Kaluga Oblast

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Kaluga Oblast
Калужская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Kaluga Oblast[1]
Coordinates: 54°26′N 35°26′E / 54.433°N 35.433°E / 54.433; 35.433Coordinates: 54°26′N 35°26′E / 54.433°N 35.433°E / 54.433; 35.433
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Central[2]
Economic region Central[3]
Established July 5, 1944[4]
Administrative center Kaluga
Government (as of August 2010)
 - Governor[6] Anatoly Artamonov[5]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[7]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[8]
 - Total 29,800 km2 (11,500 sq mi)
Area rank 64th
Population (2010 Census)[9]
 - Total 1,010,930
 - Rank 51st
 - Density[10] 33.92/km2 (87.9/sq mi)
 - Urban 76.3%
 - Rural 23.7%
Population (January 2013 est.)
 - Total 1,005,585[11]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+03:00)[12]
ISO 3166-2 RU-KLU
License plates 40
Official languages Russian[13]
Official website

Kaluga Oblast (Russian: Калу́жская о́бласть, Kaluzhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Kaluga. Population: 1,010,930 (2010 Census).[9]

Established in 1944, Kaluga Oblast is located in the heart of the European part of Russia. It has well-developed transportation and utility infrastructure. The oblast has been demonstrating high economic growth rates, has substantial human reserves, and is one of the largest cultural, educational and scientific centers of Russia.

Geography[edit]

Kaluga Oblast is situated in the central part of the East European Plain. The oblast's territory is located between the Central Russian upland (with average elevation of above 200 m and maximum elevation of 275 m in the southeast), the Smolensk-Moscow upland and the Dnepr-Desna province. Most of the oblast is occupied by flatlands, fields and forests with diverse flora and fauna. The administrative center is located on the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The western part of the oblast located within the drift plain is dominated by the Spas-Demensk ridge. To the south of it is an outwash plain that is part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, with average elevation up to 200 m.

From north to south, Kaluga Oblast extends for more than 220 km, from 53°30' to 55°30' northern altitude, and east to west – for 220 km. Its area is 29,777,000 km².

The oblast's territory is crossed by major international motor and railways: Moscow – Kaluga – Bryansk – Kiev – Lvov - Warsaw.

Kaluga Oblast borders with Bryansk, Smolensk, Moscow, Tula and Oryol Oblasts, and with the city of Moscow (from July 1, 2012).

Terrain, geological structure, and mineral resources[edit]

Protva River in flowing in the oblast, in the area of Borovsk

Kaluga Oblast's modern terrain replicates pre-glacial terrain: undulated, with river valleys, ravines and hollows. Some glacial lakes have been preserved, like the oblast's deepest lake – the Bezdon.

The oblast is located between the Central Russian upland and the Smolensk-Moscow upland. There are both low plains elevating to 200 m above sea level, and high plains rising above 200 m. The southeastern part of the oblast is occupied by the Central Russian upland, and extreme northwest – by the Spas-Demensk ridge. The uplands are separated by the Yugorsk-Protvino lowland. In the extreme southwest, the oblast is covered by Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, and in the central part – by the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The highest point of the oblast is located on the Spas-Demensk ridge at 279 m (Zaitseva mountain), and the lowest – in the valley of the Oka (120 m above sea level). Thus, the amplitude of the terrain is 160 m.

Kaluga Oblast is situated in the central part of the East European Platform. The depth of the top (aqueous) structural stage is 400–500 m in the south and up to 1000–1400 m in the north. Most of the sedimentary sheath was formed by Devonian deposits. Their share in the south exceeds 80% of the entire aqueous depth (including quaternary formations). There are four geo-economic districts in Kaluga Oblast: North-East, Central, South and North-West.

The specific value of Kaluga Oblast's deposits is over RUR 8 million per m2. 550 solid mineral deposits with 19 types of mineral resources, 131 fresh and 13 mineral subsoil water sources have been discovered in the oblast's territory.

The range of the oblast's mineral resources includes phosphates, brown coal, mineral pigments, plaster stone, building stone, construction chalk, carbonate rock for soil liming and pulp and paper production, fire clay and high-melting clay, low-melting clay for brick and clay aggregate production, tripolite for manufacturing of whitening soil and thermolith gravel, clay for drilling fluids, sand and gravel mixtures, glassmaking and molding sand, construction and silicate sand, black dirt, putrid ooze and mineral water.

There are 24 deposits with industrial reserves of clay exceeding 220 million m3, 14 of which are currently in intensive development. The Ulyanovo deposit of fire and ceramic clays is one of the biggest in Russia, and one that has not yet been developed industrially. It accounts for 16.2% of all high-melting clay reserves in the Central Federal District. Such clay is used in manufacturing of fire-resistant products applied in metallurgy, cement, glass and other industries, where production processes are associated with high temperatures. Given consistent development of construction in the Central Federal District, the demand for clay from the Ulyanovo deposit will be 600,000-700,000 tons per year. The Ulyanovo deposit has every potential to become the principal resource base of construction and refractory companies well beyond Kaluga Oblast.

Combined balance reserves of brown coal in the Moscow lignite basin deposits are 1,240 million tons, incl.: Vorotynskoye (410 million tons), North Ageyevskoye (151 million tons), Seredeyskoye (150 million tons), Studenovskoye (103 million tons). Although the quality of the coal is not high, it is of interest due to its proximity to major consumers. Balance reserves of black dirt are around 24 million tons.

The oblast's mineral resource potential is sufficient to meet the demands for principal types of non-metallic resources (construction stone, sand and gravel, construction and silicate sand, low-melting clay and loam soil for brick and clay aggregate manufacturing). In 2013, Kaluga Oblast had 109 acting licenses for construction material extraction.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Kaluga Oblast is moderately continental with distinct seasons: warm and humid summers, and cold winters with stable snow cover. The average temperature in July is +18 °C (64 °F) in north and +20 °C (68 °F) in south, and in January −11 °C (12 °F) in northeast and −8 °C (18 °F) in southwest. The duration of the warm period (with the average temperatures above zero) is 215–220 days. The territory of the oblast is exposed to a substantial amount of solar radiation—around 115 Kcal per cm². The average annual air temperature varies from 3.5 - 4.0 °C in the north and the north-east to up to 4.0 - 4.6 °C in the west and the east of the oblast. The duration of the frost-free season is 113 – 127 days. The northern part of the oblast is the coldest, while the central part is moderately cold. In the south, in the zone of forest steppes, the climate is relatively warm. The precipitation rates in Kaluga Oblast are rather high. The precipitation is distributed unevenly in the territory of the oblast varying from 780 to 826 mm in the north and the west and up to 690 – 760 mm in the south. The climate of the oblast is characterized by frequent spring frosts as well as alternation of hot dry and cold humid summers, which makes agricultural production in this oblast risky. There are six meteorological stations of the Russian Meteorological Service operating in the oblast (the current meteorological data).

Hydrography[edit]

There are 2,043 rivers in the oblast with a total length of 11,670 km, of which 280 rivers have a length of over 10 km with a total length of 7,455 km, and there are 1,763 rivers and small streams that have a length of less than 10 km. Their total length is 4,215 km. The average density of the river network is 0.35 km/km². The Oka is the main river in the oblast river system. There are also other large rivers in the oblast, including the Ugra, the Zhizdra, the Protva, the Vorya, the Ressa, the Shanya, and the Yachenka. There are nineteen water reservoirs in the oblast with a water storage capacity of over 1 mln m³ each. The total water storage capacity of the water reservoirs is around 87 mln m³.

There are only a few lakes in the oblast. These include Lakes Bezdon, Svyatoye, Galkino, Bezymyannoye, and Sosnovoye.

The total area of the oblast occupied by marshes is less than 1%. The marshes are concentrated mainly in the north and west of the oblast.

