Kalamazoo, Michigan

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"Kalamazoo" redirects here. For other uses, see Kalamazoo (disambiguation).
Kalamazoo, Michigan
City
Kalamazoo.jpg
Official seal of Kalamazoo, Michigan
Seal
Nickname(s): The Mall City, K-zoo, The Zoo
Location of Kalamazoo within Kalamazoo County, Michigan
Location of Kalamazoo within Kalamazoo County, Michigan
Coordinates: 42°17′24″N 85°35′9″W / 42.29000°N 85.58583°W / 42.29000; -85.58583Coordinates: 42°17′24″N 85°35′9″W / 42.29000°N 85.58583°W / 42.29000; -85.58583
Country United States
State Michigan
County Kalamazoo
Settled 1829
Incorporation 1883
Government
 • Type Commission-Manager
 • Mayor Bobby J. Hopewell
 • City Manager Kenneth P. Collard
Area[1]
 • City 25.11 sq mi (65.03 km2)
 • Land 24.68 sq mi (63.92 km2)
 • Water 0.43 sq mi (1.11 km2)
Elevation 784 ft (239 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 74,262
 • Estimate (2013[3]) 75,548
 • Density 3,009.0/sq mi (1,161.8/km2)
 • Urban 187,961
 • Metro 326,589
Demonym Kalamazooan
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 269
FIPS code 26-42160[4]
GNIS feature ID 0629439[5]
Website www.kalamazoocity.org

Kalamazoo /ˌkæləməˈz/ is a city in the southwest region of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Kalamazoo County. Kalamazoo is located geographically in Western and Southern Michigan. As of the 2010 census, Kalamazoo had a total population of 74,262. Kalamazoo is the major city of the Kalamazoo-Portage Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 326,589 as of 2010.[6]

Kalamazoo is home to Western Michigan University, a large public university, and Kalamazoo College, a liberal arts school. Kalamazoo is home to major players in the pharmaceutical and medical science industries. Kalamazoo is also known for its importance in the world of music as it was the original home to Gibson guitars. Kalamazoo has also built a reputation as a major player in the American craft beer movement.

Kalamazoo finds itself located equidistant from the major American cities of Chicago and Detroit, both less than 150 miles from Kalamazoo.

Name origin[edit]

Originally known as Bronson, after founder Titus Bronson, in the township of Arcadia, the names were both changed to "Kalamazoo" in 1836 and 1837, respectively.[7] The Kalamazoo name comes from a Potawatomi word, first found in a British report in 1772. However, the Kalamazoo River, which passes through the modern city of Kalamazoo, was located on the route between Détroit and Fort Saint-Joseph (nowadays Niles, Michigan). French-Canadian traders, missionaries, and military personnel were quite familiar with this area during the French era and thereafter. The name for the Kalamazoo River was then known by Canadians and French as La rivière Kikanamaso. The name "Kikanamaso" was also recorded by Father Pierre Potier, a Jesuit missionary for the Huron-Wendats at the Assumption mission (south shore of Détroit), while en route to Fort Saint-Joseph during the fall of 1760.[8] Legend has it that "Ki-ka-ma-sung," meaning "boiling water," referring to a footrace held each fall by local Native Americans, who had to run to the river and back before the pot boiled.[9] Still another theory is that it means "the mirage or reflecting river."[10] Another legend is that the image of "boiling water" referred to fog on the river as seen from the hills above the current downtown. The name was also given to the river that flows almost all the way across the state.

The name Kalamazoo, which sounds unusual to English-speaking ears, has become a metonym for exotic places, as in the phrase "from Timbuktu to Kalamazoo".[11] Today, t-shirts are sold in Kalamazoo with the phrase "Yes, there really is a Kalamazoo".[12]

History[edit]

The area on which the modern city of Kalamazoo stands was once home to Native Americans of the Hopewell culture, who migrated into the area sometime before the first millennium. Evidence of their early residency remains in the form of a small mound in downtown's Bronson Park. The Hopewell civilization began to decline after the 8th century and was replaced by other groups.[13] The Potawatomi culture lived in the area when the first European explorers arrived.

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, passed just southeast of the present city of Kalamazoo in late March 1680. The first Europeans to reside in the area were itinerant fur traders in the late 18th and early 19th century. There are records of several traders wintering in the area, and by the 1820s at least one trading post had been established.[14][15]

During the War of 1812, the British established a smithy and a prison camp in the area.[16]

The 1821 Treaty of Chicago ceded the territory south of the Grand River to the United States federal government. However, the area around present-day Kalamazoo was reserved as the village of Potawatomi Chief Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish. Six years later, as a result of the 1827 Treaty of St. Joseph, the tract that became the city of Kalamazoo was also ceded.

In 1829, Titus Bronson, originally from Connecticut, became the first white settler to build a cabin within the present city limits of Kalamazoo.[17] He platted the town in 1831 and named it the village of Bronson—not to be confused with the much smaller Bronson, Michigan, about fifty miles (80 km) to the south-southeast of Kalamazoo.

