Kalgoorlie

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Kalgoorlie-Boulder
Western Australia
Kalgoorlie.jpg
Kalgoorlie Post Office, Hannan Street
Kalgoorlie-Boulder is located in Australia
Kalgoorlie-Boulder
Kalgoorlie-Boulder
Coordinates 30°44′56″S 121°27′57″E / 30.74889°S 121.46583°E / -30.74889; 121.46583Coordinates: 30°44′56″S 121°27′57″E / 30.74889°S 121.46583°E / -30.74889; 121.46583
Population 31,107 (2011 Census)[1] (42nd)
 • Density 273.9/km2 (709/sq mi)
Established 1893
Elevation 468 m (1,535 ft)
Area 103.1 km2 (39.8 sq mi)
Time zone AWST (UTC+8)
Location 595 km (370 mi) E of Perth
LGA(s) City of Kalgoorlie-Boulder
State electorate(s) Kalgoorlie, Eyre
Federal Division(s) O'Connor
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
25.2 °C
77 °F
11.6 °C
53 °F
265.6 mm
10.5 in

Kalgoorlie, now known as Kalgoorlie-Boulder after Kalgoorlie and Boulder joined, is a city in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia, Australia, and is located 595 kilometres (370 mi) east-northeast of Perth at the end of the Great Eastern Highway. The town was founded in 1893 during the Yilgarn-Goldfields gold rush, and is located close to the so-called "Golden Mile".

According to the 2011 census, it had a population of 31,107,[2] making it the largest urban centre in the Goldfields-Esperance region and the fifth-largest in Western Australia.

The name Kalgoorlie is derived from the Wangai word Karlkurla, meaning "place of the silky pears".[citation needed]

History[edit]

Hannan St in September 1930. The Exchange Hotel is at the centre, with the Palace Hotel on the right.

In January 1893, prospectors Patrick (Paddy) Hannan, Tom Flanagan, and Dan O'Shea were travelling to Mount Youle when one of their horses cast a shoe. During the halt in their journey, the men noticed signs of gold in the area, and decided to stay and investigate. On 17 June 1893, Hannan filed a Reward Claim, leading to hundreds of men swarming to the area in search of gold and Kalgoorlie, originally called Hannan's, was born.[3]

The population of the town was 2,018 (1516 males and 502 females) in 1898.[4]

The mining of gold, along with other metals such as nickel, has been a major industry in Kalgoorlie ever since, and today employs about one-quarter of Kalgoorlie's workforce and generates a significant proportion of its income. The concentrated area of large gold mines surrounding the original Hannan find is often referred to as the Golden Mile, and is considered by some to be the richest square mile of earth on the planet. The town's population was about 30,000 people in 1903 and began to grow into nearby Boulder.

Kalgoorlie after the 1934 race riots

In 1901 the population of Kalgoorlie was 4,793 (3087 males and 1706 females) which increased to 6,790 (3904 males and 2886 females).[5]

The 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge Government railway line reached Kalgoorlie in 1896, and the main named railway service from Perth was the overnight sleeper train The Westland which ran until the 1970s. In 1917, a 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge railway line was completed, connecting Kalgoorlie to the city of Port Augusta, South Australia across 2,000 kilometres (1,243 mi) of desert, and consequently the rest of the eastern states. The standardisation of the railway connecting Perth (which changed route from the narrow gauge route) in 1968 completed the Sydney-Perth railway, making it possible for rail travel from Perth to Sydney—and the Indian Pacific rail service commenced soon after. During the 1890s, the Goldfields area boomed as a whole, with an area population exceeding 200,000, mainly prospectors. The area gained a notorious reputation for being a wild west with bandits and prostitutes. This rapid increase in population and claims of neglect by the state government in Perth led to the proposition of the new state of Auralia but with the sudden diaspora after the Gold Rush these plans fell through.

Places, famous or infamous, that Kalgoorlie is noted for include its water pipeline, designed by C. Y. O'Connor and bringing in fresh water from Mundaring Weir near Perth, its Hay Street brothels, its two-up school, the goldfields railway loopline, the Kalgoorlie Town Hall, the Paddy Hannan statue/drinking fountain, the Super Pit and Mount Charlotte lookout. Its main street is Hannan Street, named after the town's founder. One of the infamous brothels also serves as a museum and is a major national attraction.

