Kalyan, India

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"Kalyan" redirects here. For for places in Iran, see Kalyan, Iran.
Kalyan
कल्याण
Village
Kalyan is located in Maharashtra
Kalyan
Kalyan
Coordinates: 19°14′14″N 73°07′50″E / 19.237253°N 73.130436°E / 19.237253; 73.130436Coordinates: 19°14′14″N 73°07′50″E / 19.237253°N 73.130436°E / 19.237253; 73.130436
Country India
State Maharashtra
District Thane
Government
 • Body Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation
Area
 • Total 137.15 km2 (52.95 sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 421301
Vehicle registration MH-05
Sex ratio 915 female/1000 male /
Literacy 85.97%
Lok Sabha constituency Kalyan
Vidhan Sabha constituency Kalyan
Civic agency Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation

Kalyan Marathi:(कल्याण) is a part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region in the Thane District of Maharashtra. Kalyan is known for providing the significant work force for the economy of Mumbai. It is also known for being the Mumbai region's exit station to North and South India.

Kalyan is within the Administrative division (Tehsil) of the Thane District. Kalyan and its neighbouring township of Dombivli jointly form the Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation, abbreviated as KDMC. It is considered a part of the Greater Mumbai built-up area, along with Bhiwandi, Thane, Ulhasnagar and the municipal councils of Ambernath and Badlapur.

History[edit]

During the British Era, the administration spelled Kalyan as Kallian, Callian and sometimes as callianee. Kalyan is known for being a city being constantly sieged by foreign armies like the Mughals, the Portuguese and the British. The city regards the Marathas with special significance for being the only line of defence against invading armies. Decaying structures and traces of maratha fortification still exist in the city like the Durgadi fort. Extensive ruins in Kalyan indicate the city's former magnificence.

Kalyan suffered major ruin from the continuous siege attempts throughout its existence. Walter Hamilton in his year 1820 book A Geographical, Statistical, and Historical Description of Hindostan, and the Adjacent Counties, Volume 2 described Callianee as follows on page 150:

“This town(callianee) sustained many sieges during the wars between the moghuls and the marathas, and is surrounded by the ruins of various sorts. It is still a populous town and carries on some traffic in coconuts, oil, coarse cloths, brass and earthen-ware. Its external appearance indicates a former state of superior opulence; but it is now a poor maratha town.”

Kalyan served as a port city for many centuries until siltation and the rise of Bombay eclipsed it and its sister ports - Nallasopara, Thane, Bhiwandi, Vasai, etc. Old and abandoned lighthouses which were used to guide sea traffic during the Maratha period still exist along the riverbanks of Ganesh ghat. The port was ruled by the Maurya and Gupta Empires of north India and later was part of a Konkan principality vassal to the Yadava dynasty of Daulatabad, Deogiri.[citation needed]

After the Khilji sack of Deogiri, the Yadavas fled into the Konkan region and set up their base at Mahikawati, modern Mahim; Kalyan was a part of the brief Yadava state of Mahikawati. Mahikawati was conquered by the Muslims who set up petty coastal principalities.[citation needed]

As a major entrepot, Kalyan soon became, by 530-535 Common Era (CE) the seat of a Nestorian Church bishop. The Churches of south Asia which were ecclesiastically dependent on the church of Assyria and Chaldea in Mesopotamia or modern Iraq, lands then subject to the Persian empire (Sassanians), early fell with it into the Nestorian schism and used middle Persian as the liturgical language. The Konkan, Tulunad and Malabar coasts of south Asia are marked by stone crosses with Pahlavi inscriptions.

According to some interpretations, Bombay region on the Konkan coast, a region which have been known after the ancient town Kalyan, was the field of Saint Bartholomew missionary activities and his martyrdom.[citation needed]

During the Middle Ages, Pope John XXII, headquartered at Avignon, sent a group of five missionaries to the Mongol Emperor at Khanbalik, modern Beijing in China, under the Dominican Fray Giordano or Jordanus. On their way, they picked up a novice, Demetrius, from West Asia and then travelled through South Asia.. Giordano left his colleagues at Kalyan and travelled back north to Gujarat. During his absence, the Muslim governor and Qazi of Thane summoned the missionaries and demanded submission to Islam.[citation needed]

Kalyan Station in the year 1945.

