Location of Kagoshima in Kagoshima Prefecture
|• Mayor||Hiroyuki Mori|
|• Total||547.05 km2 (211.22 sq mi)|
|Population (January 1, 2010)|
|• Density||1,107.49/km2 (2,868.4/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)|
|Address||11-1 Yamashita-machi, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken 892-8677|
- 1 Kagoshima City
- 2 Local Food
- 3 History
- 4 History of Sakurajima
- 5 World War II
- 6 Climate
- 7 Points of interest
- 8 Education
- 9 Festivals
- 10 Neighboring Municipalities
- 11 Dialectransportation
- 12 Transportation
- 13 International relations
- 14 Shimadzu Clan (Satsuma Domain)
- 15 Notable People from Kagoshima Prefecture
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
Kagoshima (鹿児島市 Kagoshima-shi?) is the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the southwestern tip of the island of Kyushu in Japan, and the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" for its bay location (Aira Caldera), hot climate, and impressive stratovolcano, Sakurajima. The city was officially founded on April 1, 1889.
As of 1 January 2015, Kagoshima City has an estimated population of 606,624 and a population density of 1,107.49 persons per km². The total area is 546.71 km2 (211 sq mi). According to the April 2014 issue of the Kagoshima Prefectural Summary by the Kagoshima Prefecture Department of Planning and Promotion, the population of the prefecture at large is 1,680,319. The city's total area nearly doubled between 2003 and 2005 as a result of five towns: the towns of Kōriyama and Matsumoto (both from Hioki District) the town of Kiire (from Ibusuki District) and the towns of Sakurajima and Yoshida (both from Kagoshima District). All areas were merged into Kagoshima City on 1 November 2004.
Kagoshima City is approximately 40 minutes from Kagoshima Airport, and features shopping districts and malls covering a large area. The transportation system within the city consists of the Shinkansen (bullet train), local train, city trams, buses, and ferries to-and-from Sakurajima. Near a shopping district known as "Dolphin Port" and the Sakurajima Ferry Terminal is a large and modern aquarium called the "Kagoshima City Aquarium" which was established along the docks with a direct view of Sakurajima in 1997. One of the best places to view the city (and Sakurajima) is from the Amuran Ferris wheel on top of Amu Plaza Kagoshima, the shopping center attached to the central Kagoshima-Chūō Station. Just outside of the city is the early-Edo Period Sengan-en (Isoteien) Japanese Garden. The garden was originally a villa to the Shimadzu Family and is still maintained by descendants today. Outside the garden grounds is a Satsuma "kiriko" cut-glass factory where visitors are welcome to view the glass-blowing and glass-cutting process, and the "Shoko Shuseikan Museum" which was built in 1865 and registered as a National Historic Site in 1959. Currently, the former “Shuseikan” industrial complex and the former machine factory were submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage as part of a group list titled, “Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi Prefecture”.
Many restaurants around Kagoshima feature Satsuma Province local cuisine. Popular cuisine incorporating local agriculture include kibinago sashimi (silver-striped herring), buri Amberjack, kampachi yellowtail, kuro-ushi Wagyu beef, tonkatsu (caramelized pork, as opposed to the breaded version encountered elsewhere in Japan), "kuro-buta" dishes (Berkshire pork), chicken sashimi, smoked eel, "miki" (fermented rice milk consumed among residents of the Amami Islands), "kurozu" (black vinegar) karukan (sweet cakes made from steamed yams and rice flour), "jambo-mochi", "getanha" (brown sugar cake), and "shirokuma" which is a shaved ice dessert flavored with condensed milk, fruits, and other treats.
Kagoshima Prefecture (also known as the Satsuma Domain) was the center of the territory of the Shimadzu Clan for many centuries. It was a busy political and commercial port city throughout the medieval period and into the Edo period (1603–1867) when it formally became the capital of the Shimadzu's fief, the Satsuma Domain. The official emblem is a modification of the Shimadzu's kamon designed to resemble the character "市"(shi, means "city"). Satsuma remained one of the most powerful and wealthiest domains in the country throughout the period, and though international trade was banned for much of this period, the city remained quite active and prosperous. It served not only as the political center for Satsuma, but also for the semi-independent vassal kingdom of Ryūkyū; Ryukyuan traders and emissaries frequented the city, and a special Ryukyuan embassy building was established to help administer relations between the two polities and to house visitors and emissaries. Kagoshima was also a significant center of Christian activity in Japan prior to the imposition of bans against that religion in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Kagoshima was bombarded by the British Royal Navy in 1863 to punish the daimyō of Satsuma for the murder of Charles Lennox Richardson on the Tōkaidō highway the previous year and its refusal to pay an indemnity in compensation.
