Kalhora Dynasty

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Kalhora Dynasty or Kalhoro Dynasty (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ) ruled Sindh and other parts of present day Pakistan. This dynasty was founded by Kalhora clan that ruled Sindh from 1701 to 1783. They were assigned to hold authority by the Mughal Grand Vizier Mirza Ghazi Beg and later formed their own dynasty, but they were known as the Kalhora Nawabs by the Mughal Emperors.

The Kalhora Dynasty succumbed to the Qizilbash during the invasion of Nadir Shah. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro reorganized and consolidated his power, but his son lost control of Sindh and was overthrown by Talpurs Amirs. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro was the last Kalhoro ruler.

Kalhora rule of Sindh begins in the year 1701 A.D when Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro was invested with title of Khuda Yar Khan and was made governor of Upper Sindh sarkar by royal decree of Mughals.Later,He was made governor of Siwi through imperial decree.He founded a new city Khudabad after he obtained from Aurangzeb a grant of the tract between the Indus and the Nara and made it capital of his kingdom.Thenceforth, Mian Yar Muhammad became one of the imperial agents or governors.Later he extended his rule to Sehwan and Bukkur and became sole ruler of Northern and central Sindh except Thatto which was still under administrative control of Mughal Empire.

The Kalhora dynasty (1701–1783) produced four powerful rulers namely, Mian Nasir Muhammad, Mian Yar Muhammad, Mian Noor Muhammad and Mian Ghulam Shah.