Kaluga Oblast

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Kaluga Oblast
Калужская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Kaluga Oblast[1]
Coordinates: 54°26′N 35°26′E / 54.433°N 35.433°E / 54.433; 35.433Coordinates: 54°26′N 35°26′E / 54.433°N 35.433°E / 54.433; 35.433
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Central[2]
Economic region Central[3]
Established July 5, 1944[4]
Administrative center Kaluga[5]
Government (as of August 2010)
 - Governor[7] Anatoly Artamonov[6]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[8]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[9]
 - Total 29,800 km2 (11,500 sq mi)
Area rank 64th
Population (2010 Census)[10]
 - Total 1,010,930
 - Rank 51st
 - Density[11] 33.92 /km2 (87.9 /sq mi)
 - Urban 76.3%
 - Rural 23.7%
Population (January 2013 est.)
 - Total 1,005,585[12]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[13]
ISO 3166-2 RU-KLU
License plates 40
Official languages Russian[14]
Official website

Kaluga Oblast (Russian: Калу́жская о́бласть, Kaluzhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Kaluga. Population: 1,010,930 (2010 Census).[10]

Established in 1944, Kaluga Oblast is located in the heart of the European part of Russia. It has well-developed transportation and utility infrastructure. The oblast has been demonstrating high economic growth rates, has substantial human reserves, and is one of the largest cultural, educational and scientific centers of Russia.

Geography[edit]

Kaluga Oblast is situated in the central part of the East European Plain. The oblast's territory is located between the Central Russian upland (with average elevation of above 200 m and maximum elevation of 275 m in the southeast), the Smolensk-Moscow upland and the Dnepr-Desna province. Most of the oblast is occupied by flatlands, fields and forests with diverse flora and fauna. The administrative center is located on the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The western part of the oblast located within the drift plain is dominated by the Spas-Demensk ridge. To the south of it is an outwash plain that is part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, with average elevation up to 200 m.

From north to south, Kaluga Oblast extends for more than 220 km, from 53°30' to 55°30' northern altitude, and east to west – for 220 km. Its area is 29,777,000 km².

The oblast's territory is crossed by major international motor and railways: Moscow – Kaluga – Bryansk – Kiev – Lvov - Warsaw.

Kaluga Oblast borders with Bryansk, Smolensk, Moscow, Tula and Oryol Oblasts, and with the city of Moscow (from July 1, 2012).

Terrain, geological structure, and mineral resources[edit]

Protva River in flowing in the oblast, in the area of Borovsk

Kaluga Oblast's modern terrain replicates pre-glacial terrain: undulated, with river valleys, ravines and hollows. Some glacial lakes have been preserved, like the oblast's deepest lake – the Bezdon.

The oblast is located between the Central Russian upland and the Smolensk-Moscow upland. There are both low plains elevating to 200 m above sea level, and high plains rising above 200 m. The southeastern part of the oblast is occupied by the Central Russian upland, and extreme northwest – by the Spas-Demensk ridge. The uplands are separated by the Yugorsk-Protvino lowland. In the extreme southwest, the oblast is covered by Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, and in the central part – by the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The highest point of the oblast is located on the Spas-Demensk ridge at 279 m (Zaitseva mountain), and the lowest – in the valley of the Oka (120 m above sea level). Thus, the amplitude of the terrain is 160 m.

Kaluga Oblast is situated in the central part of the East European Platform. The depth of the top (aqueous) structural stage is 400-500 m in the south and up to 1000-1400 m in the north. Most of the sedimentary sheath was formed by Devonian deposits. Their share in the south exceeds 80% of the entire aqueous depth (including quarternary formations). There are four geo-economic districts in Kaluga Oblast: North-East, Central, South and North-West.

The specific value of Kaluga Oblast's deposits is over RUR 8 million per m2. 550 solid mineral deposits with 19 types of mineral resources, 131 fresh and 13 mineral subsoil water sources have been discovered in the oblast's territory.

The range of the oblast's mineral resources includes phosphates, brown coal, mineral pigments, plaster stone, building stone, construction chalk, carbonate rock for soil liming and pulp and paper production, fire clay and high-melting clay, low-melting clay for brick and clay aggregate production, tripolite for manufacturing of whitening soil and thermolith gravel, clay for drilling fluids, sand and gravel mixtures, glassmaking and molding sand, construction and silicate sand, black dirt, putrid ooze and mineral water.

There are 24 deposits with industrial reserves of clay exceeding 220 million m3, 14 of which are currently in intensive development. The Ulyanovo deposit of fire and ceramic clays is one of the biggest in Russia, and one that has not yet been developed industrially. It accounts for 16.2% of all high-melting clay reserves in the Central Federal District. Such clay is used in manufacturing of fire-resistant products applied in metallurgy, cement, glass and other industries, where production processes are associated with high temperatures. Given consistent development of construction in the Central Federal District, the demand for clay from the Ulyanovo deposit will be 600,000-700,000 tons per year. The Ulyanovo deposit has every potential to become the principal resource base of construction and refractory companies well beyond Kaluga Oblast.

Combined balance reserves of brown coal in the Moscow lignite basin deposits are 1,240 million tons, incl.: Vorotynskoye (410 million tons), North Ageyevskoye (151 million tons), Seredeyskoye (150 million tons), Studenovskoye (103 million tons). Although the quality of the coal is not high, it is of interest due to its proximity to major consumers. Balance reserves of black dirt are around 24 million tons.

The oblast's mineral resource potential is sufficient to meet the demands for principal types of non-metallic resources (construction stone, sand and gravel, construction and silicate sand, low-melting clay and loam soil for brick and clay aggregate manufacturing). In 2013, Kaluga Oblast had 109 acting licenses for construction material extraction.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Kaluga Oblast is moderately continental with distinct seasons: moderately hot and humid summers and moderately cold winters with stable snow cover. The average temperature in July is +18°C, and in January -9°C. The duration of the warm period (with the average temperatures above zero) is 215–220 days. The territory of the oblast is exposed to a substantial amount of solar radiation—around 115 Kcal per cm². The average annual air temperature varies from 3.5 - 4.0°C in the north and the north-east to up to 4.0 - 4.6°C in the west and the east of the oblast. The duration of the frost-free season is 113 – 127 days. The northern part of the oblast is the coldest, while the central part is moderately cold. In the south, in the zone of forest steppes, the climate is relatively warm. The precipitation rates in Kaluga Oblast are rather high. The precipitation is distributed unevenly in the territory of the oblast varying from 780 to 826 mm in the north and the west and up to 690 – 760 mm in the south. The climate of the oblast is characterized by frequent spring frosts as well as alternation of hot dry and cold humid summers, which makes agricultural production in this oblast risky. There are six meteorological stations of the Russian Meteorological Service operating in the oblast (the current meteorological data).

Hydrography[edit]

There are 2,043 rivers in the oblast with a total length of 11,670 km, of which 280 rivers have a length of over 10 km with a total length of 7,455 km, and there are 1,763 rivers and small streams that have a length of less than 10 km. Their total length is 4,215 km. The average density of the river network is 0.35 km/km². The Oka is the main river in the oblast river system. There are also other large rivers in the oblast, including the Ugra, the Zhizdra, the Protva, the Vorya, the Ressa, the Shanya, and the Yachenka. There are nineteen water reservoirs in the oblast with a water storage capacity of over 1 mln m³ each. The total water storage capacity of the water reservoirs is around 87 mln m³.

