Kaymakam

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Military ranks of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman
ranks
Western
equivalents
Officers
Müşir
مشير
Field marshal
Birinci Ferik
(Serdar)
فريق أول
General
Ferik
فريق
Lieutenant general
Mirliva
لواء
Major general
Miralay
أمير آلاي
Senior colonel (Brigadier)
Kaymakam
قائم مقام
Colonel
Binbaşı
بكباشي
Lieutenant colonel
Kolağası
(Sağ Kolağası / Sol Kolağası)
صاغ
Senior captain (Major)
Yüzbaşı
يوزباشي
Captain
Mülâzım-ı Evvel
ملازم أول
First lieutenant
Mülâzım-ı Sani
ملازم ثاني
Second lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers
Çavuş
شاويش
Sergeant
Onbaşı
أونباشي
Corporal
Soldiers
Nefer
عسكري
Private

Qaim Maqam or Qaimaqam or Kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam; Ottoman Turkish: قائم مقام, "sub-governor") is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire.

Etymology[edit]

The modern Turkish term kaymakam originally comes from two originally Arabic words as used in Ottoman Turkish: kâim (قائم), meaning "standing"; and makâm (مقام), originally used for "place" but, in this context, used with the sense of "office", "position", or "state". Thus, in Ottoman times, a kâim-makâm was a state officer who was considered a representative of, or "standing in place" of the sultan at a local level; today, a kaymakam is a representative of the government or state at a local level.

History[edit]

Military ranks of Egypt
Turco-Egyptian
ranks
(until 1958)
Modern
Egyptian ranks
Western armies
equivalents
Officers
Mushir
مشير
General of the army/ field marshal
Sirdar
سردار
Fariq awwal
فريق أول
General
Fariq
فريق
Lieutenant general
Liwa
لواء
Major general
Amiralay
أمير آلاي
Amid
عميد
Senior colonel (Brigadier)
Qaimaqam
قائم مقام
Aqid
عقيد
Colonel
Bimbashi
بكباشي
Muqaddam
مقدم
Lieutenant colonel
Sagh
صاغ
Raid
رائد
Senior captain (Major)
Yuzbashi
يوزباشي
Naqib
نقيب
Captain
Mulazim awwal
ملازم أول
First lieutenant
Mulazim thani
ملازم ثاني
Mulazim
ملازم
Second lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers
Shawish
شاويش
Raqib
رقيب
Sergeant
Ombashi
أونباشي
Arif
عريف
Corporal
Soldiers
Askari
عسكري
Jundi
جندي
Private

Islamic history[edit]

According to some, the first kaymakam in history was ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, who is supposed to have been appointed by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, as the first rightful caliph. Thus, ‘Alī was considered to be serving "in the place of" Muhammad.

Moldavian and Wallachian history[edit]

The term Qaim Maqam has a specific meaning in Moldavian and Wallachian history, where it refers to a temporary replacement for a Hospodar ("prince"), in and after Phanariote rule, as well as the delegates of the Oltenian Ban in Craiova after the main office was moved to Bucharest during the same period (1761).

Romanian history[edit]

In this context, the word may be spelled caimacam, while the Romanian term for the office is căimăcămie.

Arabian history[edit]

In Arabia, four hakims (native rulers) of the later emirate of Qatar held the additional Ottoman title of kaymakam in their administrative capacity since 1872 of district administrator since the establishment of Ottoman sovereignty (as kaza [district] of Sandjak al-Hasa, within the vilayet of Baghdad, from 1875 Basra vilayet) till this was exchanged on 3 November 1916 with a British protectorate (as Sheikdom of Qatar, colonially under the chief political resident of the Persian Gulf, at Bahrein).

Kuwait history[edit]

Similarly, three ruling native hakims of the later emirate of Kuwait, were also Kaymakam of a kazas in the same province, 1871 till a British protectorate, also on 3 November 1914.

Ottoman Empire[edit]

In the Ottoman army, as well as in the Egypt of Muhammad Ali, the title of kaymakam came to be used for a lieutenant colonel; it was also applied to naval commanders in the same context. Mustafa Kemal, the founder of modern Turkey, also served as a kaymakam for the 57th regiment in the Battle of Gallipoli.

In Ottoman Egypt, the title kaymakam also referred to the acting governor in the time between the departure from the office of the previous Ottoman-appointed governor and the arrival of the next one.

Kaymakam as a military rank[edit]

Kaymakam was also a military rank in the Ottoman Army and pre-1934 Turkish Army, corresponding to the rank of Colonel in the British ranking system. The collar mark (later shoulder mark) and cap of a Kaymakam had two stripes and two stars during the early years of the Turkish Republic.

Kaymakams as an official rank[edit]

Kaymakams as a military rank[edit]

The rank is attested in use with a British officer commanding the Equatorial Battalion in East Africa, 1918: Kaimakam R F White DSO who was an officer of the Essex Regiment. 1

See also[edit]

Sources and references[edit]

1 WO 100/410 folio 283 - medal roll for "East Africa 1918" clasp to Africa General Service Medal, The National Archives, Kew