Bronson, frequently described as "eccentric" and argumentative, was later run out of town. The village was renamed Kalamazoo in 1836, due in part to Bronson's being fined for stealing a cherry tree.[18] Today, a hospital and a downtown park, among other things, are named for Bronson. Kalamazoo was legally incorporated as a village in 1838 and as a city in 1883.

The fertile farmlands attracted prosperous Yankee farmers who settled the surrounding area, and sent their sons to Kalamazoo to become businessmen, professionals and entrpreneurs who started numerous factories.[19]

On August 27, 1856, Illinois politician Abraham Lincoln spoke at a rally in Bronson Park, promoting the presidential candidacy of John C. Fremont, who was running on the ticket of the new Republican Party. It was Lincoln's only public speech during his only visit to Michigan.

In 1959, the city created the Kalamazoo Mall, the first outdoor pedestrian shopping mall in the United States, by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic. The Mall was designed by Victor Gruen, who also designed the country's first enclosed shopping mall, which had opened three years earlier.[20] Two of the mall's four blocks were reopened to auto traffic in 1999 after much debate.[21]

An F3 tornado struck downtown Kalamazoo on May 13, 1980, killing five and injuring 79.[22]

Geography[edit]

Most of Kalamazoo is on the southwest bank of a major bend in the Kalamazoo River, with a small portion, about 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2), on the opposite bank. Several small tributaries of the Kalamazoo River, including Arcadia Creek and Portage Creek, wind through the city. The northeastern portion of Kalamazoo sits in the broad, flat Kalamazoo Valley, while the western portions of Kalamazoo climb into low hills to the west and south. Several small lakes are found throughout the area.

According to the United States Census Bureau, Kalamazoo has a total area of 25.11 square miles (65.03 km2), of which 24.68 square miles (63.92 km2) is land and 0.43 square miles (1.11 km2) is water.[1]

Kalamazoo's suburban population is located primarily to the south, in the city of Portage, and to the west in Oshtemo and Texas townships.

At least part of the municipal water supply for Kalamazoo is provided by the watershed contained within the Al Sabo Preserve[23] in Texas Charter Township, Michigan, immediately southwest of Kalamazoo.

Another watershed, Kleinstuck Marsh,[24] is popular with hikers and birdwatchers. Kleinstuck Marsh is south of Maple Street, between Oakland Drive and Westnedge Avenue, Kalamazoo's major north-south artery.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 2,507
1860 6,070 142.1%
1870 9,181 51.3%
1880 11,937 30.0%
1890 17,853 49.6%
1900 24,404 36.7%
1910 39,437 61.6%
1920 48,487 22.9%
1930 54,786 13.0%
1940 54,097 −1.3%
1950 57,704 6.7%
1960 82,189 42.4%
1970 85,555 4.1%
1980 79,722 −6.8%
1990 80,277 0.7%
2000 76,145 −5.1%
2010 74,262 −2.5%
Est. 2013 75,548 1.7%
U.S. Decennial Census
2012 estimate

As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $31,189, and the median income for a family was $42,438. Males had a median income of $32,160 versus $25,532 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,897. About 13.6% of families and 24.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.0% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 74,262 people, 29,141 households, and 13,453 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,009.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,161.8 /km2). There were 32,433 housing units at an average density of 1,314.1 per square mile (507.4 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 68.1% White, 22.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 2.8% from other races, and 4.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.4% of the population.

There were 29,141 households of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.1% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 53.8% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.04.

The median age in the city was 26.2 years. 20.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 27% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.9% were from 25 to 44; 18.2% were from 45 to 64; and 9.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female.

Government[edit]

Kalamazoo government is administered under a Commission-Manager style of government. The City Commission is the representative body of the city, and consists of seven members, elected on a non-partisan basis every two years. Whoever receives the most votes during an election becomes the council president and ceremonial mayor of the city. The member that receives the second highest number of votes becomes vice mayor.[25] The current mayor, Bobby J. Hopewell, was elected November 13, 2007, beating Hannah McKinney, who automatically became vice mayor.[26]

In the November 3, 2009, and November 8, 2011, elections voters returned Hopewell as mayor and McKinney as vice-mayor.

The City Manager is the city's chief administrative officer. The manager is hired by, and answers to, the City Commission.

Neighborhoods[edit]

Kalamazoo Neighborhoods Numbered.jpg

The city of Kalamazoo is commonly divided into 22 neighborhoods, many of which are served by a neighborhood association. The Neighborhood Development Division of the city's government works with these associations to invest federal, state, and local funds, including those from the Community Development Block Grant program, in community improvements and economic growth.

Education[edit]

Waldo Library and the University Computing Center, joined by the Stewart Clocktower, on Western Michigan University's campus.
The campus of Kalamazoo College.