There are only a few lakes in the oblast. These include Lakes Bezdon, Svyatoye, Galkino, Bezymyannoye, and Sosnovoye.

The total area of the oblast occupied by marshes is less than 1%. The marshes are concentrated mainly in the north and west of the oblast.

Soils[edit]

The predominant soils in the oblast are sod-podzolic (around 75.6%). Telopodzol soils are predominant at the watersheds. Criptopodzol soils are predominant in the northern part of the territory in the east and south-east of the oblast, and alluvial soils are predominant in the plain floods. Sod-podzolic gleyed soils are predominant in the south. Gray and light gray soils (occupying an area of 12.4%) are predominant in the central and eastern parts of the oblast.

Vegetation[edit]

The total area occupied by forests is around 1,380,000 ha (46% of the territory of the oblast) (2006). The total reserves of timber are 228.3 mln m³, most of which are birches and aspens. Protective forests occupy an area of 585,300 ha (44%), and merchantable forests occupy an area of 808,800 ha (56%). Forty four percent of the oblast territory is covered by forests. The total forest cutting area in 2007 was 2,507,800 m³, including 300,500 m³ of pines, 42,000 m³ of hard-leafed trees, 2,168.3 m³ of soft-leafed trees (including 1,072,700 m³ of birch trees). The actual volume of trees cut in 2005 was 379,200 m³ (17% of the forest cutting area), including 133,400 m³ of conifers (55.6% of the forest cutting area). There are vast expanses of broad-leafed tree forests in the southeast of the oblast—the Оrlovsko-Kaluzhsky Forest.

As of the beginning of 2005, the agricultural lands occupied an area of 1,350,000 ha (44% of the territory), of which tillage lands—32%, and forage lands—12% of the total land area of the oblast. The main crops grown in the oblast are forage cereals, potatoes, vegetables, and feed grains (wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat), and fiber-flax.

The area covered by marshes is relatively small—around 0.5% of the total territory, and there are fewer marshes in the east as compared to the western part of the oblast.

Fauna[edit]

Over two centuries of research, several thousands of species of invertebrate animals and 396 vertebrates were discovered in Kaluga Oblast. 132 vertebrate species are included in Kaluga Oblast's Red Book of endangered species, including 36 from the current list of protected species of the Russian Federation.

The oblast's territory is inhabited by 68 species of mammals. These include typical forest animals: brown bear, lynx, elk, wolf, polar hare, and squirrel. There are also species more typical for prairies: hamsters, great jerboa, spotted prairie dog and the bobac marmot. In recent decades, hunting estate employees have been dispersing small-population species. Among them are the Russian muskrat, beaver, boar, and roe – all of them adapted very well and increased populations. There were also efforts to acclimatize species that previously did not inhabit the oblast: the raccoon dog, beaver rat, the red deer and the sika deer, who quickly achieved game populations. The south of the oblast is sometimes visited by bison that were recently released into the Orlovskoye Polesye national park.

The oblast's aquatic fauna includes two kinds of lamprey and 41 species of bony fish. The diversity of fish is explained by the variety of habitats. Thus, the Oka basin is inhabited by brook lamprey, and the Desna and its tributaries – by the Ukrainian lamprey. Stagnant pools are home to crucian and gold carp, ench and many other fish varieties. Pond estates breed mirror carp, silver carp, grass carp and, sometimes, peled. Of the commercially valuable fish, the biggest share belongs to bream. Of the rare varieties, there are starlet, riffle minnow, slimy sculpin that are included in Russia’s Red Book of endangered species.

Among 11 kinds of amphibians, the most common are crested and common newts, red-bellied, common and green toads, and various lake, pool, moor and grass frogs. Reptiles are represented by 7 species, including snakes: the venomous adder and the harmless water snake and smooth snake. Lizards are quite common - sand lizards and deaf adders that do not have limbs and are often mistaken for snakes.

There are 267 kinds of birds registered to visit the oblast, including 177 to nest, 58 to migrate and 32 to occasionally transit. The number of bird species staying for the winter has increased to 93, which is due to anthropogenic landscape transformations. The most significant bird of prey habitats are located in the Kaluzhskiye Zaseki reserve and the interfluve of the Bytebet and the Resseta. The largest populations are: waterfowl - mallard; semi-aquatic – black-headed gull; in forest– chaffinch, chiffchaff; along river banks – sand martin; in settlements – rock pigeon, common swift, rook, tree sparrow.

Flora[edit]

Forests cover 45% of Kaluga Oblast. Combined reserves of timber are 269 million m3, of which 30% are coniferous species, and 67% - soft-wooded broadleaved species.

According to data for 2013, the annual allowable cutting rate was 3,136,900 m3. It is currently utilized to 30%. The annual stand increment is 4,8 million m3.

The oblast's forest zone has two subzones: combined coniferous and broadleaved, and broadleaved forests. The combined subzone is dominated by various types of spruce forests. The tree layer in such forests is formed by the Norway spruce mixed with pine, birch, aspen, basswood and common oak. Primary broadleaved forests occupy a small area in the interfluve between the Vytebet, the Zhizdra and the Oka. Here, the edificatory species are common oak, tillet, taller ash, and elm trees. Unlike the coniferous forests, these are polydominant ones, with 7-8 layers. Usually, there is birch and aspen in the second layer, lowland maple, crab apple and field-ash in the third layer. There is also a well-developed layer of shrub. Herbage is dominated by prevernal ephemeroids and perennials.

The oblast's extrazonal flora is represented by pine and small-leaved forests, swamps and meadows. The common pine forms forests on sandbanks of ancient alluvial flats, sand terraces of river valleys, stagnant peaty soil. There are also white and green moss pinewoods, sphagnous and complex pinewoods. The tree layer in small-leaved and derivative mixed forests is formed by weeping and white birch, aspen, goat willow, spruce, pine and oak trees.

There are two types of meadows - floodplains and dry meadows.

Swamps are distributed unevenly. The greatest concentration is in the north-west and west (the Ugra basin), and in Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands.

Conservation and ecological condition[edit]

According to the governmental report “On the Status of the Environment and Its Conservation in the Russian Federation” published by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Kaluga Oblast is one of the most ecologically pure regions of the Central Federal District. In 2012, by the condition of its atmosphere, Kaluga was a top ten among 85 Russian cities.

In Kaluga Oblast, environmental assessment, regulation, licensing and control in the sphere of environmental protection are handled by several authorized governmental agencies. In 2008, the oblast established a territorial system for environmental monitoring (TSM).

In 2013, the investment council supervised by the Governor of Kaluga Oblast passed a resolution on the creation of an Ecotechnopark. The park will be designed with the use of the best technologies ensuring its sanitary and environmental safety. Priorities include protection of surface and subterranean waters from contamination, storage and recycling of industrial and household waste, radiation security, and reduction of air pollution.

Kaluga Oblast's share in combined air and water polluting emissions in the Central Federal District is insignificant. By level of screening and decontamination of harmful substances, the oblast is in the third place after Bryansk and Belgorod Oblasts. Most of the harmful atmospheric emissions are generated by Kaluga, Kirov, Obninsk, Lyudinovo, and by Dzerzhinsky District.

The accident in Chernobyl resulted in radioactive contamination in the oblast's south and southwest. Radiation monitoring is conducted in nine districts. The radiation background complies with the established radiation situation. The oblast has many stations for collection, storage, removal and processing of ferrous and non-ferrous metal scrap, glass and paper.

The oblast's plants implement waste-free technologies. Primary sorting of waste is performed by Polygon, a small enterprise in Obninsk, and others.