Soils[edit]

The predominant soils in the oblast are sod-podzolic (around 75.6%). Telopodzol soils are predominant at the watersheds. Criptopodzol soils are predominant in the northern part of the territory in the east and south-east of the oblast, and alluvial soils are predominant in the plain floods. Sod-podzolic gleyed soils are predominant in the south. Gray and light gray soils (occupying an area of 12.4%) are predominant in the central and eastern parts of the oblast.

Vegetation[edit]

The total area occupied by forests is around 1,380,000 ha (46% of the territory of the oblast) (2006). The total reserves of timber are 228.3 mln m³, most of which are birches and aspens. Protective forests occupy an area of 585,300 ha (44%), and merchantable forests occupy an area of 808,800 ha (56%). Forty four percent of the oblast territory is covered by forests. The total forest cutting area in 2007 was 2,507,800 m³, including 300,500 m³ of pines, 42,000 m³ of hard-leafed trees, 2,168.3 m³ of soft-leafed trees (including 1,072,700 m³ of birch trees). The actual volume of trees cut in 2005 was 379,200 m³ (17% of the forest cutting area), including 133,400 m³ of conifers (55.6% of the forest cutting area). There are vast expanses of broad-leafed tree forests in the southeast of the oblast—the Оrlovsko-Kaluzhsky Forest.

As of the beginning of 2005, the agricultural lands occupied an area of 1,350,000 ha (44% of the territory), of which tillage lands—32%, and forage lands—12% of the total land area of the oblast. The main crops grown in the oblast are forage cereals, potatoes, vegetables, and feed grains (wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat), and fiber-flax.

The area covered by marshes is relatively small—around 0.5% of the total territory, and there are fewer marshes in the east as compared to the western part of the oblast.

Fauna[edit]

Over two centuries of research, several thousands of species of invertebrate animals and 396 vertebrates were discovered in Kaluga Oblast. 132 vertebrate species are included in Kaluga Oblast's Red Book of endangered species, including 36 from the current list of protected species of the Russian Federation.

The oblast's territory is inhabited by 68 species of mammals. These include typical forest animals: brown bear, lynx, elk, wolf, polar hare, and squirrel. There are also species more typical for prairies: hamsters, great jerboa, spotted prairie dog and the bobac marmot. In recent decades, hunting estate employees have been dispersing small-population species. Among them are the Russian muskrat, beaver, boar, and roe – all of them adapted very well and increased populations. There were also efforts to acclimatize species that previously did not inhabit the oblast: the raccoon dog, beaver rat, the red deer and the sika deer, who quickly achieved game populations. The south of the oblast is sometimes visited by bison that were recently released into the Orlovskoye Polesye national park.

The oblast's aquatic fauna includes two kinds of lamprey and 41 species of bony fish. The diversity of fish is explained by the variety of habitats. Thus, the Oka basin is inhabited by brook lamprey, and the Desna and its tributaries – by the Ukrainian lamprey. Stagnant pools are home to crucian and gold carp, ench and many other fish varieties. Pond estates breed mirror carp, silver carp, grass carp and, sometimes, peled. Of the commercially valuable fish, the biggest share belongs to bream. Of the rare varieties, there are starlet, riffle minnow, slimy sculpin that are included in Russia’s Red Book of endangered species.

Among 11 kinds of amphibians, the most common are crested and common newts, red-bellied, common and green toads, and various lake, pool, moor and grass frogs. Reptiles are represented by 7 species, including snakes: the venomous adder and the harmless water snake and smooth snake. Lizards are quite common - sand lizards and deaf adders that do not have limbs and are often mistaken for snakes.

There are 267 kinds of birds registered to visit the oblast, including 177 to nest, 58 to migrate and 32 to occasionally transit. The number of bird species staying for the winter has increased to 93, which is due to anthropogenic landscape transformations. The most significant bird of prey habitats are located in the Kaluzhskiye Zaseki reserve and the interfluve of the Bytebet and the Resseta. The largest populations are: waterfowl - mallard; semi-aquatic – black-headed gull; in forest– chaffinch, chiffchaff; along river banks – sand martin; in settlements – rock pigeon, common swift, rook, tree sparrow.

Flora[edit]

Forests cover 45% of Kaluga Oblast. Combined reserves of timber are 269 million m3, of which 30% are coniferous species, and 67% - soft-wooded broadleaved species.

According to data for 2013, the annual allowable cutting rate was 3,136,900 m3. It is currently utilized to 30%. The annual stand increment is 4,8 million m3.

The oblast's forest zone has two subzones: combined coniferous and broadleaved, and broadleaved forests. The combined subzone is dominated by various types of spruce forests. The tree layer in such forests is formed by the Norway spruce mixed with pine, birch, aspen, basswood and common oak. Primary broadleaved forests occupy a small area in the interfluve between the Vytebet, the Zhizdra and the Oka. Here, the edificatory species are common oak, tillet, taller ash, and elm trees. Unlike the coniferous forests, these are polydominant ones, with 7-8 layers. Usually, there is birch and aspen in the second layer, lowland maple, crab apple and field-ash in the third layer. There is also a well-developed layer of shrub. Herbage is dominated by prevernal ephemeroids and perennials.

The oblast's extrazonal flora is represented by pine and small-leaved forests, swamps and meadows. The common pine forms forests on sandbanks of ancient alluvial flats, sand terraces of river valleys, stagnant peaty soil. There are also white and green moss pinewoods, sphagnous and complex pinewoods. The tree layer in small-leaved and derivative mixed forests is formed by weeping and white birch, aspen, goat willow, spruce, pine and oak trees.

There are two types of meadows - floodplains and dry meadows.

Swamps are distributed unevenly. The greatest concentration is in the north-west and west (the Ugra basin), and in Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands.

Conservation and ecological condition[edit]

According to the governmental report “On the Status of the Environment and Its Conservation in the Russian Federation” published by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Kaluga Oblast is one of the most ecologically pure regions of the Central Federal District. In 2012, by the condition of its atmosphere, Kaluga was a top ten among 85 Russian cities.

In Kaluga Oblast, environmental assessment, regulation, licensing and control in the sphere of environmental protection are handled by several authorized governmental agencies. In 2008, the oblast established a territorial system for environmental monitoring (TSM).

In 2013, the investment council supervised by the Governor of Kaluga Oblast passed a resolution on the creation of an Ecotechnopark. The park will be designed with the use of the best technologies ensuring its sanitary and environmental safety. Priorities include protection of surface and subterranean waters from contamination, storage and recycling of industrial and household waste, radiation security, and reduction of air pollution.

Kaluga Oblast's share in combined air and water polluting emissions in the Central Federal District is insignificant. By level of screening and decontamination of harmful substances, the oblast is in the third place after Bryansk and Belgorod Oblasts. Most of the harmful atmospheric emissions are generated by Kaluga, Kirov, Obninsk, Lyudinovo, and by Dzerzhinsky District.

The accident in Chernobyl resulted in radioactive contamination in the oblast's south and southwest. Radiation monitoring is conducted in nine districts. The radiation background complies with the established radiation situation. The oblast has many stations for collection, storage, removal and processing of ferrous and non-ferrous metal scrap, glass and paper.

The oblast's plants implement waste-free technologies. Primary sorting of waste is performed by Polygon, a small enterprise in Obninsk, and others.

There are several successful eco settlements in Kaluga Oblast, nature reserve Kaluzhskiye Zaseki, national park Ugra, natural reserve Tarusa, and natural sanctuary Kaluzhski Bor.

History[edit]

The territory of Kaluga Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times. The oldest human sites discovered by archeologists date back to the Mesolithic period (10,000–6,000 BC). The first mentions of Kaluga’s towns are associated with events in the 12th century, specifically, the feudal war between the Olegovichi and the Monomakhovichi (Kozelsk - 1146, Serensk- 1147, Vorotynsk -1155, Mosalsk - 1231).