Kalamazoo is home to Western Michigan University. The college has four campuses in Kalamazoo, (West Campus, East Campus, Parkview Campus and Oakland Drive Campus) as well as several satellite campuses throughout Michigan. West Campus, located just west of downtown, has the largest concentration of university students, programs and school services. In 2005, Western Michigan ranked #2 Wireless Campus in the U.S. in a national survey done by the Intel Corporation.[27]

Each May, WMU hosts the International Congress on Medieval Studies. Organized by the Medieval Institute's faculty and graduate students, the Congress brings some 3,000 professors and students from around the globe to present and discuss a variety of topics related to the Middle Ages.

Kalamazoo College, a private liberal arts college founded in 1833 is located on a hill opposite WMU's original campus.

Kalamazoo is home to Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Davenport University, and Kalamazoo Area Mathematics and Science Center (KAMSC). It had also been the home of Nazareth College, which closed in 1992.

The public schools are managed by Kalamazoo Public Schools. Every resident graduate of the Kalamazoo Public Schools is provided with a scholarship for up to 100% of tuition and mandatory fee costs for four years at any public university or community college in Michigan, starting with the class of 2006. This program is known as the Kalamazoo Promise. Books and room and board are not included.[28]

Economy[edit]

The Radisson Plaza Hotel & Suites hotel in Kalamazoo is a popular site for conventions.

In 2012 Kiplinger's Personal Finance ranked Kalamazoo fourth of the Ten Best Cities for Cheapskates.[29]

Breweries[edit]

Kalamazoo has many local breweries and brewpubs that produce a variety of beer styles.

Perhaps the best-known is Bell's Brewery, established as the Kalamazoo Brewing Company in 1985 by Larry Bell.[30] The brewery has expanded from its original Kalamazoo location, which houses the Eccentric Cafe, to another brewery in nearby Comstock. Bell's beer is sold by retailers across much of the country. Other local breweries include Boatyard Brewing and Latitude 42 Brewing Company, the latter in the southern suburb of Portage. In late 2013 Big Dogg Brewing Company will join the fold. 2014 will see Battle Creek's Arcadia Brewing Company opening its new operation in downtown Kalamazoo. On a smaller yet equally important scale are brewpubs Olde Peninsula Brewpub and Bravo! restaurant which serve their own brews. The area is also a hotbed for home brewing and partners with Grand Rapids to form what is widely considered one of America's more important regions in American craft beer explosion.

Olde Peninsula, one of Kalamazoo's small breweries.

Flavorings[edit]

The A.M. Todd Company, one of the lead producers of peppermint oil and other flavorings, is headquartered in Kalamazoo.[31] Its founder, Albert M. Todd, was elected to the United States House of Representatives for the 55th Congress.

Kalamazoo is also home to Kalsec, another flavorings company, which was founded by Paul H. Todd, Jr., Albert Todd's grandson and U.S. Representative in the 89th Congress. Founded as the Kalamazoo Spice Extraction Company, Kalsec is owned and managed by Todd family descendants.[32]

Historical[edit]

CNR derrick car (Sylvester Manufacturing Company, Kalamazoo Railway Supply Company). Mounted on a push car, pulled with a speeder or draisine.[33]

In the past, Kalamazoo was known for its production of windmills, mandolins, buggies, automobiles, cigars, stoves, paper, and paper products. Agriculturally, it once was noted for celery. Although much has become suburbanized, the surrounding area still produces farm crops.

Kalamazoo was the original home of Gibson Guitar Corporation, which spawned the still-local Heritage Guitars. The company was incorporated as "Gibson Mandolin - Guitar Co., Ltd" on October 11, 1902, by the craftsman Orville Gibson. One budget model was named the Gibson Kalamazoo "Melody Maker" Electric Guitar. Operations were moved gradually from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee, (Electric Division) and Bozeman, Montana, (Acoustic Division) in the 1980s. Some workers from the original factory stayed in Kalamazoo to create the Heritage Guitar company.[34]

Kalamazoo was once known as the "Paper City" because of the paper mills in and near the city. The Allied Paper Corporation operated several mills and employed 1,300 people in Kalamazoo during the late 1960s. As the forests of West Michigan were logged out, paper mills closed.[35][36]

Early in the 20th century, Kalamazoo was home to the brass era automobile company Barley.

Kalamazoo was also headquarters of the Checker Motors Company, the former manufacturer of the Checker Cab, which also stamped sheet metal parts for other auto manufacturers. Checker closed on June 25, 2009, a victim of the Late-2000s recession.

Manufacturing[edit]

Stryker Corporation is Kalamazoo-based and makes medical equipment.[37]

Landscape Forms is a Kalamazoo-based company that designs and manufacture outdoor furniture.[38]

Kalamazoo Outdoor Gourmet designs and manufactures outdoor kitchen equipment.[39]

Life Sciences[edit]

The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo that is now part of the Pfizer Corporation. Most of Upjohn's original facilities remain, many have been renovated and some new buildings have been constructed. The bulk of the facilities exist in Portage, Michigan, but many also exist in Downtown Kalamazoo.