There are several successful eco settlements in Kaluga Oblast, nature reserve Kaluzhskiye Zaseki, national park Ugra, natural reserve Tarusa, and natural sanctuary Kaluzhski Bor.

History[edit]

The territory of Kaluga Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times. The oldest human sites discovered by archeologists date back to the Mesolithic period (10,000–6,000 BC). The first mentions of Kaluga’s towns are associated with events in the 12th century, specifically, the feudal war between the Olegovichi and the Monomakhovichi (Kozelsk - 1146, Serensk- 1147, Vorotynsk -1155, Mosalsk - 1231).

In the 14th century, Kaluga lands were the place for constant confrontations between Lithuania and Moscow. In 1371, Olgerd, grand duke of Lithuania, wrote to Philotheos, patriarch of Constantinople, to complain about Alexei, metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia, who seized some of his cities, including Kaluga, which in that letter is mentioned for the first time. Traditionally, it is considered that Kaluga was established as a frontier to protect the Moscow principality from Lithuania’s attacks.

In 1480-1481, Kaluga's territory was the place of an event bearing high significance for Russian history – the great stand on the Ugra river, resulting in the liberation of Russian lands from the Tatar Yoke and Moscow's transformation into a sovereign state.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, with active development of trade and crafts, Kaluga became more than a military outpost. Sources indicate that the rich city was advanced in the arts of wood carving and jewelry. After the reunification of Russia and the Ukraine in 1654, Kaluga's role as a trade intermediary between Moscow and the Ukraine contributed even more to its economic development.

On August 24, 1776, Catherine II issued a decree establishing Kaluga Viceroyalty to unite Kaluga and Tula Governorates. The center of the viceroyalty acquired a new image, and even today Kaluga’s planning and development is considered a brilliant achievement of Russian urbanism of late 18th and early 19th centuries. During the rule of Paul I, in 1795 Kaluga Viceroyalty was transformed into a governorate.

The end of the 18th century and the first three decades of the 19th century were a period of economic stability. Kaluga continued to act as an intermediary, trading with Moscow, Petersburg, Ukraine, Siberia, Poland and German cities.

During the Great Patriotic War, the territory was liberated from fascist aggressors by Soviet Army units 10, 16, 33, 43, 49, 50, 61, tank brigade 20, air fleet 1, horse cavalry 1, and the Normandy squadron.

The modern oblast was founded in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 5, 1944. Kaluga Oblast included the following cities and districts: the city of Kaluga, Babyninsky, Detchinsky, Dugninsky, Kaluzhsky, Peremyshlsky, and Tarussky Districts (formerly part of Tula Oblast); Borovsky, Vysokinichsky, Maloyaroslavetsky, and Ugodsko-Zavodsky Districts (formerly a part of Moscow Oblast); Baryatinsky, Dzerzhinsky, Duminichsky, Iznoskovsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Kuybyshevsky, Medynsky, Meshchovsky, Mosalsky, Spas-Demensky, Sukhinichsky, and Yukhnovsky Districts (formerly a part of Smolensk Oblast); and Zhizdrinsky, Lyudinovsky, Ulyanovsky, and Khvastovichsky Districts (formerly a part of Oryol Oblast).

After the dissolution of the USSR, Kaluga Oblast became a federal subject of the Russian Federation. On March 27, 1996, the Charter of Kaluga Oblast was adopted.

Demographics[edit]

2012
  • Births: 11 835 (11.8 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 15 806 (15.7 per 1000) [15]
  • Total fertility rate:[16]

2009 - 1.41 | 2010 - 1.48 | 2011 - 1.49 | 2012 - 1.62 | 2013 - 1.65(e)

Population[edit]

According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of the oblast is 1,010,930;[10] down from 1,041,641 recorded in the 2002 Census,[17] and further down from 1,066,833 recorded in the 1989 Census.[18]

Ethnic Groups Number in 2010[10]
Russians 869,031 (93.1%)
Ukrainians 16,662 (1.8%)
Armenians 9,962 (1%)
Belorusians 4,557 (0.5%)
Tatars 4,206 (0.4%)
Azerbaijanis 3,498 (0.4%)
Uzbeks 3,482 (0.4%)
Others 22,240 (2.4%)
Only those ethnic groups whose total number exceeds 1,000 people are included in this table
  • 77,292 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[19]

Religion[edit]

A Rodnover temple in Kaluga countryside.


Circle frame.svg

Religion in Kaluga Oblast (2012)[20][21]

  Russian Orthodox (48.6%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (7%)
  Rodnovery (2%)
  Other Orthodox (2%)
  Spiritual but not religious (26%)
  Atheist and non-religious (9%)
  Other and undeclared (5.4%)

As of a 2012 official survey[20] 48.6% of the population of Kaluga Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% declares to be generically Christian (excluding Catholic and Protestant), 2% follows Rodnovery (Slavic Paganism), 2% follows other Orthodox Churches, less than 1% is Muslim, 5.4% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 9% to be atheist.[20]

Administrative and municipal divisions[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, the oblast is divided into twenty-four districts and four cities of oblast significance.

Within the framework of municipal divisions, the territories of the administrative districts are incorporated into twenty-four municipal districts and the territories of the two cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban okrugs. Two other cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban settlements within corresponding municipal districts.

Economy[edit]

In less than a decade Kaluga Oblast managed to turn from an underdeveloped territory into a developed region with a healthy business environment. The economic growth was spurred by the policies aimed at attracting investments. Today Kaluga Oblast is a leader in Russia in terms of industrial production index growth rate, direct foreign investments per capita, and the number of advanced technologies introduced annually.

In 2007-2012, 387 billion rubles (RUR) worth of investments were attracted. In the same period, 9 industrial parks were established, 46 new production facilities were opened, and over 25,000 new jobs were created. The real wage growth was 135%.

Kaluga Oblast managed to form one of the most efficient economies in the country through the development of existing production facilities and the establishment of new ones. The output per capita grew from RUR 89,000 to RUR 437,000—the second place in the Russia. The amount of tax payments to the federal budget per capita grew three-fold and in 2012 the oblast was second in the Central Federal District by this indicator. The budget income growth through regional sources helped Kaluga Oblast authorities significantly increase wages for public sector employees, especially those from healthcare and education sectors. As a result, the average wages in Kaluga Oblast grew by 3.2 times in five years.

The economic policy pursued by Kaluga Oblast authorities resulted in significant changes in the local industry structure, creating preconditions for opening of new hi-tech production facilities. There are 770 plants in the oblast, accounting for about 35% of the GRP and over 50% of taxes paid to the Kaluga Oblast budget. About one third of the oblast's population is employed by the industrial sector.

Industry[edit]

Machine-building has traditionally been the cornerstone of Kaluga Oblast's industry. Its share in the industrial production significantly grew and almost reached 70%.[when?] The share of hi-tech production facilities is steadily growing. For instance, pharmaceutical industry demonstrated growth of 43% in 2012. Industrial output has grown by 2.5 times in 2007–2013.

Processing Industry Structure

In 2012, the industrial production index reached 106.6%. The largest shares in the production output are the machine-building and metalworking industry (75.9%), the food industry (9.1%), forestry (3.3%), and power industry (3.2%). In 2012, the production of cars and trucks grew significantly (by 22.3% and 23.4% correspondingly); the pharmaceutical industry grew by 43%. The production of steam turbines grew by 15.9%, TV sets–by 13.7%, rotor tillers an power tillers–by 12.8%, and finished metal products–by 2.1%.

