Kalingga (Javanese: Karajan Kalingga; 訶陵 Hēlíng or 闍婆 Dūpó in Chinese sources) was an Indianized kingdom on the north coast of Central Java, Indonesia. It was the earliest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Central Java, and together with Kutai and Tarumanagara are the oldest kingdoms in Indonesian history. The exact location of kingdom's capital is unknown, it is thought to be somewhere between present-day Pekalongan and Jepara. Kalingga existed between the 6th and 7th century, and it was one of the earliest Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms established in Java. The historical record of this kingdom is scarce and vague, and comes mostly from Chinese sources and local traditions.
It had trading links with the kingdoms of the north Indian Emperor Harsha and the south Indian Emperor Pulakesi II in the 7th century. The Chinese sources come from China and date back to the Tang Dynasty. According to the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing, in 664 CE a Chinese Buddhist monk named Huining (會寧 Huìníng) had arrived in Heling and stayed there for about three years. During his stay, and with the assistance of Jnanabhadra, a Heling monk, he translated numerous Buddhist Hinayana scriptures.
In 674 CE the kingdom was ruled by Queen Shima, notorious for her fierce law against thievery, which encouraged her people to be honest and uphold absolute truth. According to tradition, one day a foreign king placed a bag filled with gold on the intersection in Kalingga to test the famed truthful and honesty of Kalingga people. Nobody dared to touch the bag that did not belong to them, until three years later when Shima's son, the crown prince, accidentally touched the bag with his foot. The queen issued a death sentence to her own son, but was overruled by a minister that appealed the queen to spare the prince's life. Since it was the prince's foot that touched the bag of gold, so it was the foot that must be punished through mutilation. According to Carita Parahyangan, a book composed in later period, Shima's great-grandson is Sanjaya, who is the king of Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom, and also the founder of Medang Kingdom.
Another inscription dated from around the same period is Sojomerto inscription, discovered in Sojomerto village, Kecamatan Reban, Batang Regency, Central Java. It is written in Kavi script in Old Malay language, estimated dated from 7th century. The inscription tell about a ruler named Dapunta Selendra, son of Santanu and Bhadrawati, and husband of Sampula. Indonesian historian Prof. Drs. Boechari suggested that Dapunta Selendra was the ancestor of Sailendras that later rule in Mataram Kingdom.
Both inscriptions suggest that circa 7th century on the northern coast of Central Java, once flourish a Hindu Shivaist kingdom, today identified as Kalingga kingdom. Some oldest Javanese candis are also can be found in mountainous surrounding areas on northern Central Java, such as the Hindu temples of Dieng Plateau, and Gedong Songo temples, but they are probably built in later period, during the early Medang Kingdom. Historian suggested that there was a link between this old kingdom with later kingdom flourish in Southern Central Java Kedu Plain, the Sailendra of Medang i Bhumi Mataram.