Kadashman-harbe I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kadašman-Ḫarbe I
King of Babylon
Reign ca. 1400 BC
Predecessor Karaindaš
Successor Kurigalzu I
House Kassite

Kadašman-Ḫarbe I,inscribed in cuneiform contemporarily as Ka-da-áš-ma-an-Ḫar-be and meaning “he believes in Ḫarbe (a Kassite god equivalent to Enlil),” was the 16th King of the Kassite or 3rd dynasty of Babylon,[1] and the kingdom contemporarily known as Kar-Duniaš, during the late 15th to early 14th century, BC. It is now considered possible that he was the contemporary of Tepti Ahar, King of Elam, as preserved in a tablet[i 1] found at Haft Tepe in Iran. This is dated to the “year when the king expelled Kadašman-KUR.GAL,”[nb 1] thought by some historians to represent him[2] although this identification (KUR.GAL = Ḫarbe) has been contested.[3] If this name is correctly assigned to him, it would imply previous occupation of, or suzerainty over, Elam.[4]

His provenance[edit]

His immediate predecessor may have been Karaindaš, but he was certainly father to the better known King, Kurigalzu I, who succeeded him, as attested by his son in his autobiographical inscription, of which there are two copies, one a hexagonal prism[i 2] and the other a cylinder.[i 3][5][6]

Two baked-clay cones[i 4] report Kadašman-Enlil’s honoring a land deed to Enlil-bānī made by Kurigalzu son of Kadašman-Ḫarbe.[1]:K.a.3.2. A legal text,[i 5] dating perhaps to the reign of Nazi-Maruttaš, refers to him as the father of Kurigalzu.[7]

Campaign against the Sutû[edit]

The most significant event of his reign appears to have been his aggressive campaign against the Sutû, a nomadic people along the middle Euphrates related to the Arameans, and is described in the Chronicle P,[i 6] in a somewhat garbled passage which superimposes events relating to the accession of Kurigalzu II, four generations later.[8] He claims to have “annihilated their extensive forces", then constructed fortresses in a mountain region called Ḫiḫi, in the Syrian desert as security outposts, and “he dug wells and settled people on fertile lands, to strengthen the guard”.[9] These events seem to be confirmed in the opening six lines of text from an unpublished kudurru in the Yale Babylonian Collection[i 7] which describes his efforts to expel the Suteans from Babylonia.[10]

It has been suggested that the Babylonian work “King of all Habitations”, which is commonly referred to as the Epic of the plague-god Erra, is a Kassite period-piece which includes the description of a raid on Uruk by the Sutû and the subsequent cries for vengeance upon them.[11] The epic consists of five tablets comprising some 750 lines and reached its final form with the Assyrians in the eighth century, but includes older elements.

The canal of Diniktum[edit]

On a tablet[i 8] which was found at Nippur, a date “the year [in which] Kadašman-Ḫarbe, the king, dug the canal of Diniktum”,[nb 2] is attested. Diniktum has tentatively been identified as Tell Muḥammad.[12] Kadašman-Ḫarbe’s reign has been identified as the point when literary activity resumed at Nippur after three centuries of silence.[13]

Inscriptions[edit]

  1. ^ Tablet H.T. 38 (472) with seal of Tepti Ahar at the end of the text.
  2. ^ Prism BM 108982.
  3. ^ Cylinder NBC 2503.
  4. ^ Cones BM 91036 and BM 135743 in the British Museum.
  5. ^ Tablet CBS 12914.
  6. ^ "Chronicle P, ABC 22, column 1 lines 6 through 9". Retrieved July 29, 2011. 
  7. ^ Kudurru YBC 2242.
  8. ^ Tablet Ni. 3199, the earliest known Kassite economic text.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The year name reads: “MU EŠŠANA KA-da-aš-ma-an dKUR.GAL ú-sà-aḫ-ḫi-ru” where KUR.GAL is taken as a metonym for Ḫarbe.
  2. ^ mu Ka-da-áš-ma-an-Ḫar-be lugal-˹e˺ íd Di-nik-tum ˹mu˺-un-b[al?]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b J. A. Brinkman (1976). Materials and Studies for Kassite History, Vol. I (MSKH I). Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 15, 147. 
  2. ^ Cole, S. W. and De Meyer, L. (1999). "Tepti-ahar, King of Susa, and Kadašman-dKUR.GAL". Akkadica (112): 44–45. 
  3. ^ Jean-Jacques Glassner (2000). "dKUR.GAL à Suse et Haft-tépé". NABU (2): 40.  no. 36.
  4. ^ Ezat O. Negahban, ʻIzzat Allāh Nigāhbān (1999). Excavations at Haft Tepe, Iran. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. pp. 108, 138. 
  5. ^ T Clayden (1996). "Kurigalzu I and the restoration of Babylon". Iraq (British Institute for the Study of Iraq) 58: 109–121. JSTOR 4200423. 
  6. ^ Tremper Longman (July 1, 1990). Fictional Akkadian autobiography: a generic and comparative study. Eisenbrauns. pp. 88–91. ISBN 0-931464-41-2.  for the complete text.
  7. ^ A. Ungnad (1923). "Schenkungsurkunde des Kurigalzu mar Kadasman-Harbe". ANET (S. N. Kramer): 57–59. 
  8. ^ Frank Moore Cross, ed. (1979). Symposia celebrating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 1900-1975. American Schools of Oriental Research. 
  9. ^ H. W. F. Saggs (2000). Babylonians. British Museum Press. p. 117. 
  10. ^ Kathryn E. Slanski (April 4–7, 2003). "New Light on Chronicle P from an Unexpected Source: YBC 2242". American Oriental Society: Abstracts of the two hundred and fourteenth meeting. San Diego. p. 14. 
  11. ^ I. E. S. Edwards, ed. (1975). Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 2, Part 2, History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region, c. 1380-1000 BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 30. 
  12. ^ "Cultural Property Training Resource". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved July 29, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Archaeology". 29-30. Archaeological Institute of America. 1976.