Item 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Cars 62,300 48,400 120,700 177,700 219,500
Trucks - 300 1,600 5,100 6,300
Locomotives, pcs 73 40 61 78 73
TV sets 254,000 1,959,000 3,824,000 5,199,000 5,909,000
Turbines, MW 375,8 313 382 323 270
Steel pipes 73,300 74,500 95,100 113,300 115,400

Machine-building and metalworking[edit]

Machine-building and metalworking are the cornerstones of the Kaluga Oblast industry. In 2012, there were 1,071 machine-building companies in the oblast. The machine-building industry is characterized by the wide diversification of industrial output:

Peugeot Citroёn Mitsubishi Automobiles Rus ООО
Volkswagen Group Rus OOO Auto
  • Turbines and turbine generators (OAO KTZ)
  • Gas turbine engines and rotor tillers (OAO KADVI)
  • TV sets and washing machines (OOO Samsung Electronics Rus Kaluga)
  • Radio electronics and switchgear for communications, special purpose communication equipment (OAO Kalugapribor, OAO KEMZ, OAO KNIITMU)
  • Military equipment components (OAO Tayfun, OAO Tekhnologiya ONPP, OAO KNIRTI, OAO KZRTA, OAO KZTA)
  • Electronic tubes and quantum equipment products (OAO Voskhod KRLZ)
  • Hardware and equipment for nuclear power stations and radiochemical production facilities (OAO Signal PZ)
  • Locomotives, machinery, and mechanized equipment for railway track repair and operation (OAO Lyudinovo Locomotive Plant (LTZ), OAO Kalugaputmash, OAO Kaluga Remputmash Plant KZ, OAO Kalugatransmash)
  • Measuring instruments(ZAO NPO Prompribor, OOO NPP Metra)
  • Cooker hoods (OOO Elmat)
  • Steel pipes, aluminum shape, greenhouse components (OOO Agrisovgaz)
  • Steel structures and sandwich panel buildings (OOO Ruukki Rus)
  • Iron, steel, and non-ferrous casting products (ZAO Krontif-Center, OAO Kirov Plant, OAO Spetslit);
  • Cable products (ZAO Lyudinovokabel, ZAO Transvok ZAO, and others)

Chemical industry[edit]

Chemical industry, including pharmaceutical industry, is a promising area of development in the Kaluga Oblast's industrial sector. According to the 2020 Russian Federation Pharmaceutical Industry Development Strategy, Kaluga Oblast is included in the list of Russian federal subjects with the optimal combination of scientific, educational, and production centers for the pharmaceutical industry development.

In 2012, thirty-three pharmaceutical industry companies were registered in the oblast. A pharmaceutical cluster is being formed, comprising at its core the companies engaged in R&D and the development of new technologies. A number of major global pharmaceutical companies operate in Kaluga Oblast. Obninsk, the first science city in Russia, is the R&D center for the pharmaceutical cluster.

Finished dosage forms production:

  • Hemopharm (a member of STADA, Germany) has been operating in Kaluga Oblast since 2007 года. This is the first pharmaceutical company in Russia to export its products not only to Europe, but to the USA as well;
  • Berlin-Chemie/Menarini, Menarini (Italy);
  • Novo-Nordisk (Denmark);
  • Niarmedik Plus (Russia);
  • AstraZeneca (Sweden-UK).

Pilot production of pharmaceutical substances and biopharmaceutical technologies development:

  • BION OOO, chemical and pharmaceutical company;
  • Medbiopharm Scientific and Production Company OOO;
  • MIR-PHARM ZAO.

Services associated with neutralization pharmaceutical substances, finished dosage forms, and waste from pharmaceutical production facilities of Kaluga Oblast biopharmaceutical cluster:

  • Omiteks NPP OOO;
  • SVChtekh OTsNT Group OOO.

Food industry[edit]

  • Nestle Russia OOO;
  • SABMiller Rus ZAO;
  • Obninsk Meat Factory OAO;
  • Invest Alyans OOO;
  • Zuegg Russia OOO ООО;
  • Obninsk Dairy Factory, Wimm-Bill-Dann branch;
  • MosMedynAgroprom OAO – dairy products.

Light industry[edit]

Kaluga Oblast light industry includes about 250 companies with various forms of ownership, including 11 large and medium businesses. The list of Kaluga Oblast light industry major companies is given below:

  • Yermolino OOO, textile production;
  • Runo OAO, textile production;
  • Sukhinichi Garment Factory ОАО, clothing production;
  • Lyudinivo Garment Factory ОOО, clothing production;
  • Yukhnov Garment Factory ОOО, clothing production;
  • KALITA OAO, footwear production;
  • Kaluga Footwear OOO;
  • Forio OOO, footwear production.

Kaluga Oblast Government striving to diversity the local economy, pays great attention to development of various industry sectors. Today Kaluga Oblast companies manufacture paper, cardboard containers, wood chip and fiber boards, parquet boards, bricks, ceramic sanitary wear, reinforced concrete products, rubber and plastic products, pipes, shapes and much more. The key objective of Kaluga Oblast Government in the field of industry development is the improvement of business and investment climate in the oblast. Industry, Transport and Communication Department of the Ministry for Economic Development of Kaluga Oblast is responsible for implementation of the regional industrial policy aimed at improvement of regional industrial companies efficiency, local products’ quality and competitiveness of Kaluga Oblast industry.

Investments[edit]

Kaluga Oblast is among the leaders in attracting foreign investments into the regional economy. Kaluga Oblast has developed a clear investment development strategy and established a favorable investment climate, which serves as an example for other constituent subjects of the Russian Federation.

Key elements of its investment strategy are organization of plants within industrial parks and special economic zones (SEZ), low investment risks, tax benefits and legislatively secured administrative support from authorities and specially created development institutions – the Kaluga Oblast Development Corporation, the Agency for Regional Development, the Agency for Innovation Development and Industrial Logistics. Each of these institutions has its own objectives and scope of responsibility. Their operation is overseen by the Ministry for Economic Development of Kaluga Oblast. Today there are 134 investment projects implemented in 10 industrial parks. 61 enterprises are already operational. In 2012 alone, the area of industrial parks increased from 4,700 hectares to 5,600 hectares. The largest are Grabtsevo, Rosva, Vorsino, and Kaluga South. Development is continuing in Lyudinovo SEZ and private industrial parks. A-Park and B-Park projects are offering brownfields. In 2012, the oblast attracted USD 1.1 billion, taking the 4th place in the Central Federal District and the 19th in the Russian Federation by volume of foreign investments. By volume of direct foreign investments per capita in 2012, Kaluga Oblast holds the 3rd place in the Central Federal District and the 8th in Russia. From 2006 to 2012, the oblast entered 101 investment agreements. From 2006, it attracted RUR 334.7 billion, including RUR 85.7 billion under agreements executed in 2012. From 2006, a total of 16,000 new jobs were created in Kaluga Oblast, with plans to bring the total to 29,962 (under agreements executed in 2006-2012).

Industrial Park Rosva

Kaluga Oblast is developing the automobile, pharmaceutical and transport and logistics clusters that are actively financed by national and foreign capital.

Production of Automobiles and Auto Components

By output volume, Kaluga Oblast is among the top three automobile centers in the Russian Federation. From 2007 to 2012, more than 630,000 left the conveyors of Kaluga Oblast’s plants. If compared with 2011, in 2012 automobile production increased by 24%. In 2012, the automobile cluster produced more than 226,000 automobiles. Automobile plants have provided more than 12,000 new jobs. The oblast is home to plants of three ОЕМ manufacturers: Volkswagen Group Rus, Volvo Vostok, and Peugeot-Citroen-Mitsubishi-Auto Rus. The park of component suppliers is growing, and at the beginning of 2013 included 22 companies.