Western Michigan University School of Medicine (WMed) is a collaboration involving Western Michigan University and Kalamazoo's two teaching hospitals, Borgess Health and Bronson Healthcare. The new medical school has been in planning since 2008, and was granted Preliminary Accreditation from the Liaison Committee on Medical Education in October 2012. Welcoming its first class in August 2014, the school is a private 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation supported by private gifts, clinical revenue, research activity, student tuition, and endowment income. In March 2011, Western Michigan University received a gift of $100 million for the medical school from anonymous donors.

The city is also home to the Stryker Corporation, a surgical and medical devices manufacturer.

Kalamazoo has two hospitals: Bronson Methodist Hospital, and Borgess Medical Center.

Research[edit]

The W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, a nonpartisan, not-for-profit research organization, has operated in Kalamazoo since its establishment in 1945. The Institute conducts research into the causes and effects of unemployment, and measures for the alleviation of unemployment. The Institute also publishes Business Outlook for West Michigan,[40] a quarterly journal that provides economic analysis and forecasts on the West Michigan economy.

The Fetzer Institute promotes and funds holistic solutions to everyday problems.[41] It was founded by John Fetzer, a broadcasting magnate and former owner of the Detroit Tigers and WKZO radio and television in Kalamazoo.[42]

Other[edit]

Other notable Kalamazoo businesses include:

  • The Farmers' Market, located on Bank Street, is open on Tuesdays and Saturdays, May through November.
  • PNC Bank — Kalamazoo was formerly the corporate HQ of First of America Bank, which merged with National City Bank in 1997. National City has since been purchased and merged with PNC Bank which still maintains a large corporate building in Texas Township, and several locations downtown, along with numerous branches in the region.

Climate[edit]

Kalamazoo has a mid-latitude climate. Summers can be very hot and relatively long, between the months of May–September. Kalamazoo is not known for tornadoes, but they can occur around this time. In winter, temperatures occasionally plummet below 0 °F (-18°). Kalamazoo has been known for brutal snow storms, but there have been winters with no ground cover at all. Usually, snow stays on the ground permanently from the end of November and melts away by the beginning of March.

Climate data for Kalamazoo Battle Ck Intl Ap, MI, 1998-2014 normals, extremes 1998-present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 62
(17)
71
(22)
85
(29)
86
(30)
94
(34)
98
(37)
104
(40)
95
(35)
94
(34)
86
(30)
73
(23)
69
(21)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C) 31.3
(−0.4)
34.4
(1.3)
46.1
(7.8)
60.3
(15.7)
70.8
(21.6)
79.5
(26.4)
83.6
(28.7)
81.3
(27.4)
74.5
(23.6)
61.3
(16.3)
49.2
(9.6)
35.6
(2)
58.99
(15)
Average low °F (°C) 17.3
(−8.2)
19.3
(−7.1)
27.3
(−2.6)
38.2
(3.4)
48.7
(9.3)
58.2
(14.6)
61.6
(16.4)
60.4
(15.8)
52.2
(11.2)
41.6
(5.3)
33.2
(0.7)
23.0
(−5)
40.08
(4.48)
Record low °F (°C) −14
(−26)
−14
(−26)
−6
(−21)
19
(−7)
27
(−3)
35
(2)
39
(4)
43
(6)
36
(2)
25
(−4)
12
(−11)
−9
(−23)
−14
(−26)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.75
(44.4)
1.42
(36.1)
1.85
(47)
3.20
(81.3)
3.76
(95.5)
3.21
(81.5)
3.16
(80.3)
3.60
(91.4)
3.11
(79)
3.34
(84.8)
2.41
(61.2)
1.69
(42.9)
32.5
(825.4)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 12 9 11 13 13 12 11 13 13 13 11 13 144
Source: [2]

Culture[edit]

Spad WWI Fighter in the Kalamazoo Air Zoo

The city has an Arts Council.[43] On the first Friday of each month, the council organizes the Art Hop, in which patrons circulate among downtown businesses.

Groups often perform at the downtown State Theatre, Western Michigan University's Miller Auditorium, and Wings Stadium.

The annual "Eccentric Day" at Bell's Eccentric Cafe celebrates the brewery's Eccentric Ale on the December Friday that marks the end of finals at Western Michigan University.[44]

There is no longer a zoo in Kalamazoo. The Milham Park Zoo closed in 1974.

The Moped Army was founded in Kalamazoo in 1997.

Next to Milham Park is the Milham Park Golf Course.[45] Completed in 1936, the 18-hole, par-72 course is entirely within the city limits of Kalamazoo.

In 2002, the Kalamazoo Public Library was named "Library of the Year" by Library Journal.[46] The library includes a main location and four branch libraries, and until 2010, a bookmobile system.[47]

Animation festival[edit]

A project of Kalamazoo Valley Community College, The Kalamazoo Animation Festival International (KAFI) encourages and educates animation artists, promotes Kalamazoo's animation industry, and provides community entertainment.[48] In addition to a biannual festival, KAFI sponsors events such as film screenings and workshops throughout the year.