Kalgoorlie and the surrounding district was serviced by an extensive collection of suburban railways and tramways, providing for both passenger and freight traffic.[6]

Mining[edit]

Since 1992, Kalgoorlie has been home to the Diggers & Dealers conference, held annually in August. It is Australia's premier international mining conference.[7]

It is also home to the Australian Prospectors & Miners' Hall of Fame.

The Super Pit[edit]

The Super Pit is an open-cut gold mine approximately 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi) long, 1.6 kilometres (1.0 mi) wide and 512 metres (1,680 ft) deep.[8] It was created by Alan Bond, who bought up a number of old mine leases in order to get the land area needed for the Super Pit. Occasionally the excavating has revealed an old shaft containing abandoned equipment and vehicles from the earlier mines.

The mine operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and a visitor centre overlooks it. The mine blasts at 1:00 pm every day, unless winds would carry dust over the town. Each of the massive trucks carries 225 tonnes of rock and the round trip takes about 35 minutes, most of that time being the slow uphill haul. Employees must live in Kalgoorlie; it is not a fly-in fly-out operation. The mine is expected to be productive until about 2029.

Attractions[edit]

York and Oriental Hotels, ca. 1900

Kalgoorlie-Boulder, being the largest settlement for many hundreds of kilometres and employing many at the Super Pit, is naturally the centre of the area's social life. Of particular interest is the Kalgoorlie-Boulder Racecourse, a horse racing venue. Also well known in the area are the Kalgoorlie Skimpies, ladies employed by each pub who walk around in their underwear or burlesque outfits to attract punters and who expect a fee in return.[9] There are two grass sports ovals in the area and a cinema showing recent international releases.[10]

Accommodation[edit]

There are historical hotels/motels in Kalgoorlie which are still operating today;[citation needed]

  • Broken Hill Hotel. Iconic venue in Boulder. Known as the best "local pub" in the region.
  • Miners Rest Hotel/Motel. Popular site on the highway into Kalgoorlie from Perth
  • Exchange Hotel, Kalgoorlie. Situated at Kalgoorlie's main intersection.
  • Kalgoorlie Hotel. Situated opposite the Kalgoorlie town hall.
  • Palace Hotel, Kalgoorlie. Situated at Kalgoorlie's main intersection.
  • Piccadilly Hotel. Suburban Pub north of the Kalgoorlie CBD.
  • Recreation Hotel. Two storey historic hotel in Boulder.
Map showing the proposed boundaries of Auralia (of which Kalgoorlie would have been the state capital)

There are also some hotels that no longer exist in the city;

  • Boulder Block (demolished 1991) (Removed due to Super Pit expansion. This pub had a mine shaft so underground workers could access it.)
  • Commercial Hotel (burnt down 3 November 1978)[11]
  • Cornwall Hotel, Boulder[12][13]
  • Foundry Hotel (closed 2005– Damaged by fire 3 July 2008, deliberately lit on fire in 2009, Burnt to the ground 2012)
  • Glendevon Hotel (burnt down 1986)
  • Mount Lyall (refurbished as a restaurant 2004, currently a Nando's restaurant[14] )
  • Oriental Hotel (demolished July 1972)[15]
  • Golden Eagle [The collapsed balcony of the Golden Eagle hotel on the corner of Lane and Wittenoom St in Boulder.] Proof. Damaged by fire then demolished in 2012
  • Fimiston Hotel (Demolished February 1980)[16]

Suburbs[edit]

The Kalgoorlie-Boulder metropolitan area consists of the following suburbs:[17]

  • Boulder

Known as the home of the Super Pit, it is one of Kalgoorlie-Boulder's historical suburbs featuring many buildings and landmarks dating as far back as 1882. It was once the central business district for the Town of Boulder, but since amalgamation with Kalgoorlie, it is now more of a historical local centre. Boulder has its own post office, town hall and many hotels along its main thoroughfare, Burt Street. A significant refurbishment has been commenced as part of the 'Royalties for Regions' initiative.

  • Broadwood (aka – Hampton Heights)

A new housing suburb located next to the Kalgoorlie-Boulder Airport which was recently expanded and is enjoying healthy growth in property values.

  • Fairways

This area derives its name from the golf course that once occupied the area. It was released to provide affordable property to a growing population in Kalgoorlie-Boulder. Fairways features a private primary school, church, caravan park and small business.