  • Magna Technoplast ZAO (Canada-Austria) – manufacturer of bumpers and front modules
  • YAPP Rus Automobile Systems OOO (China) – manufacturer of plastic fuel tanks
  • Benteler Automotive OOO (Germany) – manufacturer of suspension units
  • Visteon Rus OOO (Spain) – manufacturer of interior elements
  • Merkator Holding OOO – manufacturer of motor truck attachments
  • Gestamp-Severstal Kaluga OOO (Russia – Spain) – manufacturer of body elements
  • Severstal-Gonvarri-Kaluga OOO (Russia – Spain) – metal service center
  • HP Pelzer Rus OOO (Germany) – manufacturer of sound insulation
  • Lear OOO (USA) – manufacturer of seats
  • Becema ZAO (Russia) – manufacturer of motor truck attachments
  • Fuyao Glass Rus OOO (China) – manufacturer of automobile glass
  • HT&L Fitting Rus OOO (Italy) – assembly of automobile tires
  • Scherdel Kaluga OOO (Germany) – manufacturer of seat frames
  • FUCHS OIL OOO (Germany) – manufacturer of lubricating oils
  • Faurecia Automotive Development OOO (France) – manufacturer of exhaust systems, interior elements
  • Bosal OOO (Belgium) – manufacturer of exhaust systems
  • Continental Automotive Systems Rus ООО (Germany) – manufacturer of automobile electronic systems
  • Continental Kaluga OOO (Germany) – manufacturer of tires
  • Ruecker ООО (Germany) – consulting services
  • AD Plastic ООО (Croatia) - manufacturer of plastic auto components

On December 11, 2012 construction of a new VOLKSWAGEN plant for production of power units was launched at Grabtsevo industrial park. The plant will manufacture a new series of petrol engines (ЕА211, 1.6 l). Its annual production capacity will be 150,000 engines. Total investments in accordance with the agreement – EUR 200 million. Personnel for the automobile cluster are trained by the Training Center for Specialists of the Automobile Industry established in 2007. The center has developed nearly 100 training programs, has 30 laboratories and workshops. The center has already trained more than 8,000 specialists for the automobile sector.

Pharmaceuticals, Biotechnologies and Biomedicine

In 2012, the development program for the innovative territorial cluster of Pharmaceuticals, Biotechnologies and Biomedicine won the competition of the Russian Ministry for Economic Development, the purpose of which was to select pilot development programs for innovative territorial clusters. The “core” of the pharmaceutical cluster is formed at two locations: ­ - Kaluga (industrial parks Grabtsevo and A-Park) – manufacturing base ­ - Obninsk (industrial zone, Obninsk high-tech park and Vorsino industrial park) – innovations, including development of small and medium-sized companies. An important element is the Medical Radiological Research Center, a federal budget-funded enterprise (FBE) established by the Russian Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development, which is to become the foundation for a new federal high-tech innovative medical radiology center. Development of the pharmaceutical cluster has three principal directions: manufacturing of pharmaceutical products, manufacturing of substances, and research in the sphere of pharmaceutics, biotechnologies and biomedicine.

Manufacturing:

  • Chemopharm ООО (structural unit of STADA CIS, part of the STADA AG group of companies, Germany) – manufacturer of drugs
  • Novo Nordisk Production Support ООО (branch of Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark) – manufacturer of insulin
  • NEARMEDIC PHARMA ООО (Russia) – manufacturer of original drugs
  • Berlin-Pharma ZAO (branch of Berlin-Chemie AG (Germany), part of the Menarini Ind international group of companies (Italy) – manufacturer of solid dosage forms
  • AstraZeneca Industries ООО (branch of Astra Zeneca Ind (UK) – manufacturer of innovative drugs
  • Sphera-Pharm ООО (Russia) – manufacturer of medical intravenous solutions small and medium-sized innovative companies focused on development and creation of new bio- and pharmaceutical products: Mir-Pharm ООО, Obninsk Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company ZAO, Medbiopharm Group, BION Group.

Networking partners: ­*RAS Puschino Research Center (Puschino. RAS Scientific and Research Center 9 in the field of molecular biology, biotechnology and biomedicine

  • ORCHIMED non-profit partnership (14 leading Russian academic institutions in the chemical and biochemical field)
  • Fundamental Medicine Faculty of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
  • Management company of the Biotechnological Business Incubator of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University;

Research and education:

  • Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Energetics - branch of the MEPHI National Research Nuclear University (federal state autonomous educational institution of higher vocational education, FSAEI HVE) with a medical faculty
  • K.E.Tsiolkovsky Kaluga State University (federal state budget-funded educational institution of higher vocational education, FSBEI HVE)
  • Branch of the L.Ya.Karpov Physicochemical Scientific and Research Institute (state science center of the Russian Federation, RF SSC)
  • Medical Radiology Research Center (FSBE) of the Russian Ministry of Healthcare
  • A.I.Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (federal state unitary enterprise, FSUE RF SSC)

Innovations:

  • Active Molecules Park innovative biopharmaceutical center (on the basis of Medbiopharm SC and its networking partners)
  • NEARMEDIC PHARMA OOO (Obninsk) – a newly created universal GMP, a joint venture between NEARMEDIC PLUS OOO and ROSNANO OAO – full cycle manufacturer of original biomedical nanopreparations
  • Innovation laboratories and scientific and production sites of Mir-Pharm OOO, BION ООО, Obninsk Chemical and Pharmaceutical Company OOO;

The share of innovative companies among residents of the Kaluga pharmaceutical cluster is over 70%. In is planned to commission 5 pharmaceutical plants in 2013-2014. In 2012, 10 major residents of the Kaluga pharmaceutical cluster were formalized as the Kaluga Pharmaceutical Cluster non-profit partnership. Currently, a Training Center for Specialists of the Pharmaceutical Industry is being created in Kaluga Oblast. The goal of the project is to train qualified personnel for pharmaceutical manufacturing companies in the oblast to work at modern GMP-plants. Construction of the center, which will be located at Grabtsevo industrial park, will be completed in 2014. Training will be based on the German “dual” model of vocational education adapted to Russian specifics. The center has already trained a group of specialists for the Kaluga plant of Berlin-Chemie AG in test mode in cooperation with German partners from the Tuv Rheinland Group.

Transport and Logistics

The logistics infrastructure of Kaluga Oblast is continuously modernized, new centers and terminals are created, roads reconstructed. Logistics operators like Gefco, Green Logistics, Renus Logistics, Transcontainer and others are already working in the format of the transport and logistics cluster. Kaluga Oblast is developing infrastructures necessary for logistics processes, with new motorways, railways, warehouse complexes being built.

Rosva Transport and Logistics Center (Rosva TLC) was created to optimize logistics operations of residents of Kaluga Oblast’s industrial parks (Grabtsevo, Rosva, Kaluga South) and to provide services to other participants of foreign economic activity. The TLC is one of the fundamental objects of the distribution network covering the entire Central Federal District.