In the 14th century, Kaluga lands were the place for constant confrontations between Lithuania and Moscow. In 1371, Olgerd, grand duke of Lithuania, wrote to Philotheos, patriarch of Constantinople, to complain about Alexei, metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia, who seized some of his cities, including Kaluga, which in that letter is mentioned for the first time. Traditionally, it is considered that Kaluga was established as a frontier to protect the Moscow principality from Lithuania’s attacks.

In 1480-1481, Kaluga's territory was the place of an event bearing high significance for Russian history – the great stand on the Ugra river, resulting in the liberation of Russian lands from the Tatar Yoke and Moscow's transformation into a sovereign state.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, with active development of trade and crafts, Kaluga became more than a military outpost. Sources indicate that the rich city was advanced in the arts of wood carving and jewelry. After the reunification of Russia and the Ukraine in 1654, Kaluga's role as a trade intermediary between Moscow and the Ukraine contributed even more to its economic development.

On August 24, 1776, Catherine II issued a decree establishing Kaluga Viceroyalty to unite Kaluga and Tula Governorates. The center of the viceroyalty acquired a new image, and even today Kaluga’s planning and development is considered a brilliant achievement of Russian urbanism of late 18th and early 19th centuries. During the rule of Paul I, in 1795 Kaluga Viceroyalty was transformed into a governorate.

The end of the 18th century and the first three decades of the 19th century were a period of economic stability. Kaluga continued to act as an intermediary, trading with Moscow, Petersburg, Ukraine, Siberia, Poland and German cities.

During the Great Patriotic War, the territory was liberated from fascist aggressors by Soviet Army units 10, 16, 33, 43, 49, 50, 61, tank brigade 20, air fleet 1, horse cavalry 1, and the Normandy squadron.

The modern oblast was founded in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 5, 1944. Kaluga Oblast included the following cities and districts: the city of Kaluga, Babyninsky, Detchinsky, Dugninsky, Kaluzhsky, Peremyshlsky, and Tarussky Districts (formerly part of Tula Oblast); Borovsky, Vysokinichsky, Maloyaroslavetsky, and Ugodsko-Zavodsky Districts (formerly a part of Moscow Oblast); Baryatinsky, Dzerzhinsky, Duminichsky, Iznoskovsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Kuybyshevsky, Medynsky, Meshchovsky, Mosalsky, Spas-Demensky, Sukhinichsky, and Yukhnovsky Districts (formerly a part of Smolensk Oblast); and Zhizdrinsky, Lyudinovsky, Ulyanovsky, and Khvastovichsky Districts (formerly a part of Oryol Oblast).

After the dissolution of the USSR, Kaluga Oblast became a federal subject of the Russian Federation. On March 27, 1996, the Charter of Kaluga Oblast was adopted.

Demographics[edit]

2012
  • Births: 11 835 (11.8 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 15 806 (15.7 per 1000) [14]
  • Total fertility rate:[15]

2009 - 1.41 | 2010 - 1.48 | 2011 - 1.49 | 2012 - 1.62 | 2013 - 1.65(e)

Population[edit]

According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of the oblast is 1,010,930;[9] down from 1,041,641 recorded in the 2002 Census,[16] and further down from 1,066,833 recorded in the 1989 Census.[17]

Ethnic Groups Number in 2010[9]
Russians 869,031 (93.1%)
Ukrainians 16,662 (1.8%)
Armenians 9,962 (1%)
Belorusians 4,557 (0.5%)
Tatars 4,206 (0.4%)
Azerbaijanis 3,498 (0.4%)
Uzbeks 3,482 (0.4%)
Others 22,240 (2.4%)
Only those ethnic groups whose total number exceeds 1,000 people are included in this table
  • 77,292 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[18]

Religion[edit]

A Rodnover temple in Kaluga countryside.





Circle frame.svg

Religion in Kaluga Oblast (2012)[19][20]

  Russian Orthodox (48.6%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (7%)
  Rodnovery (2%)
  Other Orthodox (2%)
  Spiritual but not religious (26%)
  Atheist and non-religious (9%)
  Other and undeclared (5.4%)

As of a 2012 official survey[19] 48.6% of the population of Kaluga Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% declares to be generically Christian (excluding Catholic and Protestant), 2% follows Rodnovery (Slavic Paganism), 2% follows other Orthodox Churches, less than 1% is Muslim, 5.4% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 9% to be atheist.[19]

Administrative and municipal divisions[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, the oblast is divided into twenty-four districts and four cities of oblast significance.

Within the framework of municipal divisions, the territories of the administrative districts are incorporated into twenty-four municipal districts and the territories of the two cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban okrugs. Two other cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban settlements within corresponding municipal districts.

Economy[edit]

Kaluga Region is one of the most economically advanced constituent subjects of the Russian Federation. The region holds leadership in Russia by the rate of industrial growth, investments per capita, real income growth and the level of annually introduced advanced production technologies. The foundation for this growth is the sound investment policy and professionally designed program of traditional production support. Opportunities for establishment of facilities in industrial parks and the Lyudinovo industrial production free economic zone, tax benefits and support provided by development institutions guarantee the most favorable environment for any kind of business. Major international corporations, including Volkswagen, Volvo, Peugeot, Citroen, Mitsubishi, GE, Samsung, Continental, Berlin-Chemie/Menarini, Novo Nordisk, STADA CIS and others are developing projects in Kaluga Region. Enterprises from traditional economic sectors – manufacturers of turbo generators and gas turbine engines, railroad equipment, construction materials, electronics, optics and much more – are also undergoing active development. New high tech production facilities are being created that conduct research and development in a variety of spheres – from nuclear technologies to aviation and cosmonautics, nano-mechanics and water treatment. For 2013, Kaluga Region holds the following positions:

  • 1st place in the Central Federal District (CFD) and 2nd place in Russia by volume of shipped manufacturing products per capita;
  • 1st place in CFD and 1st place in Russia by the index of production and distribution of electricity, gas and water;
  • 1st place in CFD by volume of industrial production per capita;
  • 1st place in CFD by volume of investments in fixed capital per capita (January–September);
  • 2nd place in CFD and 3rd place in Russia by volume of direct foreign investments per capita (January–September);
  • 3rd place in CFD by the index of industrial production;
  • 3rd place in CFD and 28th place in Russia by the size of average monthly wages (January–November).

The declared volume of investments in 2006-2013 was RUR 376 billion. During this period, 64 new enterprises were commissioned, including, in 2013 alone, 13 high tech production plants and 4 large agricultural companies. Overall, there are 141 investment projects being implemented in the region. In 2013, 24 new agreements were added to the investment portfolio. Economic success is the region’s financial asset. In 2013, the region’s budget received almost RUR 43,5 billion, or RUR 1 billion more than in 2012. Growth of the regional treasury’s income guarantees the stability of the budget system that has been maintaining a social focus over the years. There are increases in regional budget salaries and all types of social allowances and benefits. In 2013, teacher salaries complied with the average level prevailing in the regional economy. There were advances in the implementation of healthcare and education modernization programs, agriculture support programs and kindergarten facility renovation. 60% of all expenses in the regional budget are assigned to the social sphere.

Industry[edit]

The economic policy implemented by Kaluga Region has changed the structure of the industrial complex, establishing conditions for the development of high tech production plants. There are 2,700 different enterprises in the region that generate approximately 35% of GRP and more than half of income in the regional budget. The industrial sector employs almost a third of the region’s population. The machine building complex is the traditional foundation of the region’s industry. Over seven recent years, the volume of industrial output in Kaluga Region increased by more than and a half times. In effect, 1.5 more industries were added to Kaluga Region’s former industry. In 2013, the region’s industrial output growth was 7.5%: 236.2% — growth of output of machinery and equipment; 149.1% — growth of output of chemical products; 121% — growth of natural resource extraction; 151.1% — growth of production and distribution of electricity, gas and water.

