Kafr Manda

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Kafr Manda
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • Hebrew כַּפְר מַנְדָא
 • ISO 259 Kpar Mandaˀ
 • Also spelled Kafar Manda (official)
Kfar Manda, Kufur Manda (unofficial)
Arabic transcription(s)
 • Arabic كفر مندا
Kafr Manda 1.JPG
Kafr Manda is located in Israel
Kafr Manda
Kafr Manda
Coordinates: 32°49′N 35°16′E / 32.817°N 35.267°E / 32.817; 35.267Coordinates: 32°49′N 35°16′E / 32.817°N 35.267°E / 32.817; 35.267
District Northern
Founded 11th century
Government
 • Type Local council (from 1973)
 • Head of Municipality Rafi' Hajajra
Area
 • Total 11,052 dunams (11.052 km2 or 4.267 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 • Total 15,000
Name meaning The village of Menda[1]

Kafr Manda or Kfar Menda (Arabic: كفر مندا‎, Hebrew: כַּפְר מַנְדָא) is an Arab town in the Lower Galilee on the slopes of Mount Atzmon in Israel's North District. Kafr Manda is 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) northwest of the city of Nazareth. It had a population of 15,000 in 2005, the majority of them Muslim Arabs.

History[edit]

The village is located on an ancient site on a low hill. Ancient relics have been found, including architectural fragments, two fragmentary columns and capitals.[2]

According to the 13th century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi,

Kafr Manda lies between Acre and Tiberias and also goes by the name Midian. The tomb of the wife of Moses is seen here. Also, the pit covered by the rock which Moses raised up in order give himself and his wife water to drink... At Kafr Mandah may also be seen the tombs of two of Jacob's sons Asher and Naphthali as is reported.[3]

Ottoman period[edit]

In 1596 Kafr Manda appeared in the Ottoman tax registers as part of the nahiya of Tabariyya in the Liwa of Safad. It had an entirely Muslim population consisting of 93 households and 11 bachelors. Taxes were paid on wheat, barley, olive trees, cotton, soghum, goats and/or beehives, and a press for olives or grapes.[4]

In 1875 the French explorer Victor Guérin found the village to have about 400 inhabitants, all Muslim.[5]

In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Kefr Menda as a "mud village at the foot of Jebel ed Deibebeh, having a white muqam in it. The population is given as 200 souls, and the tillage is twenty feddans (in 1852)."[6]

British Mandate period[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Kufr Manda had a total population of 428, all Muslim.[7] In the 1931 census the population of Kafr Manda, together with Arab el Hujeirat, was a total of 975, all Muslim, in 187 inhabited houses.[8]

In 1945 the population of Kafr Manda was 1,260 all Arabs, who owned 14,935 dunams of land according to an official land and population survey.[9] 795 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 7,960 for cereals,[10] while 47 dunams were built-up (urban) land.[11]

Israeli period[edit]

On the crossroads between Acre and Nazareth, Kafr Manda surrendered to the advancing Israeli army during Operation Hiram, 29-31 October 1948. Many of the villagers fled north but some stayed and were not expelled by the Israeli soldiers.[12] The town remained under Martial Law until 1966. It achieved local council status in 1973. Since then, roads have been paved, schools have been built and infrastructures such as sewage, electricity and irrigation systems have been introduced.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 110
  2. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 668
  3. ^ le Strange, 1890, p.470.
  4. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 187
  5. ^ Guérin, 1880, pp. 488-489
  6. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 274
  7. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Nazareth, p. 38
  8. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 74
  9. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 62
  10. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 109
  11. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 159
  12. ^ Morris, Benny (1987) The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem, 1947-1949. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33028-9. p.226

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]