  • The TLC automobile terminal with an area of 5 hectares is equipped with special loading machinery, weighing equipment, radioactivity control system and x-ray inspection complex. The territory of the terminal is divided into two zones: the Kaluga customs terminal of the Kaluga Customs Office, and the excise terminal of the Central Excise Authority.
  • The TLC container terminal with an area of 3 hectares includes a cargo park (6 restricted use railways with a total length of 10 km), area for container storage, customs office, access roads, etc. The capacity of the terminal is up to 150,000 TEUs per year (Kalmar reach stackers).

Vorsino Multimodal Logistics Center (Freight Village Kaluga) is located in the northern part of Kaluga Oblast, 70 km from the Moscow Ring Road, 90 km from Kaluga, in immediate proximity to the M3 Ukraine federal highway and the Moscow-Kiev railway. Vorsino MLC is included in the general development plant of the Moscow Railway Hub and the Moscow Transport Hub Development Program. The total area of the TLC is 450 hectares. The length of internal railways is 9,193 linear meters. The capacity of the container terminal on the first stage is 300,000 TEUs per year, with plans to achieve 1,500,000 TEUs per year. Total investments are EUR 1,2 billion, with nearly EUR 250 million of investments in construction of a logistics park.

Kaluga International Airport is located in close proximity to Grabtsevo industrial park. The main shareholder of the airport (99.99% shares) is the government of Kaluga Oblast, represented by the Ministry for Economic Development of Kaluga Oblast. Implementation of Kaluga International Airport investment plan provides for global improvements. The project is to be financed out of funds allocated to the Development of the Russian Transportation System for 2010-2015 federal target program. Apart from that public private partnership scheme is to be applied. Works related to reconstruction of the airport facilities, obtaining of relevant certificates and opening of border entry points are to be completed 2013-2014. The new airport will be able to serve A319 type (64 t) and similar airplanes It is to be commissioned in the second half of 2014. The airport area following its reconstruction is to reach about 200 ha. The runway dimensions – 2,200х45 m (asphalt-concrete pavement). The passenger capacity – 100 passengers per hour. Estimated passenger flow in 2015 – 100,000 passengers per annum. RUR 1.7 billion is to be invested under the signed agreement. The airport is intended for the population of Kaluga Oblast and adjacent federal subjects (Tula, Smolensk, and Bryansk Oblasts). Flights will be performed to major cities of Russia as well as Kaluga Oblast partner countries.

Yermolino Airport is located 95 km from the center of Moscow, 60 km from Vnukovo International Airport, 5 km from the M3 Ukraine federal highway, and 5–6 km from the nearest railway station Balabanovo. The airdrome belongs to the interior ministry troops of the Russian Federation. Approval has already been obtained from the Russian Federal Agency of Air Transport and the Russian Ministry of Transport to organize a civilian Yermolino International Airport. By 2015, Yermolino will become the first large airport specializing in servicing passengers of low-cost carriers. One of the project’s investors – Utair – plans to build a terminal with capacity to service 8 million passengers per year. Apart from offering low-cost passenger services, the airport also plans to become a major cargo processing hub. Yermolino Airport is already being considered as a part of the developing Vorsino MLC (Freight Village Kaluga), which is being built 2 km from the airport infrastructure.

Awards[edit]

The World Organization of Creditors (WOC) determined the nominees for the "Investment Angel Award" as follows:

Development institutions[edit]

The following development institutions have been created to support the implementation of investment policies of the Oblast Administration:

This is a government entity responsible for development of industrial parks and engineering infrastructure. Objective: establishment of new and development of the existing industrial parks, and construction of engineering infrastructure in the industrial parks.

This is a government entity responsible for provision of non-discriminative access to the logistic and railroad infrastructure. Objectives: establishment of logistic and customs terminals, and construction and operation of railroads in the industrial parks.

This is a state entity responsible for provision of expert advice to investors in the process of implementation of investment projects. Objectives: attraction of investments in the economy of Kaluga Oblast, and promotion of the oblast into the international market.

Construction[edit]

In 2009, there was a total of 1,529 construction companies in Kaluga Oblast, and the value of the construction projects amounted to RUR 23.37 bln. In January–July 2010, 2,034 comfortable apartments with a total area of 193,300 sq.meters were built, up by 110% as compared to the period of January–July 2009 (January–July 2009 to January–July 2008 – 87.6%). Individuals constructed 1,191 buildings with a total area of 146,700 sq.meters (75.9% of the total residential housing commissioned in the oblast).

Energy[edit]

The five existing thermal power stations operating in the oblast generated a total of 407 mln kWt/h of electricity in 2005. The Federal Grid Company and the power generation systems of the neighboring regions meet most of the power demand (up to 90%). The volume of supplies of the energy resources in the oblast: natural gas – 1,640 mln m³ (2005), electric power – 4,520 mln kWt/h (2004). The oldest atomic power station in Russia—Obninsk Atomic Power Station, which was put into operation in 1954 is located in Kaluga Oblast.

Power transmission systems and pipelines[edit]

A 500/220/10 kV Kaluzhskaya substation is located near the town of Maloyaroslavets. It is connected through a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line to the Smolensk Atomic Power Station, and there is a plan to connect it in the future to the Kalinin Atomic Power Station and Vladimirskaya substation (currently, the 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line is connected to Chagino-Mikhailovo 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line. In addition, there is a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line going through the territory of the oblast connecting the Tula and Ryazan (Mikhailovskaya substation) systems to Smolensk Atomic Power Station.

Kaluga is part of the Transneftproduct system which supplies oil products through the pipeline of Plavsk fuel pumping station.

Moscow – Bryansk gas main is passing through the territory of the oblast. There is an underground gas storage facility located near Rezvan village.

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture has a special role in the regional economy. The agricultural production accounts for more than 8.1 % of the GRP. Rural population is 242, 600 or 24% of the total population of the Kaluga Oblast. The total agricultural output in 2012 reached RUR 262 bln. Agricultural land accounts for 1,821,000 hectares of the total land resources of Kaluga Oblast. Among them cultivated land amounts to 1,145,000 hectares, including 857,100 hectares of arable land.

Cattle breeding

Dual purpose cattle breeding is the principal line of the agricultural business. Modern pig factories supply pork to the internal market providing retail trade with chilled meat and pork pre-fabricated products. Among them, Russian-Thai Joint Venture Charoen Pokphand Foods OOO (Dzerzhinsky District), Kharchevnikov Peasant Farm Enterprise OOO (Ulyanovsky District), Tonoyan Peasant Farm Enterprise OOO (Babynino District) to be mentioned. As of January 1, 2013, the total livestock equaled 132,400, including cattle stock – 57,400, pig stock – 74,100, poultry stock – 3,800,000. Total milk output in 2012 equaled 234,000 tons. Average milk output per cow amounted to 4, 700 kg. Kaluga Oblast is ranked eighth among seventeen federal subjects of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation by milk output per day. Robotized milking operation is implemented at industrial scale in Alyeshinskoye OOO (Meshchovsk District), Bebelevo OOO (Ferzikovo District), and Lespoir OOO (Sukhinichi District). Poultry farming is also well-developed in Kaluga Oblast. Major poultry meat producers are Kaluzhskaya Poultry Farm OAO, Radon Poultry Farm OOO (Dzerzhinsky District), Belousovo Poultry Farm OOO (Zhukov District). Samson-Farm OOO (Medyn District) is specialized in guinea fowl breeding.