KAFI's first festival drew 235 submissions and nearly 1,000 attendees in 2002. A second festival was held in 2003. Since then, an every-other-year schedule has been adopted. The 2007 festival attracted more than 500 entries from 37 countries. In addition to an animated film competition with $15,000 in prizes awarded, the festival features events for students, artists, educators, filmmakers and the general public. Past KAFI award winners include Bill Plympton, Chris Landreth and John Canemaker.[citation needed]

Museums[edit]

The city's most prominent art museum is the Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, whose collection has more than 3,600 works and a focus on 20th-century American art. The KIA regularly mounts temporary exhibitions.

Downtown is the Kalamazoo Valley Museum, a "hands-on" museum aimed largely at children; it has a planetarium and a Challenger Learning Center.

Northeast of town, in Hickory Corners, is the Gilmore Car Museum, which includes cars used in Walt Disney movies.

The Kalamazoo Air Zoo, just south of town, has several dozen aircraft on display, from biplanes to jets.

Theater[edit]

Kalamazoo's theaters and performing groups include the Kalamazoo Civic Players, New Vic Theatre, Farmer's Alley Theatre, Crawlspace Theatre Productions, and the Barn Theatre in nearby Augusta. Plays and musicals are also performed at Kalamazoo College and Western Michigan University.

Music[edit]

The Gibson Guitar Corporation, founded in Kalamazoo in 1902, spurred local musicians playing in everything classical to folk, to modern rock. The Kalamazoo Symphony Orchestra,[49] founded in 1921, is directed by Raymond Harvey. The city also hosts the Irving S. Gilmore International Keyboard Festival and a Bach Festival.

The local and indie music scene has produced pop stars such as RCA recording artists The Verve Pipe and Metal Blade recording artists Thought Industry.

Sports[edit]

Waldo Stadium, on the campus of Western Michigan University.

Kalamazoo plays host to four non-collegiate teams:

The Western Michigan University Broncos, who compete in the NCAA Division I Mid-American Conference, play at the following on-campus venues:

Hyames Field played host to the first two College World Series held in 1947 and 1948. Future U. S. President George H. W. Bush was a first baseman for Yale in the 1947 series.[50]

The Kalamazoo College Hornets and Kalamazoo Valley Community College Cougars also have several collegiate athletic teams.

Kalamazoo is the hometown of New York Yankees all-star shortstop Derek Jeter, Minnesota Vikings wide receiver Greg Jennings, and free agent running back T.J. Duckett. The world's number one pro bass fisherman Kevin VanDam, Washington Nationals pitcher Scott Olsen and Chicago White Sox first baseman and gold glove winner Mike Squires were born in Kalamazoo. Kalamazoo was also the hometown of longtime Detroit Tigers owner John Fetzer, who owned the American League team from 1961 through 1984, when he sold the franchise to Domino's Pizza founder Tom Monaghan.

The United States Tennis Association Boys 18 and 16 National Tennis Championships are hosted every summer by Kalamazoo College. The event has featured such players as Jimmy Connors, John McEnroe, Jim Courier, Andre Agassi, Pete Sampras, Michael Chang, James Blake and Andy Roddick, before they turned professional.

The Kalamazoo Rugby Football Club, founded in 1988, competes in the Michigan Rugby Football Union.[51]

Kalamazoo along with Battle Creek hosted the 2008 PDGA World Championships. The area is home to many World Class disc golf courses.

Local media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

Kalamazoo is served by one daily newspaper, the Kalamazoo Gazette, which now prints three editions weekly as of early 2012. Business Review Western Michigan, a business-to-business publication headquartered in Kalamazoo, covering Western Michigan news, was rolled into MLive online coverage in late 2012. The ultimate parent company of both the Gazette and Business Review are Advance Publications, Inc.

Television[edit]

WWMT, West Michigan's CBS / CW affiliate, is licensed and operates out of Kalamazoo but serves the entire West Michigan region. The station was originally owned and operated by famous broadcasting pioneer (and former Detroit Tigers owner) John Fetzer, as "WKZO-TV". Along with television, Fetzer introduced Kalamazoo to radio in 1931, when AM 590 WKZO signed on the air. Fezter also created Kalamazoo's first cable television system, then known as Fetzer Cable; it is a predecessor of Kalamazoo's current cable franchise, Charter Communications.

The Public Media Network, located in downtown Kalamazoo, hosts media outlets including Charter cable channels 19, 20, 21, 22, and 95 where daily public access programs are produced and aired to the public.

