Kafr 'Ana

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Kafr 'Ana
Kafr 'Ana is located in Mandatory Palestine
Kafr 'Ana
Kafr 'Ana
Arabic كفرعانا
Name meaning The village of Ana[1]
Also spelled Kafar Ana
Subdistrict Jaffa
Coordinates 32°1′38″N 34°52′5″E / 32.02722°N 34.86806°E / 32.02722; 34.86806Coordinates: 32°1′38″N 34°52′5″E / 32.02722°N 34.86806°E / 32.02722; 34.86806
Population 3,020 (1945)
Area 17,553 dunams

17.6 km²

Date of depopulation April 25, 1948[2]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Current localities Neve Monosson[3] Or Yehuda[3]

Kafr 'Ana' (Arabic: كفرئنا‎, Hebrew: כפר עאנה; also: Kafr Ana) was a Palestinian town located 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) east of Jaffa. In 1945, the town had an estimated population of 2,800 Arabs and 220 Jews. Captured by the pre-state Israeli forces of the Alexandroni Brigade prior to the outbreak of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, it was depopulated.

History[edit]

The Canaanites referred to the town as Ono (1 Chronicles 8:12), which name continued all throughout the First and Second Temple periods. Jewish classical writings mention the city as being formerly enclosed by a wall.[4][citation needed] Kafr 'Ana was known as Onous in the Byzantine period.[5]

Ottoman era[edit]

During early Ottoman rule in Palestine, the revenues of the village of Kafr 'Ana were in 1557 designated for the new waqf of Hasseki Sultan Imaret in Jerusalem, established by Hasseki Hurrem Sultan (Roxelana), the wife of Suleiman the Magnificent.[6] In 1596, Kafr 'Ana was a village in the nahiya ("subdistrict") of Jerusalem ( liwa' ("district") of Jerusalem), with a population of 116. Villagers paid taxes to the authorities for the crops that they cultivated, which included wheat, barley, olives, and fruit, as well as on other types of property, such as goats and beehives and vineyards.[7]

French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village in 1863 and noted that "near the village are two shallow basins hollowed in rock, not built up, which receive the winter rains. Several wells are here as well, which permit the gardens to be irrigated. By the side of one of these wells I observed trunks of columns which seemed ancient."[8]

In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Kafr 'Ana as a village built of adobe bricks and surrounded by palm trees.[9]

British Mandate era[edit]

The villagers grew crops and raised poultry and bees. In 1944/45 a total 2,214 dunums were used for growing citrus and bananas, while 11,022 dunums of village land was used for cereals. 597 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards,[5][10]

1948 and after[edit]

The village of Kafr 'Ana was depopulated in the weeks leading up to the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, during the Haganah's offensive Mivtza Hametz (Operation Hametz) 28–30 April 1948. This operation was held against a group of villages east of Jaffa, including Kafr 'Ana. According to the preparatory orders, the objective was for "opening the way [for Jewish forces] to Lydda". Though there was no explicit mention of the prospective treatment of the villagers, the order spoke of "cleansing the area" [tihur hashetah].[11] The final operational order stated: "Civilian inhabitants of places conquered would be permitted to leave after they are searched for weapons."[12]

On 23 September 1948 General Avner named Kafr 'Ana as a suitable village for settlement for new Jewish immigrants ("olim") to Israel.[13] Today, the modern Israeli city, Or Yehuda, is built upon the lands formerly belonging to Kafr 'Ana and Saqiya village and Kheiriya village.[14] Or Yehuda was founded in 1950, on village land, south of the village site.[3]

Culture[edit]

A womans thob (loose fitting robe with sleeves), from Kafr Ana, from the 1930s, is in the Museum of International Folk Art (MOIFA) collection at Santa Fe, USA. The dress is of white commercial cotton and the embroidery is multicolored cotton, mainly in red and blue. The qabbeh (the square chest panel) is not a separate panel, but instead executed directly on the dress. The embroidery on the skirt and sleeves is also done directly on the dress. There is some machine embroidery, but most is by hand. The dress has an uncommon round neckline, which was an innovation and was only used here and in the village of Salama, near Jaffa.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 215
  2. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #218. Also gives cause of depopulation.
  3. ^ a b c Khalidi, 1882, p. 248
  4. ^ Mishnah (Arakhin 9:6).
  5. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p 247
  6. ^ Singer, 2002, p.52
  7. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 119. Quoted in Khalidi 1992, p. 247
  8. ^ Guérin, 1868, p. 320, as translated by Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 265
  9. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, 251. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 247
  10. ^ Hadawi, 1970, p.95
  11. ^ HGS\Operations to Alexandroni, etc., "Orders for Operation "Hametz", 26 April 1948. IDFA 6647\49\\15. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 217, 286
  12. ^ Operation Hametz HQ to Givati, etc., 27 April 1948, 14:00 hours, IDFA 67\51\\677. See also Alexandroni to battalions, 27 April 1948, IDFA 922\75\\949. Cited in Morris, 2004, p 217, 286
  13. ^ Protocol of Meeting of Military Government Committee, 23 September 1948, ISA FM 2564\11. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 394, 413
  14. ^ Khalidi, 1992, pp. 247-248; Carta's Official Guide to Israel, Jerusalem 1983, p. 358.
  15. ^ Stillman, 1979, p.70

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]