Kadamba of Hangal

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Old Kannada inscription (1200 AD) of King Kamadeva of the Kadamba dynasty of the Hangal branch
Main article: Kadamba dynasty

In 980 AD, descendents of Chalukyas and Kadambas rose against Rashtrakutas and Rashtrakuta empire fell resulting in establishment of second Chalukya dynasty (called Western Chalukyas).

Chatta Deva during 980-1031, founder of Kadambas of Hangal, who helped Western Chalukyas in this coup, re-established Kadamba Dynasty. He was mostly a feudatory of Western Chalukyas but his successors enjoyed considerable independence and were almost sovereign rulers of Goa and Konkan till 14th century AD. The successors of Chatta Deva occupied both Banavasi and Hangal and are known as Kadambas of Hangal. Uniting Banavasi and Hangal, distinguished himself against the Cholas and carved out a kingdom (which stretched, on this side, including Ratnagiri district, up to Kolhapur).[1] He is referred to as having conquered Konkan. When the Chalukyas under their king, Jayasimha made an advance on Dhar(capital of the Malavas) and defeated Bhoja, who was then the Paramar king, the part played by Chaltadev(Chatta Deva), the feudatory of the Chalukyas, was significant. During 1075-1116 Kirtivarma subdued the 7 Konkans.

Due to the struggle between the Hoysalas and the Yadavas, for supremacy, the Kadambas of Hangal Kamdeva[2] marched against the Konkan and compelled Vijayadatta (to transfer his allegiance to him).[3] But during 1187 and 1188, immediately on his accession, Jayakesi III declared himself independent.

Later Kadambas kept paying nominal allegiance to Yadavas and Hoysalas of Dorasamudra and thus maintained their independence.

Four different families of Kadambas ruled in southern India which were Kadambas of Hangal, Kadambas of Goa, Kadambas of Belur and Kadambas of Banavasi.

Minor Kadamba Kingdoms[edit]

The Kadambas of Banavasi declined by sixth century, by the tenth century Kadamba were local chiefs, the Kadamba of Hangal emerged as a vassal of the Western Chalukyas, and the Kadambas of Goa at Goa and Konkan until the fourteenth century. Similarly some more minor Kadamba branches established, they remained vassals.[4]

Kadambas of Bankapur

They served as regional governors for Kadambas of Banavasi and then Kadambas of Hangal.

Kadambas of Bayalnad

After the fall of the Western Gangas Kadambas of Bayalnad established as independent minor kingdom Foundeed by Kaviyammarasa who ruled towards end of tenth century.

Kadambas of Nagarkhanda

Kadambas of Nagarkhanda descendents of Mayuravarma of Hangal, served as regional governors, Nagarkhanda is the district to the north-east of Banavasi. They titled as boon lords of Banavasipura, their capital was at Bandhavapura. Initially the Kadambas of Hangal refused to acknowledge suzerainty of Kalachuris, that led to war between them, then Kalachuris helped Somadeva as per the 1159 inscription Somadeva subordinate of Kalachuris, they conquered Banavasi and handed it over to Somadeva (in 1165).

Kadambas of Uchchangi

The Kadambas of Uchchangi were in name only kings of Banavasi actually the power remain with Kadambas of Hangal.

Coinage of Hangal Kadambas[edit]

Kadambas coins were one the heaviest and perhaps purest of all medieval Indian gold coinage.[5] Kadambas issued 2 types of gold coins, namely Punch-marked gold coins and Die struck gold coins. During 1075-1094 AD, Shanti Varma, issued Gold Punchmarked Coin and in 1065 AD, Toyimadeva, issued Die struck gold coins (Pagoda).

Punch-marked gold coins

  • Kadamba punch-marked gold coin issued in name of Jaysimha II Jagadekamalla (Chalukya).
  • Coin consists of a central punch mark of Hanuman, and 4 retrospectant lions.
  • 2 prominent punch marks create 2 Shri alphabets depicts goddess Laxmi in Telugu-Kannada script.

Die struck gold coins (Pagoda)

  • In 1065 AD Kadambas Toyimadeva issued first die struck gold coins.
  • The gold coin of Kadambas depict god Hanuman, in side lined circle and doted circle, flanked by two chouries and conch. Also include the figures of sun and moon. Below is the legend Nakara (Nagara, the deity of Bankapura, Nagareshwara) in Telugu-Kannada script.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "KADAMBAS OF HANGAL. (967-1347 A. D.)". Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  2. ^ The Kadamba Kula By George Moraes, Moraes M.George. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  3. ^ "KADAMBAS OF GOA (966 A. D. to 1340 A. D.), SILAHARAS OF KOLHAPUR.". Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  4. ^ "Minor Kadamba Kingdoms". Retrieved 2013-09-03. 
  5. ^ "The Kadambas of Hangal". Retrieved 2009-04-02.