Kaliman I of Bulgaria
|Kaliman Asen I|
|Еmperor of Bulgaria|
|Predecessor||Ivan Asen II|
|Successor||Michael Asen I|
|Father||Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria|
|Mother||Anna Maria of Hungary|
Kaliman Asen I (Bulgarian: Калиман Асен I, or commonly but less accurately Коломан Асен I, Koloman Asen I), reigned as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1241 to 1246. Kaliman Asen I was the son of Ivan Asen II and Anna Maria of Hungary. His maternal grandparents were Andrew II of Hungary and Gertrude of Merania.
Kaliman Asen I was named after his maternal uncle, prince Kálmán of Hungary. His reign was characterized by the gradual weakening of the Bulgarian state. The seven-year-old emperor was obviously not able to rule by himself and the country was governed by a regency and there are indications that local authorities took advantage of the youth of the ruler to abuse their power in the provinces, for example at Melnik.
Early in the reign Bulgaria was invaded by the Mongols of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan. They were bought off by an annual tribute. Bulgaria's influence over neighboring Thessalonica and Serbia also came to an end, although the boundaries of the enlarged state remained the same until Kaliman Asen I's premature death. In 1245 Pope Innocent IV addressed him a letter seeking to bring the Bulgarian Church into a church union with the Roman Catholic Church.
Kaliman Asen I's death in August/September 1246 was attributed by the Byzantine chronicler George Acropolites to either natural causes or poisoning. He was succeeded by his younger half-brother Michael Asen I (often inaccurately called Michael II Asen).
- John V.A. Fine, Jr., The Late Medieval Balkans, Ann Arbor, 1987.
Ivan Asen II
|Emperor of Bulgaria
Michael Asen I