Kalkoti language

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Pronunciation [kʰælkoːʈ]
Native to Pakistan
Region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Native speakers
6,000  (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 xka
Glottolog kalk1245[2]

Kalkoti is a Dardic language of the Shina group spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.[1] It is surrounded by languages predominantly in the Kohistani group.


The following tables outline the phonology of Kalkoti.[3]


Front Back
Close i~ɪ iː u~ʊ uː
Open æ~ə æː~aː ɑ~ɒ ɑ~ɒː

Short vowels are slightly centralized; nasalization of vowels may be phonemic.[3]


Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (?) ŋ (?)
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k q ʔ (?)
aspirated ʈʰ (?)
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts
aspirated tʂʰ (?) tʃʰ
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʂ ʃ x
voiced z ɣ
Lateral l
Flap ɾ ɽ (?)
Approximant ʋ j

The phonemes /q, ʦ, x, z, ɣ, ɽ/ have likely been introduced by loanwords. The voiceless aspirate series is secure, and, unlike the neighboring Palula language, Kalkoti does not have a breathy voiced series. The phonemic status of /ʔ/ is unclear and is likely tied to tone in Kalkoti.


Kalkoti's system of tone likely was similar to Shina's two tone system; however, under pressure from its Kohistani neighbors it may now have a more complex tone inventory.[3]


  1. ^ a b Kalkoti at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kalkoti". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b c Henrik, Liljegren (2013), "Notes on Kalkoti: A Shina Language with Strong Kohistani Influences", Linguistic Discovery Vol. 11, Issue 1 (Dartmoth University): 134–144