Within the structure of industrial production, 2013 saw the growth of specific weight of metallurgical production and manufacturing of finished metal structures, which reached 8.3% (in 2012 — 7.3%), chemical production (1.7% in 2013, 1.3% in 2012), while the share of machine building continued to dominate — 64.2% in 2013 (66.3% in 2012).

Structure of Manufacturing

Industrial Production Growth Dynamics (RUR billion)

2006 — 78.2

2007 — 100.2

2008 — 162.9

2009 — 173.3

2010 — 275.5

2011 — 372.5

2012 — 438.8

2013 — 470.4

Machine-building and metalworking[edit]

Machine building and metal works are key in the manufacturing sector of Kaluga region. The region’s machine building included in 2013 1,071 companies and manufactures a wide range of products, such as

  • cars and trucks (Volkswagen Group Rus, PSMA Rus, Volvo Vostok);
  • electric equipment for vehicles (KZAE, Avtoelektronika, Continental Automotive Systems Rus);
  • turbines and turbine generators (KTZ);
  • gas turbine engines and engine blocks (Kaluga Engine OJSC);
  • televisions and washing machines (Samsung Electronics Rus Kaluga LLC);
  • radio electronic communication equipment and switchgear, special communication equipment (Kalugapribor OJSC, Kaluga Electromechanical Plant OJSC, Kaluga Scientific and Research Institute of Telemechanic Systems OJSC);
  • products for military purposes (Typhoon JSC, ORPE Tekhnologiya OJSC, KNIRTI OJSC, KZRTA OJSC, KZTA OJSC);
  • electronic tubes and quantum products (Voskhod-KRLZ OJSC);
  • devices and equipment for nuclear power plants and radio chemical production facilities (Signal Instrumental Plant OJSC);
  • diesel locomotives, machines and mechanical devices for railway track repair and maintenance (LTZ OJSC, Kalugaputmash OJSC, RPM Group, Kalugatransmash OJSC);
  • gauges (Prompribor NPO CJSC, Metra NPP LLC);
  • cooker hood (Elmat OJSC);
  • steel pipes, corrugated aluminum, greenhouses (Agrosovgaz LLC);
  • metal frames and sandwich panel buildings (Ruukki Rus LLC);
  • cast iron, steel and non-ferrous castings (Krontif-Centr CJSC, Kirov Plant OJSC and Spetslit OJSC;
  • cable products (Ludinovokabel CJSC, Transvok), etc.

Chemical industry[edit]

Kaluga region’s chemical industry, especially pharmaceutical production, has a lot of potential in Kaluga region. The Russian Development Strategy of the Pharmaceutical Industry up to 2020 included Kaluga region into regions where a combination of scientific and educational centers and production facilities is most conductive to the development of the pharmaceutical industry. In 2013 33 pharmaceutical companies were registered in Kaluga region. The emerging pharmaceutical cluster of Kaluga region has a constellation of companies developing new ideas and implementing new technologies. The leading foreign pharmaceutical companies have set up partnerships with the region. Most of the research is done in Obninsk, Russia’s first technology city.

Manufacture of Finished Dosage Forms:

  • Khemopharm (STADA Group, Germany), present in Kaluga region since 2007, first in Russia to export medicines both to Europe and USA;
  • Berlin-Chemie/Menarini, Menarini (Italy);
  • Novo-Nordisk (Denmark);
  • Niarmedik Plus (Russia);
  • AstraZeneca (Sweden-UK).

Pilot production of pharmaceutical substances and biopharmaceutical technologies development:

  • BION OOO, chemical and pharmaceutical company;
  • Medbiopharm Scientific and Production Company OOO;
  • MIR-PHARM ZAO.

Disinfection of Pharmaceutical Substances and Finished Dosage Forms, Pharmaceutical Waste of Kaluga Region’s Pharmaceutical Cluster:

  • Omiteks Scientific and Production Company LLC;
  • CVTchtekh OTsNT Group.

Food industry[edit]

  • Nestle Russia OOO;
  • SABMiller Rus ZAO;
  • Obninsk Meat Factory OAO;
  • Invest Alyans OOO;
  • Zuegg Russia OOO ООО;
  • Obninsk Dairy Factory, Wimm-Bill-Dann branch;
  • MosMedynAgroprom OAO – dairy products.

Consumer Goods[edit]

Consumer goods manufacturers in Kaluga region include about 250 companies and organizations of various ownership, including 11 large and medium-sized companies. The following large companies operate in the key sectors of the consumer goods manufacture:

  • Ermolino OJSC, textiles;
  • Runo OJSC, textiles;
  • Sukhinichi Clothing Factory, clothing;
  • Ludinovo Clothing Factory LLC, clothing;
  • Yukhnovo Clothing Factory LLC, clothing;
  • KALITA OJSC, shoes;
  • Kaluga Shoes LLC;
  • Forio LLC, shoes.

In its efforts to diversify the regional economy the government of Kaluga region focuses on the development of various industries. Nowadays companies in Kaluga region manufacture paper, cardboard package, chipboards and wood fiberboards, board packets, bricks, sanitary stoneware, reinforced concrete structures, resins and plastics, pipes, profiles, etc. As regards the region’s industrial development, the key goal of the government of Kaluga region is to improve the investment and business environment in Kaluga region. The regional economic policy aimed to improve the performance of local industrial companies, the quality of their products and their competitive advantages is implemented by the Department of Industry, Transport and Communication of the regional Ministry of Economic Development.

Investments[edit]

In terms of foreign investments, Kaluga region is one of the leading Russian regions. Kaluga region has developed a clear strategy of investment development and created a conductive investment environment. The key provisions of the region’s investment strategy are: industrial parks and special economic zones housing production facilities, low investment risks, tax privileges and legislations offering administrative support from regional authorities and special institutes of development (Development Corporation of Kaluga Region, Regional Development Agency and Innovative Development Agency and Industrial Logistics). All those institutes have their own goals and fields of activity. Supervision over their activities is done by the ministry of economic development of Kaluga region. The Ludinovo Industrial Type Special Economic Zone and 10 industrial parks are ready to house production facilities. The largest industrial parks include Grabtsevo, Rosva, Vorsino and Kaluga-Yug. A Park and B Park offer brownfields. 86 companies have launched their projects in the industrial parks. The region has 64 operating companies of new economy. In total, 141 investment projects are implemented in Kaluga region. In 2013 13 new industrial companies and 4 large agricultural companies were set up in Kaluga region.

In 2013 24 new investment agreements were included into the investment portfolio. Declared investments in the period from 2006 to 2013 reached RUR 376 billion. The following clusters are intensively developing in Kaluga region: car, pharmaceutical, transport and logistics, agricultural and IT clusters.

Car and Car Component Cluster

The car manufacture accounted for the following shares in the regional industrial production: Q1 2013: 45.9%, 7 months of 2013: 45.1%. The car cluster includes 28 companies:

3 OEM plants:

VW produces 5 car models based on an industrial assembly process, including CKD assembly for 3 car models and SKD assembly for 2 car models. In November 2013 700th VW car, a Volkswagen Polo Highline, rolled off the assembly line of Volkswagen Group Rus. On 28 February 2014 Skoda Rapid, an economy model, was launched at the plant. The plant reached 40% localization for Polo sedan, 22% for VW Tiguan and 9% for Skoda Fabia.

PCMA RUS has an annual capacity of 125,000 cars. Citroen C4 has a localization level of 35% and Peugeot 408 (also CKD) 33%. In April a launch ceremony for Citroen C4 Sedan was held at the plant of PSA Peugeot Citroen Mitsubishi. The car has been specifically designed for the Russian market. The plant has 18 Russian suppliers. Most of them are located also in Kaluga region and account for 70% of all parts supplies.