  • Golden Grove (formerly Adeline)

Adeline was originally constructed around 1970 by the State Housing Commission. The suburb was built on the "Radburn concept", with houses facing away from the street and common pathways linking homes. The area has been plagued by antisocial problems. In 2003, a significant urban renewal project, including the renaming of the suburb to Golden Grove and re-aligning of homes was commenced. The project has seen some success but has yet to fully eliminate antisocial problems within the area.[18]

  • Hampton Heights

See Broadwood.

  • Hannans

Located in Kalgoorlie's far north. Hannans was the first suburb to have its own independent shopping centre ("Hannans Boulevard") which includes a Coles Supermarket. The area also has a primary school and an 18 hole golf course. The original course was not formally grassed but was recently refurbished. Several surrounding golf clubs joined together to form one club known as 'The Goldfields Golf Club'. A dam has been constructed to service what is now a luxury grass golf course and club. Alongside the golf course project has been the development and release of Greenview estate. It lies on the western border of Hannans. This ongoing project has been designed as an environmentally friendly estate, and will eventually consist of over 2000 homes, apartments and facilities such as parks and schools. As one of Kalgoorlie's highest growth areas there has been a proposal for a new alternative route, out of the suburb onto the Kalgoorlie Bypass, to avoid traffic problems on the already heavily used Graeme Street which is a direct route to the city centre. Other developments include 'Karkurla Rise' and 'Karkurla View' which have added an additional 400 homes to the area.

  • Central Kalgoorlie
Main article: Kalgoorlie (suburb)

The central business district. Hannan Street, named after Paddy Hannan, is the Kalgoorlie's main street and stretches The length of the suburb. The western side of the suburb consists of housing and some light industry. The eastern side contains retail chains, banks, the police station, court house, restaurants, hotels, tourist attractions, schools, university and TAFE.

  • Lamington

One of Kalgoorlie's oldest suburbs. Much like other older suburbs, almost every street is parallel with Hannan Street in Central Kalgoorlie and are noticeably wide. It houses North Kalgoorlie Primary School, small businesses, a medical practices, a hotel, tavern and a non-maintained 18 hole golf course.

  • Mullingar

Much smaller today than it originally was before the Super Pit expansion. It's located at the far east end of Lamington between the northern Goldfields railway and Goldfields Highway.

  • O'Connor

Officially O'Connor is the south-east section of the suburb of Somerville. Much of the area is increasingly now known as O'Connor. It is home to a primary school, private high school Goldfields Baptist College and shopping facilities. It also houses the city's only recreation centre.

A narrow suburb following Piccadilly street between Central Kalgoorlie and Lamington. It features the city's regional hospital, small businesses, a hotel, sporting arena and two grassed ovals.

  • Somerville

Somerville marks the end of Great Eastern Highway that stretches between Kalgoorlie-Boulder and Perth. Much of the area is now referred to locally as O'Connor. Somerville contains residential area, schools, retail shops, light industry and some horse stables. In the past it also contained market gardens.

  • South Kalgoorlie

Stretching from Boundary Street, Kalgoorlie to Holmes Street, Golden Grove and bordering with Central Kalgoorlie, O'Connor and Golden Grove. South Kalgoorlie is mostly residential but also contains the Kalgoorlie-Boulder Racecourse, schools, some light industrial and small businesses. The suburb was expanded in the mid-1990s to include a sub-division named 'Sport of Kings' on Maxwell Street, using a surplus of land from the racecourse.

  • Victory Heights

A residential only subdivision within Fairways estate along Burt Street.

  • West Kalgoorlie

Kalgoorlie's main industrial area. It is the first suburb as you approach Kalgoorlie on the Great Eastern Highway. It features the city's airport and small, medium and heavy industrial. Currently under expansion further west (ANZAC Drive Industrial Estate.)

  • West Lamington

The western tip of Lamington was built in the 1980s. It includes one shop, sporting facilities and an arboretum nature reserve.

  • Williamstown

The small remains of East Kalgoorlie which now consists mostly of 'The Super Pit' open cut mine. The small existing area features mostly housing with one small primary school. It is also home to the Mount Charlotte mine shaft and Nanny Goat Hill. Owners of 'The Super Pit' have purchased many of the houses in the Williamstown area leaving many houses empty and some demolished leaving empty lots. There have been revegetation research projects commenced in the area.

