Kala pani (taboo)
The offense of crossing the sea is also known as "Samudrolanghana" or "Sagarollanghana". The Dharma Sutra of Baudhayana (II.1.2.2) lists sea voyages as first of the offences that cause the loss of varna. The Dharma Sutra suggests a person can wipe of this "sin" in three years by eating little at every fourth meal time; bathing at dawn, noon and dusk; standing during the day; and seated during the night.
The reasons behind the taboo include the inability to carry out the daily rituals and the sin of contact with the mlecchas. The fear of crossing the seas also derives from the notion that it entailed the end of the reincarnation cycle, as the traveller was cut off from the regenerating waters of the Ganges. Such voyages also meant breaking family and social ties. According to another belief in the pre-modern India, the Kala Pani (sea water) was inhabited by the houglis, bad spirits and monsters.
During the Age of Discovery, the Portuguese sailors noted that the Hindus were reluctant to engage in maritime trade due to this taboo. In the eighteenth century, the banias of North India considered even the crossing the Indus river at Attock as a taboo, and underwent purification rituals upon their return. However, not all Hindus adhered to the taboo, and there were several Hindu merchants in Burma, Muscat and other places.
The East India Company recruited several upper-caste soldiers, and adapted its military practices to the requirements of their religious rituals. Consequently, the overseas service, considered polluting to their caste, was not required of them.
During the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26), the Bengal Army was ordered to go to Chittagong. Since no bullock carts were available and since the sea voyage was a taboo, the Indian soldiers were asked to march to Chittagong by land. The soldiers were concerned about the difficulty involved in a land march, and were also afraid that their superiors might force them to take a sea voyage if the march failed. As a result of these fears, the 47th Regiment refused to march. This resulted in a mutiny on 2 November 1824 at Barrackpore.
The General Services Enlistment Act of 1856 required the new recruits to serve overseas, if asked. The serving high-caste sepoys were fearful that this requirement would be eventually extended to them. Thus, the Hindu soldiers viewed the Act as a potential threat to their faith. The resulting discontent was one of the causes of the Indian rebellion of 1857.
Cellular Jail, the British Indian prison on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was known as Kala Pani: an incarceration in this jail threatened the convicts with the loss of caste and the resulting social exclusion.
Indentured laborer diaspora
When slavery was abolished in British colonies (such as Mauritius in 1834), the authorities looked for indentured labor to replace the slaves who had been emancipated. The emissaries sent to India for this purpose were astute in attracting so-called "coolies" to the countries such as South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji and the Caribbean that requiring cheap labor, which were often presented as "promised lands." But many prospective candidates for the distant colonies expressed their fears of crossing the Kala Pani. So the British often employed a stratagem to dispel the doubts of the indentured: they placed water from the Ganges in large cauldrons on the ships, to ensure the continuity of reincarnation beyond the Kala Pani. The sea voyage was then seen as less fearsome.
The Kala Pani theme features prominently in the Indo-Caribbean history, and has been elaborately discussed in the writings of V. S. Naipaul. Mauritian poet and critic Khal Torabully, who is partly of Indo-Mauritian descent, describes the Kala Pani as a source not only of the dissolution of identity, but also of beauty and reconstruction, leading to what he terms a "coral imaginary."
In 2007, the ascension of Sugunendra Tirtha to the Udupi Krishna Temple was opposed by some seers, because he had visited foreign countries, thus committing the offence of saagarolanga (crossing the sea). In 2008, a court verdict formally allowed his ascension. In 2012, both him and his opponent Vishwesha Teertha announced fasts to pressurize each other over the issue.
Vishnunarayanan Namboothiri, a noted poet who served as a priest at the Sreevallabha Temple, was not allowed to enter the temple after he returned from an overseas trip to London. The temple authorities, led by the thantri (chief priest), asked him to do a thorough cleansing, penance and punaravrodha (reinstallation) before he could be allowed again. Namboothiri was asked to purify himself by reciting the Gayatri Mantra 1008 times, which he refused to do. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh supported him, calling the taboo an "outdated ritual". The Travancore Devaswom Board also supported him, and fired two of its officials for refusing to his reinstatement. After the board served the thantri a show-cause notice, Namboothiri was allowed back after purification by sprinkling of holy water (theertham).
- "Crossing the Kala Pani to Britain for Hindu Workers and Elites". American Historical Association. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- Daniel Bass (27 November 2012). Everyday Ethnicity in Sri Lanka: Up-country Tamil Identity Politics. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-415-52624-1. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Charles Eliot (1998). Hinduism and Buddhism: An Historical Sketch. Curzon. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7007-0679-2. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Patrick Olivelle (2 September 1999). The Dharmasutras : The Law Codes of Ancient India: The Law Codes of Ancient India. Oxford University Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-19-283882-7. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Crossing the Ocean by Vrindavanam S. Gopalakrishnan. Hinduism Today, July/August/September 2008.
- Marina Carter (2002). Coolitude: An Anthology of the Indian Labour Diaspora. Anthem Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-84331-006-8. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Donna R. Gabaccia and Dirk Hoerder, ed. (11 April 2011). Connecting Seas and Connected Ocean Rims: Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans and China Seas Migrations from the 1830s to the 1930s. BRILL. pp. 84–86. ISBN 978-90-04-19316-1. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
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- Spencer Walpole (1890). A history of England from the conclusion of the great war in 1815. Longmans, Green. p. 279. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
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- Philip Mason (2004). A MATTER OF HONOUR: An Account Of The Indian Army, Its Officers And Men. Natraj Publishers. p. 261. ISBN 978-81-8158-012-2. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- John F. Riddick (1 April 2006). The History of British India: A Chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-313-32280-8. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Alison Bashford; Carolyn Strange (12 November 2012). Isolation: Places and Practices of Exclusion. Psychology Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-30980-6. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Aisha Khan (11 October 2004). Callaloo Nation: Metaphors of Race and Religious Identity Among South Asians in Trinidad. Duke University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-8223-3388-3. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Dan Ojwang (15 December 2012). Reading Migration and Culture: The World of East African Indian Literature. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-137-26295-0. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Foreign trip may cost Udupi pontiff ascension". DNA. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "Shiroor seer backs Puttige swamiji". The Hindu. 2007-11-29. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "Paryaya is my right: Puttige swamiji". The Hindu. 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "Shiroor Math seer terms fear of swamijis' foreign visits as irrational". The Hindu. 2002-01-17. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "Kerala priest loses his job 'cos he went to London". rediff.com. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "Kerala temple tamasha leaves two jobless, many angry and a few laughing". rediff.com. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "And thus ended the temple tamasha...". rediff.com. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- Khal Torabully, Cale d'étoiles-coolitude, Azalées editions, 1998.
- * Voices from the Aapravasi Ghat,Indentured imaginaries, collection of poems, Foreword by K. Purryag, President of the Republic of Mauritius, published on Nov 2 2013, http://www.potomitan.info/torabully/voices.php