Kalamazoo is part of the West Michigan television market, which also includes Grand Rapids and Battle Creek. Most channels that serve the entire market are receivable in Kalamazoo, including WWMT, WOOD-TV (NBC), WXMI (Fox), WZPX (Ion) and WLLA (religious). Some channels based in the northern part of the market reach Kalamazoo through a satellite or translator, such as WTLJ Muskegon (religious, through W26BX), WGVU-TV Grand Rapids (PBS, through WGVK), and WXSP-CD Grand Rapids (MyNetworkTV, through WOKZ-CA). WOTV in Battle Creek broadcasts ABC programming for the southern part of the market, including Kalamazoo. Charter offers all West Michigan channels on its system to Kalamazoo subscribers, including WZZM, the ABC affiliate for Grand Rapids and the northern part of the market.

Radio[edit]

WIDR is the college student-run, commercial free radio station at Western Michigan University. It is known for playing obscure and rarely heard underground music of all styles as well as some local news and talk. Broadcasting 100 watts on 89.1 FM, WIDR can be heard from about a 20-mile radius from campus.

WMUK is also on Western Michigan University's campus. It hosts many local music programs including jazz and classical performances as well as programming from NPR. WMUK broadcasts 50,000 watts in high definition on 102.1 FM.

WKDS is West Michigan's only high school student-run radio station. The station signed on in 1983 at 89.9 on the FM dial, broadcasting from Loy Norrix High School. The call letters stood for Kalamazoo District Schools (now Kalamazoo Public Schools). For most of its history, WKDS broadcast only during daytime hours and not at all on the weekend. In Fall of 2004, the station began broadcasting 24 hours a day, 7 days a week in an attempt to prevent an outside organization to take over the time WKDS was off the air. WKDS was part of a county wide Education For Employment program for years. The radio station is still owned by Kalamazoo Public Schools although the EFE program has been discontinued. High School students from around the area continue to operate the station.

FM radio stations which serve Kalamazoo include:

  • WCXK 88.3 - Kalamazoo - Christian Top 40
  • WIDR 89.1 - Kalamazoo - College/Variety
  • WKDS 89.9 - Kalamazoo - High School/Variety
  • WCSG 91.3 - Grand Rapids - Christian AC
  • WZUU 92.5 - Mattawan/Kalamazoo - Classic Rock
  • WBCT 93.7 - Grand Rapids - Country
  • WVIC 94.1 - Jackson/Lansing/Battle Creek/Kalamazoo - Alternative Rock
  • WTNR 94.5 - Grand Rapids - Country
  • WNWN 95.5 - Kalamazoo - Urban Adult Contemporary (translator for AM 1560)
  • WLKM-FM 95.9 - Three Rivers - Classic Hits
  • WMAX-FM 96.1 - Grand Rapids - Sports
  • WZOX 96.5 - Portage/Kalamazoo - Alternative Rock
  • WGRD 97.9 - Grand Rapids - Rock
  • WNWN-FM 98.5 - Battle Creek - Country
  • WBCH-FM 100.1 - Hastings - Country
  • WQXC 100.9 - Otsego/Kalamazoo - Oldies
  • WMUK 102.1 - Kalamazoo - NPR/Classical/Jazz
  • WKFR 103.3 - Battle Creek/Kalamazoo - CHR/Top 40
  • WVGR 104.1 - Grand Rapids - NPR/News/Public Radio
  • WBXX 104.9 - Battle Creek - Adult Contemporary
  • WOOD-FM 105.7 - Grand Rapids - Adult Contemporary
  • WJXQ 106.1 - Jackson/Lansing - Active Rock
  • WVFM 106.5 - Kalamazoo - Adult Contemporary
  • WBBL 107.3 - Greenville/Grand Rapids - Sports
  • WRKR 107.7 - Portage/Kalamazoo - Classic Rock

AM radio stations which serve Kalamazoo include:

  • WKZO 590 - Kalamazoo - News/Talk (CBS)
  • WAKV 980 - Allegan/Otsego - Adult Standards
  • WKMI 1360 - Kalamazoo - Talk (ABC)
  • WKPR 1420 - Kalamazoo - Religious (daytime only)
  • WNWN 1560 - Portage/Kalamazoo - Urban Adult Contemporary (daytime only; 24 hour FM translator at 95.5)
  • WQLR 1660 - Kalamazoo - Sports (FOX)

Radio stations from Battle Creek, Grand Rapids and Lansing are also heard in Kalamazoo.

Transportation[edit]

The Wolverine, eastbound, crosses Academy Street in Kalamazoo. The campus of Kalamazoo College lies to the right.
The train station component of the Kalamazoo Transportation Center.

Highways[edit]

Kalamazoo is served by highways I-94, US 131, M-43 and M-96. It was on the original Territorial Road in Michigan of the 19th century, which started in Detroit and ran to Lake Michigan. Much of that, but not all, later became Old US 12—the "old" designation came about when I-94 was built parallel to it—and also was called Red Arrow Highway after a World War I army division. The name "US 12" was shifted south to what once was US 112 between Detroit and New Buffalo . Some parts of Old US 12 outside of town, especially in Van Buren and Berrien counties to the west, are still called Red Arrow Highway. The term "Old US 12" has faded from use.