The plant of Volvo in Kaluga region has been declared to be the most advanced Volvo plant all over the world. The annual capacity of the plant reaches 15,000 trucks, including 10,000 Volvo trucks and 5,000 Renault trucks (with the available technologies the annual capacity can be raised up to 25,000 trucks). Volvo CE was opened in May 2013. Investments in the project exceeded SEK 350 million (EUR 54 million). The annual capacity of the plant reaches 2,000 excavators. The plant manufactures 5 heavy-duty and high-performance excavator models of D series with an operational weight of 20 t to 50 t.

In 2007 the regional car cluster manufactured over 771,000 vehicles, including 755,900 cars and 15,300 trucks. The car cluster has a total staff of 14,000 people.

25 manufacturers of vehicle parts:

  • Magna Technoplast (Canada/Austria): manufacture of bumpers and front modules;
  • YAPP Rus Automotive Systems (China), manufacture of plastic tanks;
  • Benteler Automotive (Germany): manufacture of suspension components;
  • Visteon Rus (Spain): manufacture of vehicle interior components;
  • Mercator Holding: manufacture of truck rigging;
  • Gestamp-Severstal Kaluga (Russia/Spain): manufacture of body components;
  • Severstal-Gonvarri-Kaluga (Russia/Spain): steel service center;
  • HP Pelzer Rus (Germany): manufacture of noise emission control systems;
  • Lear LLC (USA): manufacture of vehicle seats;
  • Betsema (Russia): manufacture of truck rigging;
  • Fuyao Glass Rus (China): car glass manufacture;
  • HT&L Fitting Rus (Italy): vehicle wheel assembly:
  • Scherdel Kaluga Kaluga (Germany): manufacture of seat frames;
  • FUCHS OIL (Germany) : manufacture of lubricants;
  • Faurecia Automotive Development (France): manufacture of exhaust systems and vehicle interior elements;
  • Bosal LLC (Belgium): manufacture of exhaust systems;
  • Continental Automotive Systems Rus Rus (Germany): manufacture of vehicle electronic systems;
  • Continental Kaluga (Germany): tyre manufacture;
  • Rukker (Germany): consulting services;
  • AD Plastik (Croatia): manufacture of vehicle plastic components.

Set up in 2007, an advanced fully equipped training center for automotive staff offers trainings for staff engaged in the car cluster. The training center has about 100 training programs. Over 30 labs and workshops were opened. Over 10,000 people were trained in the training center, including 1,000 people in 2013. Cooperation and joint projects with suppliers of equipment and technologies and with European training organizations are a crucial element of the activities of the training center. The car cluster of Kaluga region has a rapidly developing logistics infrastructure, research and developments are conducted to improve the technical performance of the existing and newly implemented products.

Pharmaceuticals, Biotechnologies and Biomedicine

In 2012 the Development Program of the Pharmaceutical, Biotechnological and Biomedical Cluster of Kaluga Region won at the contest of pilot innovative clusters held by the Russian Ministry of Economic Development. The core of the pharmaceutical cluster is located at two sites:

  • Kaluga (Grabtsevo and A Park Industrial Parks): production facilities;

­*Obninsk (industrial zone, Obninsk high-tech park and Vorsino Industrial Park): innovative developments, including small and medium-sized businesses. An important link in the cluster, MRNTs of the Russian Ministry of Public Health and Social Development will serve as a basis of a federal high-tech innovative center of medical radiology.

Key fields of development of the pharmaceutical cluster:

  • manufacture of pharmaceutical products;
  • manufacture of substances;
  • research in the field of pharmaceuticals, biotechnologies and biomedicine.

Production Facilities:

  • Khemopharm LLC (a division of STADA CIS, a company of STADA AG, Germany): drugs manufacture;
  • Novo Nordisk Production Support LLC (a division of Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark): insulin production;
  • NIARMEDIK PHARMA LLC (Russia): manufacture of original drugs;
  • Berlin Pharma CJSC (a division of Berlin-Chemie AG, Germany, a company of Menarini Ind, Italy): manufacture of solid dosage forms;
  • AstraZeneca Industries LLC (a division of AstraZeneca Ind (UK): manufacture of innovative drugs;
  • Sfera-Pharm LLC (Russia): manufacture of medical intravenous solutions, small and medium-sized businesses developing new bio- and pharmaceutical medicines;
  • Mir-Pharm LLC;
  • Obninsk Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company CJSC;
  • Medbiopharm Group;
  • BION Group.

Network Partners:

  • Puschino Scientific Center under the Russian Academy of Sciences (Puschino, 9th Scientific and Research Institute of Molecular Biology, Biological *Technologies and Biomedicine under the Russian Academy of Sciences);
  • ORKHIMED Non-Profit Partnership (Russia’s 14 leading academic institutes operating in the field of chemistry and chemical biology);
  • The Department of Fundamental Medicine of the Lomonosov Moscow State University;
  • Managing company of the Biotechnological Business Incubator of the Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Science and Training

  • Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Energy, a branch of the MIFI National Nuclear Research University with a medical department;
  • The Tsiolkovsky State University in Kaluga;
  • The Karpov Scientific and Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, a branch of the Russian State Scientific Center;
  • The Medical Radiology Scientific Center under the Russian Ministry of Public Health;
  • The Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Energy.

Innovations

  • Active Molecules Park Innovative Biopharmaceutical Center (under Medbiopharm and the network partners;
  • NIARMEDIC PHARMA LLC in Obninsk, a universal GMP-company with a full manufacture cycle of original biomedical nanomedicines to be set up under *NIARMEDIC PLUS LLC jointly with ROSNANO OJSC;
  • Innovative labs and scientific and production facilities of the following companies: Mir-Pharm, BION, Obninsk Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company.

Innovative companies account for 70% of all the residents of the Kaluga pharmaceutical cluster. A training center for pharmaceutical staff is now set up in Kaluga region. The goal of the project is to make sure that the regional pharmaceutical manufacturers have adequate highly qualified staff to run modern GMP companies. The training center will implement a German dual professional training model, which has been adapted to the Russian conditions. By way of a pilot the training center has jointly with Tuv Rheinland Group offered training to 23 employees of the plant of Berlin Chemie AG in Kaluga.

Transport and Logistics[edit]

An advanced logistics infrastructure, new centers, terminals and reconstructed roads – all that is a crucial field of development for Kaluga region, especially given the expansion of Moscow and Russia’s accession to WTO. Kaluga region has a wide range of advantages, which will help it set up a successful transport and logistics cluster. Firstly, with its adjacency to Moscow and the significant transit potential of Kaluga region, the chances are high that the cluster will become a key logistics center of Central Federal District. Secondly, Kaluga region cooperates with the largest logistics operators, which have become its reliable partners, such as GEFCO, Green Logistics, Rhenus Logistics, TransContainer, etc. Thirdly, Kaluga region has a clear development strategy of the cluster. In Kaluga region multi-purpose transport and logistics terminals and customs and warehousing facilities are built, road, railway and airport infrastructure is developed, i.e. an infrastructure is set up required to support the whole logistics process from the delivery of feeds and the delivery of finished products to customers.

Rosva Freight Village has been set up to optimize the logistics processes of the industrial park residents in Kaluga region (Grabtsevo, Rosva, Kaluga-Yug and to support other foreign trade participants. Rosva Freight Village has become one of the key elements of the distribution system in Central Federal District. The 5ha car terminal is equipped with special lifting and weighing machines, radiation control and X-ray inspection devices. The terminal is divided into two zones: Kaluga Customs Post of the Kaluga Customs and Excise Pose of the Central Excise Customs. The 3ha container terminal includes a freight park (6 non-public rail tracks with a total length of over 10 km), a container storage site, a customs post, access ways, etc. The capacity of the terminal reaches 150,000 TEU per year (Kalmar reachstackers).

