Kalirin also known as Huntingtin-associated protein-interacting protein (HAPIP), protein duo (DUO), or serine/threonine-protein kinase with Dbl- and pleckstrin homology domain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KALRNgene. Kalirin was first identified in 1997 as a protein interacting with huntingtin-associated protein 1. Is also known to play an important role in nerve growth and axonal development.
Kalirin is a member of Dbl family of proteins and a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor. It is named after the multiple-handed Hindu goddess Kali for its ability to interact with numerous other proteins. Kalirin's other name, DUO, comes from the fact that it is 98% identical to rat DUO protein and 80.6% identical to a human protein named TRIO. Unlike TRIO, which is expressed in numerous tissues, Kalirin isoforms are mainly found in the brain.
^ abColomer V, Engelender S, Sharp AH, Duan K, Cooper JK, Lanahan A, Lyford G, Worley P, Ross CA (September 1997). "Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) binds to a Trio-like polypeptide, with a rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain". Hum. Mol. Genet.6 (9): 1519–25. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.9.1519. PMID9285789.
^Cahill ME, Xie Z, Day M, Barbolina MV, Miller CA, Weiss C, Radulovic J, Sweatt JD, Disterhoft JF, Surmeier DJ, Penzes P (July 2009). "Kalirin regulates cortical spine morphogenesis and disease-related behavioral phenotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America106 (31): 13058–63. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904636106. PMC2722269. PMID19625617.
^Youn H, Ji I, Ji HP, Markesbery WR, Ji TH (November 2007). "Under-expression of Kalirin-7 Increases iNOS activity in cultured cells and correlates to elevated iNOS activity in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus". J. Alzheimers Dis.12 (3): 271–81. PMID18057561.
^Youn H, Jeoung M, Koo Y, Ji H, Markesbery WR, Ji I, Ji TH (June 2007). "Kalirin is under-expressed in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus". J. Alzheimers Dis.11 (3): 385–97. PMID17851188.