Khanate of Kalat
|Princely state of Pakistan|
|-||Disestablished||14 October 1955|
|Area||91,909 km2 (35,486 sq mi)|
|Government of Balochistan|
|This article is part of the series|
|Former administrative units of Pakistan|
The Khanate of Kalat (Balochi: قلات) was a princely state that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. It was successively vassal of Mughal Empire, Nader Shah's Persian Empire, Durrani Empire and Emirate of Afghanistan. In the 19th and 20th centuries, until August 1947, it was a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India, then was fully independent until March 1948, when its Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a Princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into Pakistan.
The state capital was the town of Kalat.
The Khanate of Kalat occupied the central part of the territory of modern-day Balochistan province in Pakistan.
The principal mountains are the Central Brahui, Kirthar, Pab, Siahan, Central Makran and Makran Coast Ranges, which descend in elevation from about 10,000 to 1,200 feet (370 m). The drainage of the country is almost all carried off to the south by the Nari, Mula, Hab, Porali, Hingol and Dasht rivers. The only large river draining northwards is the Rakhshan. The coast line includes Gawadar, Pasni, Sonmiani and Geewani in Pakistan and Chahbahar, Bandar Abbas in Iran.
The Khanate of Kalat was founded in 1666. The Khanate reached at its peak during the period of Naseer Khan I, who unified Kalat region under his flag. The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province.
From 15 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. The Baluchistan States Union was formed on 3 October 1952 with three neighbouring states. The Khanate of Kalat ceased to exist on 14 October 1955 when the province of West Pakistan was formed.
Rulers of Kalat
The rulers of Kalat held the title of Wali originally but in 1739 also took the title (Begler Begi) Khan usually shortened to Khan. The last Khan of Kalat (Urdu: خان قلات) had the privilege of being the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union.
|Tenure||Khan of Kalat|
|1638-1666||Mir Hassan Mirwani 1st wali of Kalat|
|1666–1667||Mir Ahmad Khan I|
|1695–1696||Mir Mehrab Khan|
|1697–1713||Mir Samandar Khan|
|1713–1714||Mir Ahmad Khan II|
|1715–1730||Mir Abdullah Khan|
|1730–1749||Mir Muhabbat Khan|
|1749–1794||Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan I|
|1794–1831||Mir Mahmud Khan I|
|1831 - 13 November 1839||Mir Mehrab Khan II|
|1839–1840||Mir Shah Nawaz Khan|
|1840–1857||Mir Noori Naseer Khan II|
|1857 - March 1863||Mir Khudadad Khan (1st time) during his period of rule, there were seven major and many minor rebellion took place.|
|March 1863 - May 1864||Mir Sherdil Khan (usurped throne)|
|May 1864 - 15 August 1893||Mir Khudadad Khan (2nd time)|
|10 November 1893 - 3 November 1931||Mir Mahmud Khan II|
|3 November 1931 - 10 September 1933||Mir Mohammad Azam Jan Khan|
|10 September 1933 - 14 October 1955||Mir Ahmad Yar Khan|
|12 March 1955 - 30 March 1955||State of Kalat ceded to Pakistan|
- Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province)
- Las Bela
- Kalat State National Party
- Balochistan region
- List of Indian Princely States
- Swidler, N. (1972) "The Development of the Kalat Khanate" Journal of Asian and African Studies 7: pp. 115–21
- Swidler, N. (1992). Kalat: The Political Economy of a Tribal Chiefdom. American Ethnologist, 19(3), 553-570
- Kalat District - Planning and Development Department of Balochistan Government
- Genealogy of the Khans of Kalat