Rail[edit]

  • Kalamazoo has rail service provided by Amtrak, with the station located downtown and combined with a newly renovated bus terminal.
  • Kalamazoo also has a freight service provided by Grand Elk Railroad running north to Grand Rapids, Michigan and south to Elkhart, Indiana. The line they lease was a former Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad mainline.

Bus[edit]

Air[edit]

Other[edit]

The Kal-Haven Trail, heavily used by cyclists and snowmobilers, extends to downtown Kalamazoo. It runs 34 miles (55 km) between South Haven, Michigan, to a trailhead just west of Kalamazoo. Between that trailhead and South Haven the trail is run by Van Buren County, even the parts within Kalamazoo County. A trail pass is no longer required. The Kal-Haven is a rail trail, built on the former right-of-way of the Kalamazoo and South Haven Railroad.

The section east of the trailhead was opened in 2008 and extends to downtown Kalamazoo. It's known as the Kalamazoo River Valley Trail and is run by Kalamazoo County. No pass is required on that section.

Popular culture[edit]

Kalamazoo's name is a familiar reference in popular music, since its exotic sound makes it a "great word for a lyric".[52] Its use as metonym for a remote place is discussed above — "although when it comes to both Timbuktu and Kalamazoo, most of that brag-worthy exotic allure is merely in their names."[11] Nonetheless, numerous songs use the city's name in their song title or lyrics.

Probably the most famous and first was (I've Got a Gal In) Kalamazoo" (1942) by the Glenn Miller band with Tex Beneke. This #1 popular song was written by Mack Gordon and Harry Warren. The performance was recreated with Gene Morrison Orchestra as the Glenn Miller Band and the Nicholas Brothers (doing a memorable dance) in the 1942 movie Orchestra Wives.[53][54] This was nominated: Best Music, Original Song in Academy Awards) Harry Warren (music), Mack Gordon (lyrics).[54][55] See 15th Academy Awards.

At least a dozen songs (and many more versions) of "Kalamazoo" songs have been recorded. In chronological order others include: "I've Been Everywhere" by Hank Snow (1962) (album of the same title)[56] and Johnny Cash (1996) Unchained[57] — reworked from the original 1959 Geoff Mack Australian-place-names version made popular by the singer Lucky Starr; "Down on the Corner" (1969) by Creedence Clearwater Revival on their fourth studio album, Willy and the Poor Boys — covered by a dozen other groups;[58] "Kalamazoo" (1995) by Luna on Penthouse;[59] "Cold Rock a Party" (1997) by MC Lyte on Bad As I Wanna B;[60] "Kalamazoo" a song by the rock trio Primus on the 1997 Brown Album';[61] "Top of the World" by Rascalz (1999) on Global Warning;[62] "Kalamazoo", a song by Ben Folds on the 2004 EP Super D;[63] "65 Miles from Kalamazoo" (2008) by R.J. Miller (a lament for a lost Gibson guitar and a metaphor about "an old girlfriend from Kalamazoo");[64] and "Kalamazoo" (2009) by Mike Craver on his album Shining Down.[65] Like Miller, the Creedence and Axton lyrics probably use the word "Kalamazoo" as an oblique reference to Gibson Guitars, which made various models named "Kalamazoo", all prominently adorned with the city's name as their origin. Rapper Young Jeezy also referenced the city in the song "Higher Learning" on his third album "TM103:Hustlerz Ambition".[52][66]

The "Kalamazoo" was one of several names of a railroad Handcar, and was produced by the Kalamazoo Manufacturing Company.[67]

Sister cities[edit]