Located in the north of Kaluga region, 70 km off the Moscow ring road, 90 km off Kaluga region and adjacent to the M3 Ukraine federal highway and the Moscow to Kiev railroad, Vorsino Freight Village has been included into the Master Development Plant of the Moscow Railway Hub and the Development Program of the Moscow Traffic Hub. The Government of the Russian Federation has declared Vorsino Freight Village to be a strategically important logistics facility. The total area of the freight village is 450 ha. The total length of the access railway track is 838.19 lm. The total length of the internal railway tracks is 9,193 lm. At the first stage the annual capacity of the container terminal will be 300,000 TEU before it reaches 1,500,000 TEU at later stages. The total investments equal EUR 1.2 billion, including EUR 250,000 million investments in the construction of the logistics park.

Kaluga International Airport is located in the immediate proximity to Grabtsevo Industrial Park. Kaluga region as represented by the Ministry of Economic Development of Kaluga region is the key shareholder in possession of 99.99% of the shares. The investment project of Kaluga International Airport will require global transformations. In 2014 the runway reconstruction will be totally completed. Over the following 2 to 3 years all the required infrastructure facilities will be built and certified. Key figures:

Airport Complex Area: 200 ha

Runway dimensions: 2,200х45 m

International Airport;

Inbound aircraft takeoff weight: class 2:

Capacity: 100 passengers per hour;

Passenger turnover: up to 500,000 passengers per year in to period to 2030;

The airport complex can accommodate the following aircraft: Airbus A 319, Boeing 737 and similar aircraft (64 t).

Ermolino Airport is located 95 km off downtown Moscow, 60 km off Vnukovo International Airport, 5 km off the M3 Ukraine federal highway, 5 to 6 km off Balabanovo, the nearest railway station. The airport is owned by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The Federal Air Transport Agency and the Russian Ministry of Transport have already approved the idea to setting up a commercial international airport at the Ermolino airfield of the Ministry of Internal Affairs jointly with the internal troops. By 2015 Ermolino International Airport will be set up, which will be Russia’s first airport to focus on low cost carriers. UTair, one of the project’s investors, intends to set up a terminal, which will accommodate 8 million passengers per year. In addition to low-cost flights, the airport intends to develop into a large cargo hub. Ermolino Airport is viewed as part of Vorsino Freight Village, which is now set up on a 450 ha area 2 km off the airport infrastructure.

Construction[edit]

Kaluga region is ranked in Central Federal District 5th in terms of commissioned housing and 3rd in terms of commissioned housing per capita. The region is one of Russia’s leading regions in terms of gasification. Totally gasified areas in the region account for over 80%.

According to Kalugastat as of 1 January 2013 642,000 sq.m. of housing was commissioned in Kaluga region, which is 109.5% compared with 2011 and 128.2% compared with 2010. About 53% of the commissioned housing was constructed by individual developers.

Kaluga region has developed a state program aimed to provide the regional population with affordable and comfortable housing and public utilities. According to the program engineering systems and social facilities will be set up in areas where housing is expected to be constructed. In 2013 Kaluga region allocated to those ends over RUR 120 million. Supplying large families with development lots near Kaluga is another key field of activities of the program. Until now 579 lots have been allocated for individual housing projects. Young families are eligible to social benefits designed to partially compensate interest payments under housing loans and mortgages. In 2013 over RUR 12 million was paid. Until the end of this year 260 families will become eligible to the social benefits. Kaluga region implements targeted relocation programs from unfit housing facilities. In the period from 2008 to 2012 3,127 people from 279 unfit houses with a total area of 54,460 sq.m. in 22 municipalities were moved. In the same period 1,071 new apartments with a total area of 68,500 sq.m. were constructed and sold. RUR 2,191.4 million was spent from the consolidated budget, including RUR 1,198.9 million from the provision. In 2013 1,944 people from 119 housing facilities with a total area of 27,000 sq.m. moved to other housing facilities. In 2014 RUR 1.2 billion will be allocated to the relocation program. The key goal of the program ‘Development of Rental Housing in Kaluga Region: Housing for Professionals' is to promote construction of housing, which will then be rent (hereinafter referred to as Rental Housing).

The key target indicator of the program will be annually commissioned Rental Housing. In the duration of the program (up to 2015) 87,000 sq.m. of Rental Housing are expected to be commissioned.

Key Projects Implemented under the Construction of Rental Housing Program:

Stargorod: 420 rooms with a total area of 14,000 sq.m., a bar, a restaurant, a business center, a fitness center and a parking facility.

Olympic Village: 300 individual houses, 70 townhouses. The complex provides accommodation to over 500 specialists now.

Molodezhny: 11 residential buildings with 840 apartments. The total area is 33.9 sq.m. The first building (96 apartments) has been commissioned and the residents have already moved in.

European Quarter: a district with 2-storeyed residential buildings and social facilities.

Awards[edit]

The World Organization of Creditors (WOC) determined the nominees for the "Investment Angel Award" as follows:

Development institutions[edit]

The following development institutions have been created to support the implementation of investment policies of the Oblast Administration:

This is a government entity responsible for development of industrial parks and engineering infrastructure. Objective: establishment of new and development of the existing industrial parks, and construction of engineering infrastructure in the industrial parks.

This is a government entity responsible for provision of non-discriminative access to the logistic and railroad infrastructure. Objectives: establishment of logistic and customs terminals, and construction and operation of railroads in the industrial parks.

This is a state entity responsible for provision of expert advice to investors in the process of implementation of investment projects. Objectives: attraction of investments in the economy of Kaluga Oblast, and promotion of the oblast into the international market.

Energy[edit]

The five existing thermal power stations operating in the oblast generated a total of 407 mln kWt/h of electricity in 2005. The Federal Grid Company and the power generation systems of the neighboring regions meet most of the power demand (up to 90%). The volume of supplies of the energy resources in the oblast: natural gas – 1,640 mln m³ (2005), electric power – 4,520 mln kWt/h (2004). The oldest atomic power station in Russia—Obninsk Atomic Power Station, which was put into operation in 1954 is located in Kaluga Oblast.

Power transmission systems and pipelines[edit]

A 500/220/10 kV Kaluzhskaya substation is located near the town of Maloyaroslavets. It is connected through a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line to the Smolensk Atomic Power Station, and there is a plan to connect it in the future to the Kalinin Atomic Power Station and Vladimirskaya substation (currently, the 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line is connected to Chagino-Mikhailovo 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line. In addition, there is a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line going through the territory of the oblast connecting the Tula and Ryazan (Mikhailovskaya substation) systems to Smolensk Atomic Power Station.

Kaluga is part of the Transneftproduct system which supplies oil products through the pipeline of Plavsk fuel pumping station.

Moscow – Bryansk gas main is passing through the territory of the oblast. There is an underground gas storage facility located near Rezvan village.

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture has a special role in the regional economy. The agricultural production accounts for more than 8.1% of the GRP. Rural population is 242, 600 or 24% of the total population of the Kaluga Oblast. The total agricultural output in 2012 reached RUR 262 bln. Agricultural land accounts for 1,821,000 hectares of the total land resources of Kaluga Oblast. Among them cultivated land amounts to 1,145,000 hectares, including 857,100 hectares of arable land.

Cattle breeding

Dual purpose cattle breeding is the principal line of the agricultural business. Modern pig factories supply pork to the internal market providing retail trade with chilled meat and pork pre-fabricated products. Among them, Russian-Thai Joint Venture Charoen Pokphand Foods OOO (Dzerzhinsky District), Kharchevnikov Peasant Farm Enterprise OOO (Ulyanovsky District), Tonoyan Peasant Farm Enterprise OOO (Babynino District) to be mentioned. As of January 1, 2013, the total livestock equaled 132,400, including cattle stock – 57,400, pig stock – 74,100, poultry stock – 3,800,000. Total milk output in 2012 equaled 234,000 tons. Average milk output per cow amounted to 4, 700 kg. Kaluga Oblast is ranked eighth among seventeen federal subjects of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation by milk output per day. Robotized milking operation is implemented at industrial scale in Alyeshinskoye OOO (Meshchovsk District), Bebelevo OOO (Ferzikovo District), and Lespoir OOO (Sukhinichi District). Poultry farming is also well-developed in Kaluga Oblast. Major poultry meat producers are Kaluzhskaya Poultry Farm OAO, Radon Poultry Farm OOO (Dzerzhinsky District), Belousovo Poultry Farm OOO (Zhukov District). Samson-Farm OOO (Medyn District) is specialized in guinea fowl breeding.