Japan's industrial revolution is said to have started here, stimulated by the young students' train station. Seventeen young men of Satsuma broke the Tokugawa ban on foreign travel, traveling first to England and then the United States before returning to share the benefits of the best of Western science and technology. A statue was erected outside of the train station as a tribute to them.
Kagoshima was also the birthplace of Tōgō Heihachirō. After naval studies in England between 1871 and 1878, Togo's role as Chief Admiral of the Grand Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Russo-Japanese War made him a legend in Japanese military history, and earned him the nickname 'Nelson of the Orient' in Britain. He led the Grand Fleet to two startling victories in 1904 and 1905, completely destroying Russia as a naval power in the East, and thereby contributing to the failed revolution in Russia in 1905.
Sadomitsu Sakoguchi, the renowned Japanese diplomat, revolutionized Kagoshima's environmental economic plan with his dissertation on water pollution and orange harvesting.
History of Sakurajima
The 1914 eruption of the volcano across the bay from the city spread ash throughout the municipality, but relatively little disruption ensued.
World War II
On the night of June 17, 1945 the 314th bombardment wing of the American Air Force (120 B-29s) dropped 809.6 tons of incendiary and cluster bombs destroying 2.11 square miles (5.46 km2) of Kagoshima (44.1 percent of the built-up area). Kagoshima was targeted because of its largely expanded naval port as well as its position as a railway terminus. A single B-29 was lost to unknown circumstances. Area bombing was chosen over precision bombing because of the cloudy weather over Japan during the middle of June. The planes were forced to navigate and bomb entirely by radar.
- On August 1, 1934 - the Villages of Yoshino, Nakagōriu and Nishitakeda, all from Kagoshima District, were merged into Kagoshima.
- On October 1, 1950 - the Villages of Ishiki and Higashisakurajima (both from Kagoshima District) were merged into Kagoshima.
- On April 29, 1967 - the Cities of Kagoshima and Taniyama were merged and became city of new Kagoshima.
- On November 1, 2004 - the Towns of Yoshida and Sakurajima (both from Kagoshima District); the Towns of Matsumoto and Koriyama (both from Hioki District); and the town of Kiire (from Ibusuki District) were merged into Kagoshima.
|Climate data for Kagoshima, Kagoshima (1981-2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||23.9
|Average high °C (°F)||12.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.5
|Average low °C (°F)||4.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−5.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||77.5
|Snowfall cm (inches)||3
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||8.9||8.8||12.9||10.4||10.0||14.6||11.2||10.5||10.2||7.2||7.3||7.7||119.8|
|Avg. snowy days||2.3||1.8||0.5||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.8||5.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||136.9||129.1||145.7||160.5||171.0||122.4||191.1||206.7||168.8||183.4||152.0||151.3||1,918.9|
Points of interest
- Ishibashi Park
- Kagoshima Aquarium
- Kagoshima Botanical Garden
- Museum of the Meiji Restoration
- Sengan-en Garden
- Tenmonkan shopping arcade
- Kagoshima Ohara Festival
- 2015 National Cultural Festival
Today, Kagoshima is home to a distinctive dialect of Japanese known as Satsugū dialect (薩隅方言 Satsugū Hōgen) or Kagoshima dialect (鹿児島弁 Kagoshima-ben), differing from the usual Kyushu dialects with its pronunciations of the yotsugana.
