Feodosia

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Feodosia
Феодосия
Kefe
Феодосія
Genoese fortress of Caffa
Genoese fortress of Caffa
Flag of Feodosia
Flag
Coat of arms of Feodosia
Coat of arms
Feodosia is located in Autonomous Republic Crimea
Feodosia
Feodosia
Location of Feodosiya within Crimea
Coordinates: 45°2′56″N 35°22′45″E / 45.04889°N 35.37917°E / 45.04889; 35.37917Coordinates: 45°2′56″N 35°22′45″E / 45.04889°N 35.37917°E / 45.04889; 35.37917
Country Disputed:
Republic  Crimea
Region Feodosiya municipality
Elevation 50 m (160 ft)
Population (2001)
 • Total 97,721
Time zone MSK (UTC+4)
Postal code 98100–98175
Area code(s) +380-6562
Former names Kefe (until 1784), Caffa (until the 15th century)

Feodosia (Russian: Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Ukrainian: Феодо́сія, Feodosiia;[1] formerly Theodosia Greek: Θεοδοσία) is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia municipality, one of the regions Crimea is divided into. It is currently disputed between Ukraine and Russia. During much of its history the city was known as Caffa (Ligurian: Cafà) or Kaffa (Crimean Tatar: Kefe). Population: 69,461 (2013 population estimate)[2].

History[edit]

Theodosia[edit]

Feodosiya (Theodosia) and other Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea in the 5th century BC.

The city was founded as Theodosia (Θεοδοσία) by Greek colonists from Miletos in the 6th century BC. Noted for its rich agricultural lands, on which its trade depended, it was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD.

Theodosia remained a minor village for much of the next nine hundred years. It was at times part of the sphere of influence of the Khazars (excavations have revealed Khazar artifacts dating back to the 9th century) and of the Byzantine Empire.

Like the rest of Crimea, this place (village) fell under the domination of the Kipchaks and was conquered by the Mongols in the 1230s.

Caffa[edit]

Between 1204–1261 and again in 1296–1307, the city of Caffa was ruled[citation needed] by Genoa's chief rival, the Republic of Venice. In the late 13th century, traders from the Republic of Genoa arrived and purchased the city from the ruling Golden Horde. They established a flourishing trading settlement called Caffa (or Kaffa), which virtually monopolized trade in the Black Sea region and served as a major port and administrative center for the Genoese settlements around the Sea. It came to house one of Europe's biggest slave markets. Under Genoa since 1266, Caffa was governed by a Genoese consul, who since 1316 was in charge of all Genoese Black Sea colonies.

It is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Caffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was reportedly withering from the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants, in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease back to Italy, causing its spread across Europe. However, the plague appears to have spread in a stepwise fashion, taking over a year to reach Europe from Crimea. Also, there were a number of Crimean ports under Mongol control, so it is unlikely that Caffa was the only source of plague-infested ships heading to Europe. In addition, there were overland caravan routes from the East that would have been carrying the disease into Europe as well.[3]

Caffa eventually recovered. The thriving, culturally diverse city and its thronged slave market have been described by the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, who was there in the 1430s.[4]

A Feodosiya and territorial demarcations in the 15th century.

Kefe[edit]

17th-century woodcut showing Zaporozhian Cossacks in "chaika" boats, destroying the Turkish fleet and capturing Caffa

In 1462 Caffa placed itself under the protection of King Casimir IV of Poland.[citation needed] However, Poland did not offer help when real danger came. Because[citation needed] the Genoese started intervening in the internal affairs of the Crimean Khanate, a Turkish vassal, the Ottoman commander Gedik Ahmet Pasha seized the city in 1475, deporting the whole population to Istanbul, in a quarter (Kefeli Mahalle) which got the name from the town. Renamed Kefe, Caffa became one of the most important Turkish ports on the Black Sea.

In 1615 Zaporozhian Cossacks under the leadership of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny destroyed the Turkish fleet and captured Caffa. Having conquered the city, the cossacks released the men, women and children who were slaves.

Feodosia again[edit]

Ottoman control ceased when[citation needed](no in 1774, 9y before) the expanding Russian Empire conquered the whole Crimea in 1783. It was renamed Feodosiya (Феодосия), a Russian version of the ancient Greek name.