Horticulture

Horticulture accounts for 10.2% of the total agricultural output. Grain farming, potatoes growing and vegetable farming are the most important sectors. Total grain output in 2013 was 165,700 tons (in weight after processing). Crop yield amounted to 21.5dt/ha. The major grain producers are Lenin Collective Farm (Zhukov District), SKhA Moscow (collective farm) (Borovsk District), Tsvetkov Plemzavod OAO (Maloyaroslavets District), Mayak Collective Farm (Peremyshl District), and Agroresurs OOO (Sukhinichi District). The highest grain crop yield (10,764 tons) was harvested in Mosmedynagroprom OAO (Medyn District). Total output in 2013: potatoes – 335,400 tons, field vegetables – 98,000 tons, greenhouse vegetables – 6,600 tons. Potatoes yield – 144.0 dt/ha, field vegetables yield –178.0 dt/ha. The major potatoes producers are Aurora OOO (Babynino District), Slavyansky Kartofel OOO (Duminichi District), Ordzhonikidze Kolkhoz ZAO (Kozelsk District), Rodina FSUAE (Maloyaroslavets District), Marx Agricultural Production Cooperative and Rus Agricultural Production Cooperative (Khvastovichi District), Mayak Collective Farm and Kaluzhskaya Niva OOO (Peremyshl District). The major producers of greenhouse vegetables are Teplichny OAO (Kaluga), Obninsky Teplichny Kombinat OOO, Maloyaroslavetsky Teplichny Kombinat OOO. Stable supplies of field vegetables performed by suburban Plodoovoshchnoye Khozyastvo-Monastyrskoye Podvorye OOO.

Agro-Industrial Complex

Agro-industrial complex of Kaluga Oblast is represented by 332 entities involved in agricultural activity, 45 large and medium scale enterprises in food and processing industry, 2248 peasant (farming) enterprises, 117, 800 smallholdings. Total investments of large and medium scale enterprises in food and processing industry in 2012 amounted to RUR 283,000,000.

Agro-food infrastructure and logistics

This sector is represented by promising agricultural and food processing projects:

  • K-Agro – agro-industrial park oriented for processing of agricultural products produced in the oblast;
  • Detchino – agro-technology center, where 5 major European companies operating in the agricultural business are located – Grimme, Lemken, Big Dutchman, Wolf System, and Russian-German Holding Econiva;
  • SME Park – a park for small and medium enterprises, established as an efficient distribution center of agricultural products and providing storage facilities.

State support

State support within the frame of state programs is provided to all agricultural enterprises. The Kaluga Oblast Agricultural Development Center has a role of operator providing free consultancies to agricultural enterprises. Total volume of state support as of 01.10.2013 amounted to RUR 339.2 mln, including RUR 136.9 mln from the federal budget and RUR 202.3 mln from the oblast budget.

Transportation[edit]

The main regional transport hubs are located in Kaluga, Obninsk, and Sukhinichi.

M3 "Ukraine" is the main automobile highway, with a traffic density of up to 13,800 vehicles/day, which passes through the towns of Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga, Sukhinichi, and Zhizdra. An equally important role is played by Moscow - Warsaw federal highway, with a traffic density of up to 11,500 vehicles/day, which passes through Belousovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Medyn, Yukhnov, and Spas-Demensk. In addition, there is also a highway of regional importance Vyazma-Kaluga-Tula-Ryazan, with a traffic density of up to 6,750 vehicles/day, and the road section M3 "Ukraine" which passes through the town of Balabanovo. The total length of automobile roads with hard surface is 6,564 km. The density of hard surface road network of common use is 165 km per 1,000 km².

The trunk railroad Moscow – Kiev is passing through Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, and Sukhinichi. In addition, there are also important single-track diesel locomotive lines located in the oblast, including Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula (through Myatlevo, Polotnyanny Zavod, Pyatovky, and Kaluga), Sukhinichi – Smolensk (through Spas-Demensk), Sukhinichi—Roslavl (through Kirov), Sukhinichi – Tula (through Kozelsk), Kozelsk – Belyov, Vyazma – Bryansk (through Kirov and Ludinovo), and Bryansk - Dudorovsky. There is a large locomotive and diesel multiple unit depot located in Kaluga. The total length of the railroads of common use is 872 km. The density of the railroads of common use is 29 km per 1000 km².

There are four airfields in the oblast, including Grabtsevo airport located near the city of Kaluga (closed in 2008), military airfields in the town of Ermolino, and a large military airfield in Shaikovka.

The part of the Oka river flowing from Kaluga is one of the domestic waterways of Russia. There are tourist cruises from Serpukhov to Tarusa and from Serpukhov to Velegozh. In addition, there are two motor ships “Louch” operating along the Kaluga—Aleksin route. The total length of the navigable and conditionally navigable waterways is 101 km. Of special importance is Moscow - Kaluga express (3 departures a day, time en route - 2 hours and 40 minutes).

The city transportation in Kaluga is remarkable for its trolleybus system.

Telecommunications[edit]

There is a well-developed modern telecommunications infrastructure in Kaluga Oblast. There are a total of 210 companies providing telecommunication services in the territory of the oblast.

Cell services and the Internet[edit]

Around 90% of the oblast's territory is covered by cellular services. Cellular services are provided by five cellular service operators, including: the branch of Mobylnye TeleSystemy OAO in Kaluga (MTS), Vympel-Kommunikatsii KF OAO (Beeline), Megafon Kaluga RO TSF OAO, Smolenskaya Sotovaya Svyaz KF ОАО (TELE-2), and the branch of Astrata ZAO in Kaluga Oblast (Sky Link). The number of cellular service users in the territory of the oblast is 1.6 mln, or 1.6 active SIM-cards per capita (including children and elderly people). There are 44 cable and wireless Internet service providers in the territory of Kaluga Oblast. CentrTelecom KF OAO is the main cable Internet service provider in the urban centers and municipalities of the oblast. More than 70% of the population are using Internet services.

Fixed-line communications[edit]

As of the beginning of 2010, there were 340,700 public telephone connections in the oblast. On a per capita basis, there 34 telephone connections per 100 people, which is one of the highest rates among the 18 federal subjects of the Central Federal District of Russia. Around 90% of the public telephone services in the territory of the oblast is provided by the Kaluga branch of CentrTelekom OAO. Completion of the construction of three fiber-optic lines currently planned for 2011 will make it possible to cover the entire territory of Kaluga Oblast by digital telephone services. With a view to providing the residents of the oblast with high-speed access to the Internet, CentrTelecom KF OAO implemented a new fiber-optical communication line (FTTB)-based Internet access technology, also known as Household Optics.

Postal services[edit]

There are 450 postal offices in the territory of Kaluga Oblast, including 349 stationary postal offices in the rural areas, of Russian Post. The comparative analysis of the postal services network shows that in terms of the technological intensiveness and staffing levels, the postal services network in Kaluga Oblast is one of the most advanced in the Central Federal District of Russia. Currently, there are 121 modern POS terminals used in the postal offices of Kaluga Oblast for drawing cash from plastic cards, and there are also 670 postal cash terminals. A chain of 205 Internet cafes (400 seats) was established. The post offices have access to high-speed telecommunication channels, which enables them to electronically process payment of utility bills, and also provide instant money transfer services.