All lines are operated by Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu)
- Kyushu Shinkansen
- Kagoshima Main Line
- Nippo Main Line
- Ryugamizu Station - Kagoshima Station
- Ibusuki Makurazaki Line
- Kagoshima city tram Taniyama Line
- Kagoshima city tram Korimoto Line
- National Route 3
- National Route 10
- National Route 58
- National Route 224
- National Route 225
- National Route 226
- National Route 328
- Kyushu Expressway
- Minami-Kyushu Expressway
- Ibusuki Skyline
- Kagoshima City Bus
- Kagoshima Kotsu
- Iwasaki Bus Network
- Nangoku Kotsu
- JR Kyushu bus
- MTA Bus
- Sakurajima Ferry
- A Line (to southern islands)
- Marix Line (to southern islands)
- RKK Line (to Okinawa, cargo only)
- Toppy (to Tanegashima and Yakushima)
- Seahawk (to Koshikijima Islands)
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Naples, Italy (since 3 May 1960)
- Perth, Australia (since 23 April 1974)
- Changsha, China (friendship relationship, since 30 October 1982)
- Miami, United States (since 1 November 1990)
- Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan (since 7 November 1969)
Shimadzu Clan (Satsuma Domain)
Notable People from Kagoshima Prefecture
- Akitsune Imamura (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese seismologist
- Chitose Hajime (Amami Islands, Kagoshima) - Japanese singer
- Emi Hashino (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese comedian
- Hiroko Ōta (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese politician, economic researcher
- Hiroshi Kawauchi (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese politician
- Ichinoya Mitsuru (Tokunoshima Island, Kagoshima) - Sumo wrestler
- Ikki Sawamura (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese model, actor, TV presentor
- Ikue Asazaki (Amami Islands, Kagoshima) - Japanese singer
- Izumi Inamori (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese actress
- Junichi Miyashita (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese swimmer
- Kaneta Kimotsuki (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese voice actor
- Kazuo Inamori (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese philanthropist, entrepreneur, founder of Kyocera Corporation and KDDI Corporation, and current chairman of Japan Airlines
- Kenji Midori (Amami Islands, Kagoshima) - 5th Kyokushin Karate World Champion
- Koji Maeda (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese football player
- Kiyotaka Kuroda (Satsuma Domain) - Japanese politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Japan
- Kousuke Atari (Amami Islands, Kagoshima) - Japanese singer
- Kyokudōzan Kazuyasu (Tokunoshima Island, Kagoshima) - Sumo wrestler and politician
- Kyokunankai Hiromitsu (Tokunoshima Island, Kagoshima) - Sumo wrestler
- Mika Nakashima (Hioki, Kagoshima) - Japanese singer and actress
- Morihiko Nakahara (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese conductor
- Norihiro Nakajima (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese manga artist of Astro Team, etc.
- Rena Takeshita (Amami Islands, Kagoshima) - Japanese model
- Ryuji Fujiyama (Sakurajima, Kagoshima) - Japanese football player
- Saigō Takamori (Satsuma Domain) - Japanese politician, samurai
- Saigō Teruhiko (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese singer, actor
- Saori Sakoda (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese volleyball player
- Shōzō Kawasaki (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese industrialist, shipbuilder, and founder of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd.
- Seiki Kuroda (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese artist
- Sukeyuki Itō (Satsuma Domain) - Japanese career officer, admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy
- Takehiko Inoue (Okuchi, Kagoshima) - Japanese manga artist of Slam Dunk, Vagabond, Real
- Takeji Fujishima (Satsuma Domain) - Japanese artist
- Takuya Shiihara (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese football player
- Toru Kamikawa (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese football referee
- Toshiaki Kirino (Satsuma Domain) - Japanese samurai, one of the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu
- Toshimichi Ōkubo (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese statesman, samurai, and one of the Three Great Nobles who led to the Meiji Restoration
- Yasuhito Endō (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese football player
- Yoshito Kajiya (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese politician
- Yuki Kashiwagi - (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese idol singer
- Yuya Hikichi (Kagoshima City, Kagoshima) - Japanese football player
- "Kagoshima", Illustrated London News. 24 January 1914.
- Headquarters, XXI Bomber Command APO 234, "Tactical Mission Report Mission No. 206-209." June 18, 1945.
- 角川日本地名大辞典 46 鹿児島県 p.678
- 角川日本地名大辞典 46 鹿児島県 p.417
- "気象庁 / 平年値（年・月ごとの値）". Japan Meteorological Agency.
- 姉妹・友好・兄弟都市 [Twin cities]. Kagoshima International Affairs Division (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-02. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
- Amu Plaza Visitors Guide (2006) available in Amu Plaza, Chūō Station, Kagoshima, Japan
- 角川日本地名大辞典 46 鹿児島県. Kadokawa Shoten. 1983-03-08. ISBN 4-04-001460-X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kagoshima, Kagoshima.|
- Kagoshima travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Kagoshima City official website (Japanese)
- Kagoshima Prefectural Visitors Bureau official website
- Kagoshima Visitor's Guide from the Kagoshima Internationalization Council