Kalyan, India

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Kalyan
कल्याण

City

(Mumbai Metropolitan Region)
Kalyan is located in Maharashtra
Kalyan
Kalyan
Location of Kalyan in Maharashtra
Coordinates: 19°14′14″N 73°07′50″E / 19.237253°N 73.130436°E / 19.237253; 73.130436Coordinates: 19°14′14″N 73°07′50″E / 19.237253°N 73.130436°E / 19.237253; 73.130436
Country  India
State Maharashtra
District Thane District
Government
 • Type Municipal Corporation
 • Body Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Kalyani Patil (Shiv Sena)
 • Municipal Commissioner Madhukar.G.Ardad
 • Deputy Mayor Rahul Damle (BJP)
Area
 • Total 137.15 km2 (52.95 sq mi)
Elevation 8.84 m (29.00 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,246,381
 • Density 9,100/km2 (24,000/sq mi)
Demonym Kalyankar
Languages
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN CODE 421301(Kalyan (West)) 421304 (Kalyan (S.O.)) 421306 (Kalyan (East))
Vehicle registration MH-05
Sex ratio 917 females/1000 males /
Literacy Rate 93.06%
Lok Sabha constituency Kalyan
Vidhan Sabha constituency Kalyan
Civic agency Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Corporation
Website http://www.kdmc.gov.in

Kalyan is a part of the Thane District of Maharashtra state in Western India. Kalyan is known for providing a significant work force for the economy of Mumbai. It is also known for being the Mumbai region's exit station to North India and South India.

Kalyan is within the administrative division (tahsil) at a taluka level of the Thane District. Kalyan and its neighbouring township of Dombivli jointly form the Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Corporation, abbreviated as KDMC. It is considered a part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, along with Vitthalwadi, Bhiwandi, Thane, Ulhasnagar and the municipal councils of Ambernath and Badlapur.

Etymology[edit]

The word 'Kalyan' spelled in (Marathi: कल्याण) is a Marathi word which means 'Welfare' in English.

History[edit]

In pre-independent India, the administration spelled Kalyan as Kallian, Callian and sometimes as callianee. The city has beend attacked by various foreign armies including the Mughals, the Portuguese and the British. The Marathas were held in high regard by the locals for being the only line of defence against invasions. Decaying structures of the maratha kingdom and traces of fortification still exist, such as the Durgadi fort. Extensive ruins in Kalyan indicate the city's former magnificence.

Walter Hamilton, a foreign visitor passing through India described Callianee as follows in his year 1820 book A Geographical, Statistical, and Historical Description of Hindostan, and the Adjacent Counties, Volume 2 on page 150:

Kalyan also found attraction among European Christian Missionaries. The port of Kalyan landed them well within the mainland through boats in their attempt to spread Christianity across the other side of konkan.

In the Middle Ages, Kalyan was occupied by the Ahmednagar Sultanate who renamed the city as Gulshanabad. It was captured by the Bijapur Sultanate, an Indo-Turkish state in the Deccan in the 16th century, and later by the Mughal empire under the emperor Shah Jahan, who fortified the city in the mid-17th century.

Anandibai Joshi graduated from Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania (WMC) in 1886. Seen here with Kei Okami (center) and Tabat Islambooly (right). All three completed their medical studies and each of them was the first woman from their respective countries, obtaining a degree in Western medicine.

Kalyan served as a port city for many centuries until siltation and the rise of Bombay eclipsed it and its sister ports - Nallasopara, Thane, Bhiwandi. Abandoned lighthouses used to guide sea traffic still exist along the riverbanks of Ganesh ghat. The port was ruled by the Maurya and Gupta Empires of north India and later was part of a Konkan principality vassal to the Yadava dynasty of Daulatabad, Deogiri. After the Khilji sack of Deogiri, the Yadavas fled into the Konkan region and set up their base at Mahikawati, modern Mahim; Kalyan was a part of the brief Yadava state of Mahikawati. Mahikawati was conquered by the Muslims who set up petty coastal principalities.

It came under Portuguese sway for a brief time before being re-conquered by the Muslim allies of the Mughals, and was later conquered by the Marathas, who made it one of their strategic centers because of its geographical location and renamed the city back to Kalyan. The city is briefly mentioned by Christian historians where a group of Christian travellers were persecuted by Muslim rulers of the period.

Kashibai, wife of the Peshwa Bajirao was born in Kalyan. About eighty years after the Maratha conquest, the Maratha empire was forced to cede it to the British and Kalyan became part of the Bombay Presidency, a British India province that became Bombay state after India's independence in 1947.

Anandi Gopal Joshi, a Women from Kalyan along with Kadambini Ganguly was one of the first two Indian women to [1] obtain a degree in Western medicine in 1886. She is also believed to be the first Hindu woman to set foot on American soil.[2][3]

Around Kalyan[edit]

Kala Talao, a historic lake

Durgadi Fort[edit]

The city of Kalyan was surrounded by a fort wall, the construction of which began during Shah Jahan's reign and was completed during Aurangzeb's reign in 1694 A.D. This city wall, which ran in excess of 2000 yards, 2123 to be precise, was guarded by 4 gates and 11 towers. The fort wall enclosed an area of 70 acres and on a high mound near the Kalyan creek, where the current Ganesh ghat stands, was a fine fort since as early as 1570.