Horticulture

Horticulture accounts for 10.2% of the total agricultural output. Grain farming, potatoes growing and vegetable farming are the most important sectors. Total grain output in 2013 was 165,700 tons (in weight after processing). Crop yield amounted to 21.5dt/ha. The major grain producers are Lenin Collective Farm (Zhukov District), SKhA Moscow (collective farm) (Borovsk District), Tsvetkov Plemzavod OAO (Maloyaroslavets District), Mayak Collective Farm (Peremyshl District), and Agroresurs OOO (Sukhinichi District). The highest grain crop yield (10,764 tons) was harvested in Mosmedynagroprom OAO (Medyn District). Total output in 2013: potatoes – 335,400 tons, field vegetables – 98,000 tons, greenhouse vegetables – 6,600 tons. Potatoes yield – 144.0 dt/ha, field vegetables yield –178.0 dt/ha. The major potatoes producers are Aurora OOO (Babynino District), Slavyansky Kartofel OOO (Duminichi District), Ordzhonikidze Kolkhoz ZAO (Kozelsk District), Rodina FSUAE (Maloyaroslavets District), Marx Agricultural Production Cooperative and Rus Agricultural Production Cooperative (Khvastovichi District), Mayak Collective Farm and Kaluzhskaya Niva OOO (Peremyshl District). The major producers of greenhouse vegetables are Teplichny OAO (Kaluga), Obninsky Teplichny Kombinat OOO, Maloyaroslavetsky Teplichny Kombinat OOO. Stable supplies of field vegetables performed by suburban Plodoovoshchnoye Khozyastvo-Monastyrskoye Podvorye OOO.

Agro-Industrial Complex

Agro-industrial complex of Kaluga Oblast is represented by 332 entities involved in agricultural activity, 45 large and medium scale enterprises in food and processing industry, 2248 peasant (farming) enterprises, 117, 800 smallholdings. Total investments of large and medium scale enterprises in food and processing industry in 2012 amounted to RUR 283,000,000.

Agro-food infrastructure and logistics

This sector is represented by promising agricultural and food processing projects:

  • K-Agro – agro-industrial park oriented for processing of agricultural products produced in the oblast;
  • Detchino – agro-technology center, where 5 major European companies operating in the agricultural business are located – Grimme, Lemken, Big Dutchman, Wolf System, and Russian-German Holding Econiva;
  • SME Park – a park for small and medium enterprises, established as an efficient distribution center of agricultural products and providing storage facilities.

State support

State support within the frame of state programs is provided to all agricultural enterprises. The Kaluga Oblast Agricultural Development Center has a role of operator providing free consultancies to agricultural enterprises. Total volume of state support as of 01.10.2013 amounted to RUR 339.2 mln, including RUR 136.9 mln from the federal budget and RUR 202.3 mln from the oblast budget.

Transportation[edit]

The main regional transport hubs are located in Kaluga, Obninsk, and Sukhinichi.

M3 "Ukraine" is the main automobile highway, with a traffic density of up to 13,800 vehicles/day, which passes through the towns of Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga, Sukhinichi, and Zhizdra. An equally important role is played by Moscow - Warsaw federal highway, with a traffic density of up to 11,500 vehicles/day, which passes through Belousovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Medyn, Yukhnov, and Spas-Demensk. In addition, there is also a highway of regional importance Vyazma-Kaluga-Tula-Ryazan, with a traffic density of up to 6,750 vehicles/day, and the road section M3 "Ukraine" which passes through the town of Balabanovo. The total length of automobile roads with hard surface is 6,564 km. The density of hard surface road network of common use is 165 km per 1,000 km².

The trunk railroad Moscow – Kiev is passing through Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, and Sukhinichi. In addition, there are also important single-track diesel locomotive lines located in the oblast, including Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula (through Myatlevo, Polotnyanny Zavod, Pyatovky, and Kaluga), Sukhinichi – Smolensk (through Spas-Demensk), Sukhinichi—Roslavl (through Kirov), Sukhinichi – Tula (through Kozelsk), Kozelsk – Belyov, Vyazma – Bryansk (through Kirov and Ludinovo), and Bryansk - Dudorovsky. There is a large locomotive and diesel multiple unit depot located in Kaluga. The total length of the railroads of common use is 872 km. The density of the railroads of common use is 29 km per 1000 km².

There are four airfields in the oblast, including Grabtsevo airport located near the city of Kaluga (closed in 2008), military airfields in the town of Ermolino, and a large military airfield in Shaikovka.

The part of the Oka river flowing from Kaluga is one of the domestic waterways of Russia. There are tourist cruises from Serpukhov to Tarusa and from Serpukhov to Velegozh. In addition, there are two motor ships “Louch” operating along the Kaluga—Aleksin route. The total length of the navigable and conditionally navigable waterways is 101 km. Of special importance is Moscow - Kaluga express (3 departures a day, time en route - 2 hours and 40 minutes).

The city transportation in Kaluga is remarkable for its trolleybus system.

Telecommunications[edit]

There is a well-developed modern telecommunications infrastructure in Kaluga Oblast. There are a total of 210 companies providing telecommunication services in the territory of the oblast.

Cell services and the Internet[edit]

Around 90% of the oblast's territory is covered by cellular services. Cellular services are provided by five cellular service operators, including: the branch of Mobylnye TeleSystemy OAO in Kaluga (MTS), Vympel-Kommunikatsii KF OAO (Beeline), Megafon Kaluga RO TSF OAO, Smolenskaya Sotovaya Svyaz KF ОАО (TELE-2), and the branch of Astrata ZAO in Kaluga Oblast (Sky Link). The number of cellular service users in the territory of the oblast is 1.6 mln, or 1.6 active SIM-cards per capita (including children and elderly people). There are 44 cable and wireless Internet service providers in the territory of Kaluga Oblast. CentrTelecom KF OAO is the main cable Internet service provider in the urban centers and municipalities of the oblast. More than 70% of the population are using Internet services.

Fixed-line communications[edit]

As of the beginning of 2010, there were 340,700 public telephone connections in the oblast. On a per capita basis, there 34 telephone connections per 100 people, which is one of the highest rates among the 18 federal subjects of the Central Federal District of Russia. Around 90% of the public telephone services in the territory of the oblast is provided by the Kaluga branch of CentrTelekom OAO. Completion of the construction of three fiber-optic lines currently planned for 2011 will make it possible to cover the entire territory of Kaluga Oblast by digital telephone services. With a view to providing the residents of the oblast with high-speed access to the Internet, CentrTelecom KF OAO implemented a new fiber-optical communication line (FTTB)-based Internet access technology, also known as Household Optics.

Postal services[edit]

There are 450 postal offices in the territory of Kaluga Oblast, including 349 stationary postal offices in the rural areas, of Russian Post. The comparative analysis of the postal services network shows that in terms of the technological intensiveness and staffing levels, the postal services network in Kaluga Oblast is one of the most advanced in the Central Federal District of Russia. Currently, there are 121 modern POS terminals used in the postal offices of Kaluga Oblast for drawing cash from plastic cards, and there are also 670 postal cash terminals. A chain of 205 Internet cafes (400 seats) was established. The post offices have access to high-speed telecommunication channels, which enables them to electronically process payment of utility bills, and also provide instant money transfer services.

Television and radio broadcasting[edit]

The Kaluga Oblast Radio and Television Broadcasting Center, the branch of Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network (FGUP), is the main operator broadcasting television and radio programs in the oblast. As of 2007, 100% of the oblast territory has been covered by television broadcasting services. TV programs of the regional television company and radio local news programs are broadcast in the entire territory of the oblast through satellite transmission equipment. In addition, cable television networks are being developed in the oblast. Starting from 2013, a federal project will be launched to introduce digital television and radio broadcasting with an increased number of TV and radio channels and improved quality of services.

