talks-with-govt-peace-committee.html
  26. ^ "Myanmar government and Kachin rebels renew talks". Channel News Asia. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  27. ^ Toe Lwin, Ei Ei (22 April 2013). "Questions over China’s role after delay in talks". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  28. ^ McLaughlin, Tim McLaughlin (25 April 2013). "Blame game over Kachin peace talk delays". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  29. ^ "Preliminary ceasefire reached through Kachin talks". The Myanmar Times. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  30. ^ Nyein Nyein (30 May 2013). "KIO, Govt Sign Preliminary Agreement, Hopeful of Reaching Ceasefire". The irrawaddt. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  31. ^ "Kachin Peace Talks Close Without Cease-Fire Pact". Rfa.org. Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  32. ^ http://mmpeacemonitor.org/images/images/20131008-10_mpc_released_a_statement_for_kio_and_govt_talks.jpg
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  34. ^ a b Name *. "Kachin Rebels Requests Ceasefire Meeting After Recent Clashes". Irrawaddy.org. Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  35. ^ "Rangoon ceasefire talks a ‘historic situation’, says Gun Maw | DVB Multimedia Group". Dvb.no. 2014-04-06. Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  36. ^ Pennington, Matthew (2014-04-22). "WASHINGTON: Myanmar rebel leader urges US role in peace talks | National Politics". NewsObserver.com. Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  37. ^ "Burma Admits Air Strikes Targeted Kachin Rebels". Voice of America. 2 January 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  38. ^ U.S. State Department Briefing, January 2, 2013, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/dpb/2013/01/202436.htm#BURMA
  39. ^ Irrawaddy, Kachin War Strays to Chinese Soil, January 2, 2013, http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/22883
  40. ^ The Age, Burmese military admits air strike on rebels, January 3, 2013, http://www.theage.com.au/world/burmese-military-admits-air-strike-on-rebels-20130103-2c77a.html
  41. ^ Kachin Rebels shot down government attack helicopter
  42. ^ Oxford Monitor of Forced Migration, Vol.2, No. 2, Nov. 2012, Barriers to Reform in Myanmar: Displacement of Civilians in Kachin State Corey Pattison, http://oxmofm.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Pattison-FINAL.pdf
  43. ^ BBC, 24 August 2012, China 'forcing Kachin refugees back to Burma', http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-19365075
  44. ^ China: Refugees Forcibly Returned to Burma, Thousands of Kachin at Risk From Conflict, Abuses, Aid Shortages, August 24, 2012, Human Rights Watch, http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/08/24/china-refugees-forcibly-returned-burma
  45. ^ Time Magazine, April 19, 2012, Joe Jackson, On the Front Lines with the Kachin Independence Army, http://lightbox.time.com/2012/04/19/kia/#ixzz2FgswYz5J
  46. ^ a b State terror in the Kachin hills: Burma Army attacks against civilians in Northern Burma, February, 2013, http://www.kachinwomen.com/publications/reports/105-state-terror-in-the-kachin-hills-.html
  47. ^ Two Burmese children a week conscripted into military, UN-verified accounts of child soldiers undermine junta's assurances on democratic reforms, The Independent, Jerome Taylor, Tuesday 19 June 2012, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/two-burmese-children-a-week-conscripted-into-military-7858858.html
  48. ^ Press Conference on Action Plan to End Recruitment of Child Soldiers in Myanmar, UN, July, 2012, http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs/2012/120705_Guest.doc.htm
  49. ^ ILO in Talks with Kachins over Child Soldiers, LAWI WENG / THE IRRAWADDY| September 5, 2012, http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/13354
  50. ^ Samantha Power. "Supporting Human Rights in Burma, The White House, Whitehouse.gov., Retrieved 2012-11-20,http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2012/11/09/supporting-human-rights-burma