In the later Middle Ages, Kalyan was occupied by the Ahmednagar Sultanate, an indigenous dynasty founded by a man forcibly converted from a Hindu Brahmin family as a child, and then by the Bijapur Sultanate, an Indo-Turkish state in the Deccan in the 16th century, and later by the Mughal empire under the emperor Shah Jahan, who fortified the city in the mid-17th century. It came under Portuguese sway for a brief time before being re-conquered by the Muslim allies of the Mughals, and was later conquered by the Marathas, who made it one of their strategic centers because it guarded the entrance to Mumbai and the western coast of India. Kashibai, wife of the Peshwa Bajirao was born in Kalyan. About eighty years after the Maratha conquest, the Maratha empire was forced to cede it to the British and Kalyan became part of the Bombay Presidency, a British India province that became Bombay state after India's independence in 1947.

In the Middle Ages, when Kalyan was occupied by the Ahmednagar Sultanate, they gave name as Gulshanabad and in the time of Maratha it was changed to Kalyan. Kalyan is a port city of Shivaji Maharaj. India's first woman doctor was from Kalyan city her name was Anandi Gopal Joshi.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kalyan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
31.3
(88.3)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
33.3
(91.9)
31.9
(89.4)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
30.1
(86.2)
32.9
(91.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.05)
Average low °C (°F) 14.8
(58.6)
16.3
(61.3)
19.6
(67.3)
25.7
(78.3)
26.1
(79)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
24.0
(75.2)
23.1
(73.6)
20.5
(68.9)
18.2
(64.8)
21.95
(71.51)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.3
(0.091)
1.0
(0.039)
0.8
(0.031)
1.8
(0.071)
13.5
(0.531)
432.6
(17.031)
946.1
(37.248)
553.3
(21.783)
294.1
(11.579)
87.1
(3.429)
20.6
(0.811)
2.0
(0.079)
2,355.2
(92.723)
Source: Government of Maharashtra

Around Kalyan[edit]

Kala Talao, a historic lake

Durgadi Fort[edit]

The city of Kalyan was surrounded by a fort wall, the construction of which began during Shah Jahan's reign and was completed during Aurangzeb's reign in 1694 A.D. This city wall, which ran in excess of 2000 yards, 2123 to be precise, was guarded by 4 gates and 11 towers. The fort wall enclosed an area of 70 acres and on a high mound near the Kalyan creek, where the current Ganesh ghat stands, was a fine fort since as early as 1570.

Of the four gates, the Adhar gate called after the village of Adhar about half a mile to the north, wall near the middle of the north wall; the Ganesh gate, about 400 yards distant, was near the middle of the east wall; the Ganesh gate is also called Jalela Darvaja, as it was burnt by the English in their first campaign (1780), the Panvel gate, about 700 yards distant, was near the middle of the south wall; and the Bandar or wharf gate, about 330 yards distant, was in the centre of the west wall. At the north-east corner of this area, on high ground on the river bank, was a fort nearly cut off from the city by a natural hollow, and, later, by a semicircular stone wall enclosing a space about 200 feet (61 m) long by a little less in breadth.[citation needed]

The wall of the fort along the top of the inner bank of the ditch, and, near the north end, had a gateway known as the Delhi or Killyacha Darwaja.[citation needed]

Under the Marathas (1760–72), a new gate about 150 feet (46 m) to the south of the Ganesh gate was opened near the mansion of Ramji Mahadeo Biwalkar, the Peshwa s Governor. In the citadel of the fort Marathas built a small wooden temple of Durgadevi behind the mosque, and called the fort Durgadi Killa in honour of the goddess, a name which it still bears. They also converted the mosque into Ramji's temple. The fort measures 220 feet (67 m) in length and somewhat less in breadth. Under the English the fort wall was dismantled and stones carried to build the Kalyan and Thane piers and a dwelling for the customs inspector in the west of the Kalyan fort. The gate to the north-west is almost the only trace of the fort wall, which is of rough stone masonry. During 1876 the original idol of the goddess Durga was stolen.[1]


Religions in Kalyan
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
73%
Muslims
  
15%
Buddhists
  
8.6%
Christians
  
1.4%
Jains
  
1.7%
Others†
  
0.3%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

Transportation[edit]

Auto-rickshaws are an important mode of transport.[citation needed]

KDMT Buses

Kalyan is on the rail line between Mumbai and Kasara.[2]

Kalyan Railway JN

The KDMT run bus services in the city and surrounding villages.[citation needed]

Parts[edit]

Kalyan city is divided into two parts: East and West due to the traditional railway system. They are connected via Patripul.[citation needed].

