The town has hosted the Kakuma Refugee Camp since 1992. This camp currently serves over 179,000 people who have fled wars and violence in neighboring countries. The majority of refugees are from South Sudan, Sudan and Somalia. The camp is also host to refugees are from Ethiopia, D.R. Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Eritrea and Uganda.
Dust storms frequently pass through the Kakuma area. Malnutrition, communicable disease outbreaks, and malaria are all ongoing problems, while donor support has faltered due to conflicts in other parts of the world. Many of the refugees hope to leave Kakuma for resettlement in another country such as the USA. For example, the "Lost Boys of Sudan" were a special group who were resettled from the camp to the U.S. in recent years.
- Eggers, Dave (2006). What is the What. New York: Vintage Books. p. 373. ISBN 978-0-307-38590-1.
- "IAFR in Kenya". International Association for Refugees. 2014.
- Joselow, Gabe (3 November 2014). "South Sudan Violence Spreads to Kenyan Refugee Camp". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "Food Supplies Dwindle At Kenya Refugee Camp; IRC Raises Concern in Washington". International Rescue Committee. 4 June 2002.
- Background of the town
- A book about Sudanese refugees who went from Kakuma to the U.S.
- Solar Cooking Breakthrough in Kenyan Refugee Camp
- David Morse article (2006) on general situation in Kakuma and successful HIV/AIDS prevention
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