Science, education, and culture[edit]

As of the beginning of the 2009-2010 academic year, there were 403 public day-time general education institutions for 85,500 students. As of 2009, there were 27 higher education institutions. As of 2009, there were 413 day-time general education institutions. In 2007, a center for training of car manufacturing industry specialists was established. Special classes with instruction in the French, German, and English languages were opened for children of foreigners working in Kaluga Oblast. The first Science Town – Obninsk that was established in Russia is situated in Kaluga Oblast. It carries out research in the areas of atomic power, space and telemechanic technologies, and radio equipment and instrument making industry. These are some of the major scientific institutions of the oblast:

  • Physics and Energy Institute named after A.I. Leypunsky State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation
  • The Obninsk branch of Physics and Chemical Institute named after L.Y. Karpov State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
  • Technologiya Obninsk Scientific Production Company State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
  • Kaluga Scientific Research and Radio Technology Institute Federal Scientific and Production Center
  • Medical Radiological Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
  • Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Center
  • Space Materials Science” of the Crystallography Institute named after A.V. Shubnikov of the Russian Academy of Sciences Scientific Research Center
  • Specialized Space Equipment Design Bureau of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • KNIITMU Federal State Unitary Enterprise
  • All-Union Physiology, Biochemistry, and Animal Food Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Hydro Meteorological Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Agricultural Radiology and Agro-Ecology Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Agricultural Meteorology Scientific Research Institute
  • All-Union Timber Processing Scientific Research Institute

These are the main education institutions of the oblast:

Kaluga Oblast is one of the 15 federal subjects in which the subject “Basics of the Orthodox Culture[8]”. was introduced in the regional curriculum as of September 1, 2006. There is Kaluga Oblast Dramatic Theater named after A.V. Lunacharsky in the oblast.

Tourism and recreation[edit]

The most popular among tourists are the administrative center Kaluga, Optina Pustyn monastery, the City of Military Glory - Kozelsk, Obninsk Science Town, the towns of Maloyaroslavets and Meschovsk where Napoleon’s army was stopped, the Goncharovs country estate in the Polotnyany Zavod, Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Svyato-Pafnutyev Borovsky monastery, the town of Tarusa, and Vorobyi zoo. A number of various tourist paths have been opened in the unique nature reserves—Ugra National Park and Kaluzhskye Zaseki. There are 15 health centers and summer resorts with over 3,500 beds in Kaluga Oblast. The most popular among holidaymakers are the following health centers: Vyatichi, Beryozovaya Roscha, Vorobyevo, Zvezdny, and Signal. The State Space History Museum named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky that was established in 1967 in Kaluga attracts many visitors of all ages. The Oblast Ministry for Sports, Tourism, and Youth Policy adopted a program for the development of tourism for 2011-2016. The main objective of the program is to achieve a threefold increase in the number of tourists visiting the oblast through creation of tourism development centers. One of the most popular tourists locations is Dzerzhinsky district where Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Ugra National Park are situated, and where Arkhstoyanie and musical festivals are held in Matovo village.

These are some of the regular events that are organized for tourists:

  • Arkhistoyanie festival
  • [Pustye Kholmy festival]
  • Bike festival in Maloyaroslavets
  • [Belyi Krolik festival]
  • [Mir Gitary festival]
  • Zheleznye Devy rock music festival (in Kaluga)

Culture[edit]

As early as the 16th century, Kaluga was a major commercial port acting as a connecting link between Lithuania and Moscow. Back then, the city exported wooden utensils known far beyond the provincial boundaries. Starting in the 1680s, stone churches were built on the sites of wooden churches. By the latter half of the 18th century, there were 183 stone and 2235 wooden buildings in Kaluga. The 17th-century Korobov mansion with its semidomes and patterned cornices is a fine example of the civil architecture of the period. Many other buildings of so-called "workplaces" have also been preserved. These include several administrative buildings connected by arches e.g. the Zolotarev town estate, the Bilibin merchant mansion, and the Inn Court comprising several trading houses designed by the famous architect P.R. Nikitin.

Sports[edit]

Kaluga Football Club autonomous non-for-profit organization was established in December 2009 by the Ministry of Sports, Tourism and Youth Policy of Kaluga Oblast, the City Administration of Kaluga, and Galantus&K OOO. The Trustee Council is chaired by Kaluga Oblast Governor Anatoly D. Artamonov.

Kaluga Football Club won the tenth place in the Championship of Russia in the Center zone (2nd Division) of the 2010 season. As a result of the support that the Specialized Youth Football School of Olympic Reserve is receiving from the Kaluga Football Club, it is able to represent Kaluga Oblast in the Championship of Russia in four age groups. The trainings and football games of the official rounds of the Championship of Russia are held at the football stadium of Annenki Children and Youth Sports School.

Mass media[edit]

Nika FM radio and Nika TV station operate in Kaluga Oblast.

Politics[edit]

Kaluga Oblast Government building

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Kaluga CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Kaluga Oblast is the fundamental law of the oblast. The Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

The Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast[edit]

Baburin Viktor Sergeevich – the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast.

2004 Legislative Assembly Elections[edit]

The first elections were conducted based on a mixed voting system: 20 seats were allocated through party lists, and another 20 seats—through single-seat constituencies. United Russia political party won in the party-lists elections in which it received 40% of the votes (10 seats). United Russia also won elections in 12 single-seat constituencies and it now has a majority of votes in the parliament (22 out of 40).

  • КPRF — 13.4% of the votes (3 seats)
  • "Rodina" — 11.2% (3 seats)
  • LDPR — 9,9% (2 seats)
  • Yabloko — 6.3% (2 seats)
  • Agrarian Party — 4.7% (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)
  • Soyuz Pravyh Sil won four seats in the Legislative Assembly through single-seat constituencies elections, which will make it possible for this party to form its own fraction in the Legislative Assembly.

2010 Legislative Assembly Elections of the 5th Convocation[edit]

The elections were won by United Russia party which received 53.45% of the votes. This allowed this party to win 22 seats in the oblast parliament.

  • Kaluga Oblast Branch of KPRF—21.17% of the votes (9 seats)
  • Kaluga Oblast Branch of Spravedlivaya Rossiya— 11.2% (4)
  • Kaluga Oblast Branch of LDPR—11.93% (5)
  • Patrioty Rossii – 1.86% (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)

Notable people[edit]

Born on the territory of modern Kaluga Oblast[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Law #423-OZ
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 3.2
  5. ^ Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 4.4
  6. ^ Official website of the Governor of Kaluga Oblast. Anatoly Dmitriyevich Artamonov (Russian)
  7. ^ Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 26.1
  8. ^ Charter of Kaluga Oblast, Article 18.1
  9. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  11. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  12. ^ Kaluga Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения (Russian)
  13. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  14. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  15. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  16. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  17. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  18. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  19. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  20. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  21. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №423-ОЗ от 3 июня 2013 г. «О гимне Калужской области». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: Официальный сайт Законодательного Собрания Калужской области, 3 июня 2013 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #423-OZ of June 3, 2013 On the Anthem of Kaluga Oblast. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. №473 27 марта 1996 г. «Устав Калужской области», в ред. Закона №465-ОЗ от 30 сентября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Калужской области». Опубликован: "Весть", №79, 9 апреля 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. #473 March 27, 1996 Charter of Kaluga Oblast, as amended by the Law #465-OZ of September 30, 2013 On Amending the Charter of Kaluga Oblast. ).

External links[edit]