Civic amenities[edit]

Kalyan is a part of Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation established in 1983 with municipalities of Kalyan, Dombivli, Ambarnath and 81 villages. It was then one of the largest urban local body in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) and in the state with the area around 209 sqkm. Government of Maharashtra has taken decision to delete major area of the corporation limits on different occasion. Presently the total area of the corporation has remained to the tune of 67 sqkm.[3]

Kalyan JN during the 26 July floods.
  1. Electric supply: The township receives its electric supply from the Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB).[citation needed]
  2. Roads: The inner arterial roads and the main routes through the city have been developed by the MSRDC.
  3. Water supply:The city has good water sources in and around it, which includes the Ulhas river in its vicinity, lakes in the central areas, and high storage tanks. the city boasts of an eco friendly waste water treatment plant and a water cleaning plant near Gandhare village.[citation needed]
  4. Public parks & playgrounds: There are three large parks in Kalyan area i.e. Rani Laxmibai Park (Near Commissioner Bungalow), Nana- Nani Park at Near Gurudev Hotel & Park Near Lord Shivas Paradise in Chikanghar. Other small parks have been developed near big localities to cater the demands of citizens for a more environment friendly sustenance. There are 3 major play grounds i.e. Yashwant Rao Chavan sports complex(Maxi ground), Subhash Maidan & Birla College Ground.[citation needed].
  5. Medical facilities: There are well known hospitals like Fortis Hospital, Shree Devi hospital, Phadke Hospital, Meera Hospital, Shree Hospital, Apex Hospital in Kalyan.[citation needed]

Government[edit]

KDMC is a municipal corporation in Thane district of Maharashtra state, India. A municipal corporation formed in 1983 to administer the twin townships of Kalyan and Dombivali. The municipal corporation has a population 1,193,266 (2001 census). Due to its highly educated population it is often called the second cultural capital of Maharashtra after Pune. Kalyan was famous as a port since ancient times. Records of its existence as a premier port in the region have been found in ancient Greek manuscripts. Dombivli station is about 48 km from CST station along the central railway and is connected to all parts of Maharashtra by rail as well as road. Kalyan is one of the most important junctions in India with most of the outstation trains stopping at it. Nearest airport is Mumbai airport which is 40 km away. The corporation is governed by Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporation Act 1949. Following authorities are given charge to carry out the provisions of the act, namely - 1. A Corporation. 2. A Standing Committee. 3. Ward Committees 4. Municipal Commissioner Both the cities are divided into 107 wards. Municipal Corporation consists of Councilors Elected directly at Ward Elections. The number and boundaries of the Wards into which the City is divided is specified by the State Election Commissioner. There are five Councilors nominated by the Corporation. As per the provisions of the Act, the total number of Councilors is 112. The Corporation elects one of its members as the Mayor and another to be the Deputy Mayor.[4]

Schools and colleges[edit]

Mumbai University Affiliated Colleges and School-cum-Colleges [5]

Schools

Proposal for a new Kalyan District[edit]

The Thane district is proposed to be sub-divided and a new Kalyan district be carved out from it. The proposed Kalyan District will comprise Kalyan-Dombivali, Ulhasnagar, Ambernath, Kulgaon-Badlapur, Shahapur, and Murbad as well as the rural areas from the talukas of Bhivandi and Vasai which would be outside of any other municipal corporations. These held a combined population at the 2001 Census of 2,560,417. Also parts of Raigad District, namely the Talukas of Karjat, Panvel and Khalapur which are on the contiguous Kalyan - Karjat, Diva - Panvel and the Karjat - Panvel lines, may also merge with this district.[citation needed]

Recent development projects in Kalyan[edit]

  • Skywalks: To ease traffic around the station area, MMRDA has constructed a 1.4 km long Skywalk, at the cost of a whopping Rs.84 Cr, under the Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS). Given the earlier traffic and geographical system, it has been the most challenging skywalk project so far, and is the most expensive skywalk in Mumbai. Another skywalk linking the East-West parts of Kalyan is now under development.