Panorama of Kalgoorlie

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

The town is located on the main East-West rail corridor across Australia. Transwa operates once to twice daily passenger train services from Kalgoorlie to Perth. The Indian Pacific train also stops here, operating once to twice per week in each direction.

Buses[edit]

Town bus services are provided by TransGoldfields, there are three town routes as well as school services. Transwa also operates road coaches that service the town.

Air[edit]

Commercial air services connect Kalgoorlie-Boulder with Adelaide, Melbourne and Perth, operating out of the Kalgoorlie-Boulder Airport. Airlines that provide regular flights include Alliance Airlines, Qantas, QantasLink and Virgin Australia.

Road[edit]

Kalgoorlie is linked to Perth by the Great Eastern Highway, and is also on the Goldfields Highway.

Media[edit]

Radio

Radio Services available in Kalgoorlie:

  • ABC Goldfields-Esperance: 6GF 648 AM \ 94.3 FM (Part of the ABC Local Radio Network)
  • ABC Classic FM: 6ABCFM 95.5 FM;
  • ABC Radio National: 6ABCRN 97.1 FM
  • ABC Triple J: 6JJJ 93.5 FM \ 98.7 FM
  • ABC News Radio: 6PNN 100.3 FM
  • Hot FM, (Commercial Station) 6KAR: 91.9 \ 97.9 FM – Top 40 radio format
  • RadioWest (Commercial Station) 6 kg: 981 AM \ 92.7 FM – Adult Contemporary / Classic Hits / Talk radio format
  • Vision Radio Network 1431 AM : Community Narrowcast Station – Christian praise, worship music and talk.
  • Tjuma Pulka (Media) Aboriginal Corporation : 96.3 FM (Aboriginal Community radio service)
  • 6TAB Racing Radio – 88FM (LIVE broadcasts of Horse Racing, Greyhound Racing and Harness Racing, with talkback and music played at other times).

Television Television services available include:

The programming schedule is mainly the same as the Seven, Nine and Ten stations in Perth with variations for News bulletins, sport telecasts such as the Australian Football League and National Rugby League, children's and lifestyle programs and infomercials or paid programming.

Both GWN7 and WIN maintain newsrooms in the city. The GWN7 bureau provides coverage of the surrounding area for the station's nightly 30-minute news program, GWN7 News, at 5:30 pm on weeknights. The WIN bureau provides coverage for sister station STW-9's Nine News bulletins at 6:00 pm each night and 4:30 pm on weekdays, which are simulcast on WIN.

New Digital television services from GWN7 and WIN are expected to launch by the end of 2010. A new digital-only channel branded Ten West commenced transmission on Thursday 10 June 2010, it is a sole Network Ten affiliated channel.

Subscription Television Service Foxtel is available via Satellite.

Newspapers

The local newspaper for the Kalgoorlie-Boulder and Goldfields region is The Kalgoorlie Miner.

Newspapers from Perth including The West Australian and The Sunday Times are also available, as well as National Newspapers such as The Australian and The Australian Financial Review.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Kalgoorlie has a semi-arid climate with hot summers and mild winters. The average annual rainfall is 260mm on an average of 68 days and, while the average rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, there is considerable variation from year to year.

January is the hottest month with an average maximum temperature of 33.6 °C, but temperatures above 40.0 °C occur nearly once a week when hot, dry, north to northeasterly winds arrive. Such high temperatures are usually followed by a cool change from the south and occasionally with a thunderstorm.

By contrast winters are cool with July average maximum and minimum temperatures being 16.5 °C and 4.8 °C respectively. Cold wet days with a maximum below 12.0 °C occur about once every winter. The lowest maximum temperature recorded is 7.2 °C on 19 July 1961. Overnight temperatures fall below freezing about 4 times in a typical winter. Such events occur on clear nights following a day of cold southerly winds.