The city of Kalamazoo, Michigan has four sister cities.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. [dead link]
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-03. 
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008[dead link]
  7. ^ Living in Kalamazoo, Balls & Lassfalk, 1958
  8. ^ Potier, Pierre. 1996. Les écrits de pierre potier, ed[dead link]. Robert Toupin. Ottawa, ON, CAN: University of Ottawa Press.
  9. ^ Kalamazoo and how it Grew...and Grew, Dunbar, 1959
  10. ^ Romig, Walter (1986). Michigan Place Names. Walter Romig. p. 297. 
  11. ^ a b Trinidad, Erik (8 August 2011). "Want To Go From Timbuktu to Kalamazoo?". Discovery.com. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  12. ^ "Yes, there really is a Kalamazoo" t-shirt, at Kalamazoo Chamber of Commerce.
  13. ^ Dunbar, Willis (1995). Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Edermans. pp. 10–12. ISBN 0-8028-7055-4. 
  14. ^ "Michigan Centennial History". Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  15. ^ "Kalamazoo's First Residents: Our Native Americans". Kalamazoo Public Library: Local history. Retrieved 2007-06-07. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Michigan Centennial History". Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  17. ^ "Titus Bronson: Founder of Kalamazoo". Kalamazoo Public Library: Local history. Retrieved 2006-06-20. [dead link]
  18. ^ "The History of Kalamazoo MI". Living in Kalamazoo. Retrieved 2006-06-20. 
  19. ^ John T. Houdek and Charles F. Heller Jr., "The Emergence of Prosperous Farmers and Businessmen in Nineteenth-Century Kalamazoo County, Michigan," Michigan Historical Review (2011) 37#2 pp 53-78
  20. ^ "Dawn of the Dead Mall: Change Observer: Design Observer". Changeobserver.designobserver.com. 2008-11-12. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  21. ^ History of Kalamazoo.
  22. ^ "Kalamazoo 1980 Tornado". Kalamazoo County, Michigan, Genealogy and Local History. Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2006-07-30. 
  23. ^ Al Sabo Preserve
  24. ^ Marsh[dead link]
  25. ^ "City Commission". City of Kalamazoo. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  26. ^ "Hopewell sworn in as Kalamazoo mayor - News". Western Herald. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  27. ^ "Intel Most Unwired College Challenge". Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  28. ^ "Affordable College for All". CBS, Katie Couric. Retrieved 2007-02-07.  To receive any assistance, a student must live within the Kalamazoo Public School District boundaries and would have had to attend since at least ninth grade. Sixty-five percent of that student's tuition would be paid. The scale goes up from there, with eighth graders receiving 70 percent of their tuition paid, 75 percent for seventh graders, 80 percent for sixth, 85 percent for fifth, 90 percent for fourth, and 95 for first through third graders. Resident students attending schools in the district from kindergarten through high school graduation will have 100 percent of their tuition and fees paid.
  29. ^ "10 Best Cities for Cheapskates". Kiplinger. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  30. ^ Bell's Brewery
  31. ^ [1][dead link]
  32. ^ Kalsec
  33. ^ "Welcome to Saskrailmuseum.org". Contact Us. September 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  34. ^ Heritage Guitar Inc
  35. ^ "Paper Industry Provides 25% of City's Employment", Kalamazoo News, 18 July 1940
  36. ^ "This is Still the Paper City", Al Jones, Kalamazoo Gazette, 14 March 1999
  37. ^ Associated Press (January 2, 2014). "Kalamazoo-based Stryker to buy California surgical business". Crain's Detroit Business. 
  38. ^ Cantero, Christina (October 4, 2013). "Landscape Forms: The biggest Kalamazoo company you've never heard of". MLive. 
  39. ^ "Kalamazoo Outdoor Gourmet". Retrieved February 1, 2013. 
  40. ^ West Michigan Data Center/Business Outlook[dead link]
  41. ^ Our Mission | The Fetzer Institute
  42. ^ Timeline | The Fetzer Institute
  43. ^ Kalamazoo Arts Council
  44. ^ Eccentric Ale Day[dead link]
  45. ^ Milham Park golf course[dead link]
  46. ^ "Library of the Year: Kalamazoo Public Library Kalamazoo, Michigan". Libraryjournal.com. Retrieved 2011-12-10. [dead link]
  47. ^ Kalamazoo Public Library
  48. ^ Kalamazoo Animation Festival International[dead link]
  49. ^ "Over 90 Years of Extraordinary Musical Experiences and Educational Programs | Kalamazoo Symphony Orchestra (KSO)". Kalamazoosymphony.com. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  50. ^ SI.com - MLB - Former President Bush recalls first CWS - Thursday June 14, 2007 10:02PM
  51. ^ "Kalamazoo Rugby Football Club". Retrieved June 3, 2014. 
  52. ^ a b "Kalamazoo in song". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  53. ^ Lyrics, Glenn Miller "I've Got a Gal in Kalamazoo".
  54. ^ a b Miller, Glenn (1943). "I've Got a Gal in Kalamazoo" (video). Orchestra Wives. YouTube. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  55. ^ "Orchestra Wives". IMDB. Retrieved 27 December 2011.  See also Boom Shot (song).
  56. ^ Lyrics I've Been Everywhere" by Hank Snow
  57. ^ Lyrics, "I've Been Everywhere" by Johnny Cash
  58. ^ Lyrics, "Down on the Corner" by Creedence Clearwater Revival
  59. ^ Lyrics, "Kalamazoo" by Luna
  60. ^ "Cold Rock a Party][dead link]]" by MC Lyte
  61. ^ Lyrics, "Kalamazoo" by Primus.
  62. ^ "Top of the World" by Rascalz
  63. ^ Lyrics;* "Kalamazoo" the cat in the Hoyt Axton song Della and the Dealer; "Kalamazoo" by Ben Folds Five.
  64. ^ "65 Miles from Kalamazoo"
  65. ^ "Mike Craver Kalamazoo". Mike Craver. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  66. ^ "Gibson Kalamazoo". Shanzuguitars.com. 2 January 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  67. ^ "Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede and Car Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan, U.S.". Retrieved November 22, 2012. 

External links[edit]