Entertainment[edit]

Metro Junction[edit]

Metro junction

The 5,50,000 sq ft. mall, called Metro Junction composes of an Amusement Park, Game Zone, Retail Space, Food Court and Multiplex. Kalyan’s first five screen multiplex including one exclusive Gold Class screen of 46 seats which is accompanied with an exclusive Gold Class Lounge. The multiplex has an overall capacity of 1320 seats. Kalyan’s first Amusement Park, and dedicated retail space, such as Big Bazaar - the largest outlet on a single level anywhere in India, The Loot – the largest store in India, Fashion Yatra, the gaming zone and McDonald's listed as their major retailers. Kalyan’s first mall offering a truly international retail, entertainment and leisure experience for the entire family. It provides ample opportunities for pleasure shopping as well as a host of entertainment options through a Multiplex, Amusement Park, Kids Area, Game Zone and a Food court. It is huge now consisting of Mc donalds, KFC and many more multi national brand company. The Metro Junction mega structure is planned over 5,50,000 square feet of covered area as an integrated commercial development.[6]

Chokhi Dhani[edit]

Chokhi Dhani Village has been the mirror of Rajasthani culture since 14 January 2009. Started as part of ambiance for a restaurant, as a franchise in surat, over the year it has evolved as a tasteful and authentic symbol of ethnic village life of this most colorful state in the country.is situated in Bhiwandi. If you are wondering what else will get you by once the charm of living in a village wears off, Chokhi Dhani has plenty to offer by way of entertainment. To begin with, there’s the adventure of trying out the traditional cuisine that will be radically different from what you’ve been used to all your life. Approach it with an open mind and you just might end up enjoying it, even asking for second helpings. In addition, you can go for camel or elephant rides, enjoy traditional puppet show, dress up in colorful Rajasthani costumes and have pictures taken, watch the performance by folk singers and dancers, or smoke away like a powerful nobleman at the Indian pipe, also known as the "hookah."[7]

Ganesh Ghat[edit]

Ganesh ghat, recently created by the Corporation as a creekside 'chowpatty' for Kalyan residents is currently the most popular place in town. Apart from the mandatory 'bhel-puri' 'paani-puri' stalls and portable merry-go-rounds it also seems to have a 'katta' for people to hang out.

Kala Talao[edit]

Kala Talao
Children's Playground in Kala Talao
Walking or jogging path in Kala Talao

Kala Talao is a historic lake. The lake which is located about one kilometer to the north of the Kalyan railway station, covers about 24 acres (1.212*885) and varies in depth from 6 to 14 feet and has its sides lined throughout with broken basalt masonry. The lake is known as the Kala talao as the black mosque or the Kali Masjid is located on its bank. This is one of the place of interest in Kalyan as people come here for relaxing, jogging and also for paddle boating. It also have a small children park.

Birla Mandir[edit]

Birla Mandir is a Hindu temple for Vithoba located in the vicinity of the Century Factory in Shahad on the National Highway to titvala. It has also served as a shooting location for Bollywood films like Tere Naam.[8] This temple is located at a very comfortable location, easily accessible by Auto rickshaw from Kalyan railway Station. A well maintained garden, the temple is very beautiful at night, Garden is suitable for all ages and good for a day picnic.

Proposed Developments[edit]

  • MMRDA has drawn up plans for a monorail link between Thane-Kalyan-New Mumbai over a three year duration at the cost of Rs. 3000 Crores. The project is in the planning stage.
  • Developments on revamping Kalyan Junction as another Railway Terminus are planned to ease rail transport in Mumbai.
  • MMRDA has plans for a multi-modal bus rapid transport system (BRTS) and mass rapid transport system (MRTS) which will cover Kalyan as well.
  • A four-lane expressway will enable people to travel between Virar-Vasai-Diva-Bhiwandi-Kalyan-Panvel to Alibag in a matter of few hours. The four-lane expressway will have wide footpaths, subways, foot-over bridges and service roads linking the major towns on the route.

Local Websites[edit]

  • KDMC :: Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Corporation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Page no. 120, The Gazetteers of Bombay Presidency, Thane 3rd Edition
  2. ^ "Mumbai CST-bound local train derails near Kalyan, 1 killed". Zee Media. Essel. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  3. ^ KDMC. "History of Kalyan". kdmc.gov.in. 
  4. ^ kalyancity.com. "Government in Kalyan". kalyancity.com. 
  5. ^ kalyanguide.com. "Education in Kalyan". kalyanguide.com. 
  6. ^ "Metro Junction". metrojunction.in. 
  7. ^ "Chokhi Dhani". chokhidhanimumbai.in. 
  8. ^ "Birla Mandir". http://pritamtravel.purviewtech.in.