Television and radio broadcasting[edit]

The Kaluga Oblast Radio and Television Broadcasting Center, the branch of Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network (FGUP), is the main operator broadcasting television and radio programs in the oblast. As of 2007, 100% of the oblast territory has been covered by television broadcasting services. TV programs of the regional television company and radio local news programs are broadcast in the entire territory of the oblast through satellite transmission equipment. In addition, cable television networks are being developed in the oblast. Starting from 2013, a federal project will be launched to introduce digital television and radio broadcasting with an increased number of TV and radio channels and improved quality of services.

Science, education, and culture[edit]

As of the beginning of the 2009-2010 academic year, there were 403 public day-time general education institutions for 85,500 students. As of 2009, there were 27 higher education institutions. As of 2009, there were 413 day-time general education institutions. In 2007, a center for training of car manufacturing industry specialists was established. Special classes with instruction in the French, German, and English languages were opened for children of foreigners working in Kaluga Oblast. The first Science Town – Obninsk that was established in Russia is situated in Kaluga Oblast. It carries out research in the areas of atomic power, space and telemechanic technologies, and radio equipment and instrument making industry. These are some of the major scientific institutions of the oblast:

  • Physics and Energy Institute named after A.I. Leypunsky State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation
  • The Obninsk branch of Physics and Chemical Institute named after L.Y. Karpov State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
  • Technologiya Obninsk Scientific Production Company State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
  • Kaluga Scientific Research and Radio Technology Institute Federal Scientific and Production Center
  • Medical Radiological Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
  • Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Center
  • Space Materials Science” of the Crystallography Institute named after A.V. Shubnikov of the Russian Academy of Sciences Scientific Research Center
  • Specialized Space Equipment Design Bureau of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • KNIITMU Federal State Unitary Enterprise
  • All-Union Physiology, Biochemistry, and Animal Food Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Hydro Meteorological Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Agricultural Radiology and Agro-Ecology Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Agricultural Meteorology Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Timber Processing Scientific Research Institute

These are the main education institutions of the oblast:

Kaluga Oblast is one of the 15 federal subjects in which the subject “Basics of the Orthodox Culture[8]”. was introduced in the regional curriculum as of September 1, 2006. There is Kaluga Oblast Dramatic Theater named after A.V. Lunacharsky in the oblast.

Tourism and recreation[edit]

The most popular among tourists are the administrative center Kaluga, Optina Pustyn monastery, the City of Military Glory - Kozelsk, Obninsk Science Town, the towns of Maloyaroslavets and Meschovsk where Napoleon’s army was stopped, the Goncharovs country estate in the Polotnyany Zavod, Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Svyato-Pafnutyev Borovsky monastery, the town of Tarusa, and Vorobyi zoo. A number of various tourist paths have been opened in the unique nature reserves—Ugra National Park and Kaluzhskye Zaseki. There are 15 health centers and summer resorts with over 3,500 beds in Kaluga Oblast. The most popular among holidaymakers are the following health centers: Vyatichi, Beryozovaya Roscha, Vorobyevo, Zvezdny, and Signal. The State Space History Museum named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky that was established in 1967 in Kaluga attracts many visitors of all ages. The Oblast Ministry for Sports, Tourism, and Youth Policy adopted a program for the development of tourism for 2011-2016. The main objective of the program is to achieve a threefold increase in the number of tourists visiting the oblast through creation of tourism development centers. One of the most popular tourists locations is Dzerzhinsky district where Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Ugra National Park are situated, and where Arkhstoyanie and musical festivals are held in Matovo village.

Archstoyanie
John McLaughlin in the Mir Gitary festival

These are some of the regular events that are organized for tourists:

  • Arkhistoyanie festival
  • Pustye Kholmy festival
  • Bike festival in Maloyaroslavets
  • Belyi Krolik festival
  • Mir Gitary festival
  • Zheleznye Devy rock music festival (in Kaluga)

Culture[edit]

As early as the 16th century, Kaluga was a major commercial port acting as a connecting link between Lithuania and Moscow. Back then, the city exported wooden utensils known far beyond the provincial boundaries. Starting in the 1680s, stone churches were built on the sites of wooden churches. By the latter half of the 18th century, there were 183 stone and 2235 wooden buildings in Kaluga. The 17th-century Korobov mansion with its semidomes and patterned cornices is a fine example of the civil architecture of the period. Many other buildings of so-called "workplaces" have also been preserved. These include several administrative buildings connected by arches e.g. the Zolotarev town estate, the Bilibin merchant mansion, and the Inn Court comprising several trading houses designed by the famous architect P.R. Nikitin.

Sports[edit]

Kaluga Football Club autonomous non-for-profit organization was established in December 2009 by the Ministry of Sports, Tourism and Youth Policy of Kaluga Oblast, the City Administration of Kaluga, and Galantus&K OOO. The Trustee Council is chaired by Kaluga Oblast Governor Anatoly D. Artamonov.

Kaluga Football Club won the tenth place in the Championship of Russia in the Center zone (2nd Division) of the 2010 season. As a result of the support that the Specialized Youth Football School of Olympic Reserve is receiving from the Kaluga Football Club, it is able to represent Kaluga Oblast in the Championship of Russia in four age groups. The trainings and football games of the official rounds of the Championship of Russia are held at the football stadium of Annenki Children and Youth Sports School.

Mass media[edit]

Nika FM radio and Nika TV station operate in Kaluga Oblast.

Politics[edit]

Kaluga Oblast Government building

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Kaluga CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Kaluga Oblast is the fundamental law of the oblast. The Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

The Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast[edit]

Baburin Viktor Sergeevich – the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast.

2004 Legislative Assembly Elections[edit]

The first elections were conducted based on a mixed voting system: 20 seats were allocated through party lists, and another 20 seats—through single-seat constituencies. United Russia political party won in the party-lists elections in which it received 40% of the votes (10 seats). United Russia also won elections in 12 single-seat constituencies and it now has a majority of votes in the parliament (22 out of 40).

  • КPRF — 13.4% of the votes (3 seats)
  • "Rodina" — 11.2% (3 seats)
  • LDPR — 9,9% (2 seats)
  • Yabloko — 6.3% (2 seats)
  • Agrarian Party — 4.7% (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)
  • Soyuz Pravyh Sil won four seats in the Legislative Assembly through single-seat constituencies elections, which will make it possible for this party to form its own fraction in the Legislative Assembly.

2010 Legislative Assembly Elections of the 5th Convocation[edit]

The elections were won by United Russia party which received 53.45% of the votes. This allowed this party to win 22 seats in the oblast parliament.

  • Kaluga Oblast Branch of KPRF—21.17% of the votes (9 seats)
  • Kaluga Oblast Branch of Spravedlivaya Rossiya— 11.2% (4)
  • Kaluga Oblast Branch of LDPR—11.93% (5)
  • Patrioty Rossii – 1.86% (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)

Notable people[edit]

Born on the territory of modern Kaluga Oblast[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Law #423-OZ
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 3.2
  5. ^ Official website of the Governor of Kaluga Oblast. Anatoly Dmitriyevich Artamonov (Russian)
  6. ^ Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 26.1
  7. ^ Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 18.1
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  11. ^ Kaluga Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения (Russian)
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  14. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  15. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  16. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  17. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  18. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  19. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  20. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №423-ОЗ от 3 июня 2013 г. «О гимне Калужской области». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: Официальный сайт Законодательного Собрания Калужской области, 3 июня 2013 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #423-OZ of June 3, 2013 On the Anthem of Kaluga Oblast. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. №473 27 марта 1996 г. «Устав Калужской области», в ред. Закона №465-ОЗ от 30 сентября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Калужской области». Опубликован: "Весть", №79, 9 апреля 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. #473 March 27, 1996 Charter of Kaluga Oblast, as amended by the Law #465-OZ of September 30, 2013 On Amending the Charter of Kaluga Oblast. ).

External links[edit]