Kagayanen language

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Native to Philippines
Region eastern Palawan
Native speakers
30,000  (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cgc
Glottolog kaga1256[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines.


Kagayanen consonant phonemes[3]
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative s (h)
ð̞ j w
Rhotic r

[h] occurs only in loan words, proper names, or in words that have [h] in the cognates of neighboring languages.[4] Outside of loanwords, /d/ becomes [r] between vowels.[5]

Comparative and historical evidence suggests that /ð̞/ and /l/ were in complementary distribution before a split occurred with pressure from contact with English, Spanish, and Tagalog.[6]

Vowels of Kagayanen[7]
Front Central Back
Close i ə u
Open a

/i/ ranges between [i] and [e], except in unstressed syllables (as well as before consonant clusters) where it lowers to [ɪ] or [ɛ].[8] Similarly, /u/ lowers to [ʊ] in unstressed syllables, before consonant clusters, and word-finally. It is otherwise [u].[9]


  1. ^ Kagayanen at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kagayanen". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206)
  4. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206), citing MacGregor (1995:365)
  5. ^ Olson et al. (2010:207)
  6. ^ Olson et al. (2010:207–209)
  7. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007)
  8. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007:845)
  9. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007:847)


  • MacGregor, Louise A. (1995), "Kagayanen: Introduction and wordlist", in Tryon, Darrell T., Comparative Austronesian dictionary: An introduction to Austronesian studies, part 1: fascicle 1, Trends in Linguistics. 10, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 363–368 
  • Olson, Kenneth S.; Mielke, Jeff (2007), "Acoustic properties of the Kagayanen vowel space", in Trouvain, Jürgen; Barry, William, Proceedinngs of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Universität des Saarlandes, pp. 845–848, retrieved 2009-03-15  Missing |last2= in Editors list (help)
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296