Climate data for Kalgoorlie
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 46.5
(115.7)
44.9
(112.8)
44.5
(112.1)
38.9
(102)
33.4
(92.1)
27.6
(81.7)
28.7
(83.7)
32.0
(89.6)
36.8
(98.2)
40.9
(105.6)
42.9
(109.2)
45.0
(113)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 33.6
(92.5)
32.1
(89.8)
29.5
(85.1)
25.2
(77.4)
20.6
(69.1)
17.5
(63.5)
16.7
(62.1)
18.6
(65.5)
22.3
(72.1)
25.8
(78.4)
28.9
(84)
31.9
(89.4)
25.2
(77.4)
Average low °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
17.8
(64)
16.0
(60.8)
12.6
(54.7)
8.7
(47.7)
6.2
(43.2)
5.0
(41)
5.5
(41.9)
8.0
(46.4)
11.0
(51.8)
14.0
(57.2)
16.5
(61.7)
11.6
(52.9)
Record low °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
8.5
(47.3)
5.7
(42.3)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
−3.4
(25.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
−0.6
(30.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
3.1
(37.6)
5.5
(41.9)
−3.4
(25.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23.6
(0.929)
31.2
(1.228)
24.0
(0.945)
21.3
(0.839)
26.5
(1.043)
28.9
(1.138)
24.9
(0.98)
21.4
(0.843)
14.0
(0.551)
14.8
(0.583)
17.8
(0.701)
16.4
(0.646)
264.8
(10.425)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2mm) 3.9 4.5 4.3 5.3 7.1 8.7 9.2 7.5 5.6 4.3 4.1 3.8 68.3
Source: [20]

Earthquakes[edit]

On 20 April 2010, Kalgoorlie was rocked by a richter magnitude 5.0 earthquake whose epicentre was 30 km north east of the town.[21] The quake caused damage to a number of commercial hotels along Burt Street in Boulder and it was reported that the underpass on Burt Street collapsed, although this was later found to be false. The entire Burt St. precinct was evacuated until 23 April. Work in the Superpit and many other mines around Kalgoorlie was stopped.[22]

Study of eucalyptus trees[edit]

A research published 23 October 2013 in the journal Nature Communications by a group of scientists from CSIRO Australia, has found that "Eucalyptus trees in the Kalgoorlie region of Western Australia are drawing up gold particles from Earth via their root system and depositing it in their leaves and branches."[23][24]

Schools[edit]

There are 10 primary schools, 4 high schools and 1 university in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder area.

Primary schools[edit]

  • Boulder Primary School
  • East Kalgoorlie Primary School
  • Goldfields Baptist College (private)
  • Hannans Primary School
  • Kalgoorlie Primary School
  • Kalgoorlie School of the Air
  • North Kalgoorlie Primary School
  • O'Connor Primary School
  • Saint Joseph's Primary School (private)
  • Saint Mary's Primary School (Kalgoorlie Catholic Primary School) (private)
  • South Kalgoorlie Primary School

High schools[edit]

Universities[edit]

  • Curtin University of Technology – Kalgoorlie Campus (includes the Western Australian School of Mines and Curtin VTEC; formerly Kalgoorlie College)
  • University of Western Australia and University of Notre Dame Australia – Rural Clinical School of Western Australia [1]

Sports[edit]

Kalgoorlie-Boulder's location, being approximately 600 km from Perth, contributes to high levels of participation in Australian rules football, netball, basketball, rugby league, soccer, hockey and cricket. Other popular sports in Kalgoorlie include tennis, lawn bowls, rugby union and swimming.

Kalgoorlie also has an international squash tournament held every year at the YMCA.

In a statewide sense, the semi-professional Goldfields Giants basketball team competes in the State Basketball League (SBL), and were SBL Champions in 2007 and 2008.

The Goldfields Titans play in the Western Australia Rugby League Harvey Norman Premiership state rugby league competition. Home games at the Oasis playing fields on Saturday afternoons.

Horse racing is also very popular in the city, and Kalgoorlie-Boulder is home to the internationally recognised annual 'Race Round'.

Notable people[edit]