The city was occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during World War II, sustaining significant damage in the process. The Jewish population numbering 3,248 before the German occupation was murdered by SD-Einsatzgruppe D between November 16 and December 15, 1941.[5] A monument commemorating the Holocaust victims is situated at the crossroads of Kerchensky and Symferopolsky highways. On Passover eve, April 7, 2012, unknown persons desecrated, for the sixth time, the monument, allegedly as an anti-Semitic act.[6]

In 1954, it was transferred to the administrative control of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, together with the rest of the Crimea. From 1991 to February 2014, it was part of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine; and from March 2014, it became a part of Russia, following the subsequent annexation of Crimea. it remains a disputed territory.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

The climate is warm and dry and could be described as either humid subtropical or semi-arid, but not as Mediterranean, because there is no apparent drying trend in the summer.

Climate data for Feodosia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
18.6
(65.5)
27.1
(80.8)
27.5
(81.5)
31.9
(89.4)
35.4
(95.7)
37.9
(100.2)
38.1
(100.6)
33.3
(91.9)
29.0
(84.2)
26.9
(80.4)
21.8
(71.2)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.1
(41.2)
8.5
(47.3)
14.6
(58.3)
20.6
(69.1)
25.7
(78.3)
29.1
(84.4)
28.7
(83.7)
23.2
(73.8)
17.0
(62.6)
10.8
(51.4)
6.5
(43.7)
16.2
(61.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
1.7
(35.1)
4.9
(40.8)
10.6
(51.1)
16.2
(61.2)
21.1
(70)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
18.7
(65.7)
13.1
(55.6)
7.5
(45.5)
3.7
(38.7)
12.3
(54.1)
Average low °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−1.1
(30)
2.0
(35.6)
7.2
(45)
12.3
(54.1)
16.8
(62.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.5
(67.1)
14.6
(58.3)
9.6
(49.3)
4.7
(40.5)
1.2
(34.2)
8.8
(47.8)
Record low °C (°F) −25.0
(−13)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−14.0
(6.8)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.1
(34)
5.0
(41)
9.1
(48.4)
9.4
(48.9)
1.4
(34.5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−14.9
(5.2)
−18.6
(−1.5)
−25.1
(−13.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.42)
41
(1.61)
42
(1.65)
37
(1.46)
36
(1.42)
43
(1.69)
30
(1.18)
48
(1.89)
45
(1.77)
38
(1.5)
48
(1.89)
51
(2.01)
495
(19.49)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.0 73.5 130.2 183.0 251.1 282.0 306.9 288.3 246.0 167.4 84.0 49.6 2,123
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net.[7]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory.[8]

Modern Feodosiya[edit]

Panorama Feodosiya seen from the mountain Tepe Oba.
Panorama Feodosiya seen from the mountain Tepe Oba.I
Feodosia embankment.

Modern Feodosiya is a resort city with a population of about 85,000 people.[citation needed] It has beaches, mineral springs, and mud baths, sanatoria, and rest homes. Apart from tourism, its economy rests on agriculture and fisheries, local industries include fishing, brewing and canning. As with much of the Crimea, most of its population is ethnically Russian, the Ukrainian language is infrequently used. In June 2006, Feodosiya made the news with the 2006 anti-NATO port riot.

While most beaches in Crimea are made of pebbles, there is a unique Golden Beach (Zolotoy Plyazh) made of small seashells in Feodosiya area. Golden Beach stretches for 15 km.

The city is sparsely populated during the winter months. Most cafes and restaurants are closed. Business and tourism increase in mid-June and peak during July and August. Like in the other resort towns in Crimea, the tourists come mostly from the C.I.S. countries of the former Soviet Union. Feodosiya was the city where the seascape painter Ivan Aivazovsky lived and worked all his life, and where general Pyotr Kotlyarevsky and the writer Alexander Grin spent their declining years. Popular tourist locations include the Ivan Ayvazovsky Picture Gallery and the Genoese fortress.

Twin towns—sister cities[edit]

People from Feodosiya[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

The late-medieval city of Caffa is the locale in a section of the novel Caprice and Rondo by Dorothy Dunnett.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Про впорядкування транслітерації українського алфавіту... | від 27.01.2010 № 55
  2. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України" (in Ukrainian). State Service of Statistics. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  3. ^ Wheelis, Mark (September 2002). "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseseases 8 (9): 971–75. doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536. 
  4. ^ Tafur, Andanças e viajes
  5. ^ Martin Gilbert, The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust, 2002, pp.64, 83
  6. ^ "ФЕОДОСИЯ. Осквернен памятник жертвам Холокоста". Всеукраинский Еврейский Конгресс. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Weather and Climate-The Climate of Feodosiya (in Russian), Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  8. ^ Climatological Information for Feodosija, Russia , Retrieved 3 August 2012.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]