Images[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (26 June 2012). "2011 Census Quickstats: Kalgoorlie/Boulder (C)". Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  2. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Kalgoorlie/Boulder (WA) (Statistical District)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 April 2008. 
  3. ^ Raymond Radclyffe, Wealth and Wildcats, Carlisle, Western Australia: Hesperian (1898, reprinted 2004), p.15.
  4. ^ "Population of Western Australia". Western Mail (Perth, Western Australia: National Library of Australia). 22 April 1898. p. 23. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "West Australia". Kalgoorlie Western Argus (Western Australia: National Library of Australia). 9 June 1903. p. 32. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  6. ^ Railways and roads of Kalgoorlie Singleton, C.C. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, March/April 1954 pp33-36/40-44
  7. ^ Diggers and Dealers 2010 – The Song Remains The Same ABC Rural, author: Babs McHugh , published: 2 August 2010, accessed: 26 October 2010
  8. ^ Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines (2007). "The Super Pit – Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2008. 
  9. ^ The Western Australian on a famous Skimpie retrieved 7 July 2012
  10. ^ Link to Kalgoorlie cinemas schedules
  11. ^ "Kalgoorlie Miner" Fire Guts Top Floor of Commercial. 4 November 1978. p1.
  12. ^ Le Souef, Leslie (1934), The Cornwall Hotel, Boulder owned by one of the Jordans best friends Jack Osmetti. Looted and destroyed by fire. This hotel will be well remembered by the Walsh, Pitman-Coulter, Treffene murder cases, retrieved 22 March 2012 
  13. ^ Damage to the Cornwall Hotel from riots, 1900, retrieved 22 March 2012  destroyed during 1934 riots
  14. ^ "Nando's restaurants near Kalgoorlie". 
  15. ^ Kalgoorlie Miner "Oriental Hotel demolition starts amid protests". 29 June 1972. p1.
  16. ^ Kalgoorlie Miner "Famous old Hotel being pulled down". 1 February 1980. p3.
  17. ^ Greater Perth street directory (54th ed ed.), Ausway Digital, 2012, retrieved 26 January 2014  The Melway Perth suburban map has a series of maps at the rear of Kalgoorlie suburbs K1 to K6, Western Australia. Dept. of Land Information (2006), Travellers atlas of Western Australia (9th ed ed.), Dept. of Land Information, ISBN 978-1-921048-13-5 the travellers atlas has K2 to K7 – each of these map series are almost identical and show suburb boundaries.
  18. ^ "HOMESWEST HOUSING, KALGOORLIE, ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOUR". Government Western Australia. 11 March 2003. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  19. ^ Aerial Surveys Australia; HRRC (1969), Aerial photograph of Kalgoorlie looking south west across the cemetery, the suburb of Piccadilly and the town, 18 Dec. 1969 [picture], retrieved 26 January 2014 
  20. ^ "Kalgoorlie climate statistics". 
  21. ^ "Government to help Kalgoorlie quake victims". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 20 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  22. ^ Burke, Louise; O'Connell, Ronan; Pownall, Angela (20 April 2010). "Earthquake strikes Goldfields". Yahoo7 (The West Australian). Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  23. ^ CSIRO Australia (23 October 2013). "Gilding the gum tree: Scientists strike gold in leaves". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  24. ^ Lintern, Melvyn; Ravi Anand; Chris Ryan; David Paterson (23 October 2013). "Natural gold particles in Eucalyptus leaves and their relevance to exploration for buried gold deposits". Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ncomms3614. 
  25. ^ a b "KEMP, MR DEAN, RETIREMENT" (PDF). Western Australia Hansard. 23 August 2001. p. 2923. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  26. ^ "Rica Erickson". State Library of Western Australia. 1 September 2001. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  27. ^ "Brian Hayes". BBC Press Office. 1 June 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2008. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Lindrum, Walter Albert (1898–1960)". Australian Dictionary of Biography:Online. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  29. ^ Helen Wolfenden (4 October 2005). "From Kalgoorlie ward to Nobel award". ABC Radio Goldfields Esperance WA. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  30. ^ "George Negus Tonight:Tim Rogers". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  31. ^ "Olympic Landcare Project". Kalgoorlie-Boulder Urban Landcare Group. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  32. ^ "WTF is Kev??". Kevin Bloody Wilson official site. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  33. ^ "Ron Manners". 

References[edit]

  • Casey, Gavin and Mayman, Ted.(1964) The Mile That Midas Touched Rigby, Adelaide..

Further reading[edit]

  • 100th anniversary of rail link (History of the Eastern Goldfields railway, officially completed on 1 January 1897, to the present, including introduction of the Prospector train on 29 November 1971) Kalgoorlie Miner 1 January 1997, p. 2
  • Early Railways in the Kalgoorlie Area Shepley, W.H. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, November 1965

External links[edit]

Kalgoorlie-Boulder travel guide from Wikivoyage

Preceding station   Transwa Trains network   Following station
towards East Perth
Prospector Terminus
Great Southern Railway
towards East Perth
Indian Pacific
towards Sydney