Of the four gates, the Adhar gate called after the village of Adhar about half a mile to the north, wall near the middle of the north wall; the Ganesh gate, about 400 yards distant, was near the middle of the east wall; the Ganesh gate is also called JaalLela Darwaja, as it was burnt by the English in their first campaign (1780), the Panvel gate, about 700 yards distant, was near the middle of the south wall; and the Bandar or wharf gate, about 330 yards distant, was in the centre of the west wall. At the north-east corner of this area, on high ground on the river bank, was a fort nearly cut off from the city by a natural hollow, and, later, by a semicircular stone wall enclosing a space about 200 feet (61 m) long by a little less in breadth.[citation needed]

Kalyan Station in the year 1945.
Kalyan's Durgadi Fort entrance.

The wall of the fort along the top of the inner bank of the ditch, and, near the north end, had a gateway known as the Delhi or Killyacha Darwaja.[citation needed]

Under the Marathas (1760–72), a new gate about 150 feet (46 m) to the south of the Ganesh gate was opened near the mansion of Ramji Mahadeo Biwalkar, the Peshwa's Governor. In the citadel of the fort Marathas built a small wooden temple of Durgadevi behind the mosque, and called the fort Durgadi Killa in honour of the goddess, a name which it still bears. They also converted the mosque into Lord Ram temple. The fort measures 220 feet (67 m) in length and somewhat less in breadth. Under the English rule, the fort wall was dismantled and stones carried to build the Kalyan and Thane piers and a dwelling for the customs inspector in the west of the Kalyan fort. The gate to the north-west is almost the only trace of the fort wall, which is of rough stone masonry. During 1876 the original idol of the goddess Durga was stolen.[4]

Demographics[edit]

The majority of Kalyan Citizens are Hindus with a fair minority of Muslims and Buddhists.

Religions in Kalyan
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
73.2%
Muslims
  
14.8%
Buddhists
  
8.7%
Christians
  
1.4%
Jains
  
1.7%
Others†
  
0.2%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kalyan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
31.3
(88.3)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
33.5
(92.3)
31.9
(89.4)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
30.1
(86.2)
32.9
(91.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.0
(89.6)
31.72
(89.08)
Average low °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
16.3
(61.3)
19.6
(67.3)
25.7
(78.3)
26.1
(79)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
24.0
(75.2)
23.1
(73.6)
20.5
(68.9)
18.2
(64.8)
21.93
(71.48)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.3
(0.091)
1.0
(0.039)
0.8
(0.031)
1.8
(0.071)
13.5
(0.531)
432.6
(17.031)
946.1
(37.248)
553.3
(21.783)
294.1
(11.579)
87.1
(3.429)
20.6
(0.811)
2.0
(0.079)
2,355.2
(92.723)
Source: Government of Maharashtra

Transportation[edit]

Auto-rickshaws are an important mode of transport. On a daily basis 2 Lakh Kalyan Citizens travel by auto-rickshaw[5]

KDMT Buses

Kalyan Junction is on the rail line between Mumbai and Kasara.[6] Kalyan Junction serves as an important railway station at the node of Mumbai. Numerous express trains halt at Kalyan Junction directed towards Gujarat, North and South India.

Kalyan Railway JN

The KDMT run bus services in the city and surrounding villages.[citation needed]

Traffic congestion[edit]

The last couple of years has seen significant traffic increase thus causing road congestion. This is mostly due to large heavy vehicles going through the city as the bypass road is under construction (delayed).

Parts[edit]

Kalyan city is divided into two parts: East and West due to the traditional railway system. They are connected via Patripul Bridge. Kalyan West is more urbanized than Kalyan East.

Civic amenities[edit]

With more than 15 lakhs population. Kalyan is a part of Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Corporation established in 1983 with municipalities of Kalyan, Dombivli, Ambernath and 81 villages. It was then one of the largest urban local body in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) and in the state with the area around 209 km2. Government of Maharashtra has taken decision to delete major area of the corporation limits on different occasion. Presently the total area of the corporation has remained to the tune of 67 km2.

Prime residential areas in Kalyan.

1. Ammu Nagar in Kalyan west is centrally located prime residential area because of its proximity to important places ….

  • 5 minutes drive from Kalyan Railway Station, 7 minutes drive from Shahad Railway Station, 10 minutes from Vithalwadi Railway Station.
  • 10 minutes drive from Khadakpada,Godrej Hills,
  • Walkable distance from all major banks, all major coaching classes,K.M Agrawal College Birla College, Birla School, Lourdes School, Holy Cross Convent School,
  • Municipal Commissioners Bungalow, DCP Bungalow,
  • Sub-Registrar Office I & II, Income-Tax Office, Central Excise office, Dy.RTO etc.
  • Near proposed KDMT bus depot.

2. Khadakpada

3. Godrej Hills [7]

Kalyan JN during the 26 July floods.

Electric supply: The township receives its electric supply from the Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB).[citation needed]
Roads: The inner arterial roads and the main routes through the city have been developed by the MSRDC.
Water supply:The city has good water sources in and around it, which includes the Ulhas river in its vicinity, lakes in the central areas, and high storage tanks. the city boasts of an eco friendly waste water treatment plant and a water cleaning plant near Gandhare village.[citation needed]
Public parks & playgrounds: There are three large parks in Kalyan area i.e. Rani Laxmibai Park (Near Commissioner Bungalow), Nana- Nani Park at Near Gurudev Hotel & Park Near Lord Shivas Paradise in Chikanghar. Other small parks have been developed near big localities to cater the demands of citizens for a more environment friendly sustenance. There are 3 major play grounds i.e. Yashwant Rao Chavan sports complex(Maxi ground), Subhash Maidan & Birla College Ground.[citation needed]

Hospitals and health care[edit]

Manav Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital is an fruitful attempt to treat psychiatric disorders of all ages. The Hospital has been established by Dr. Sandeep Jadhav, It is located in Rambaug, Kalyan (West). ' Recently (Apr 2014) advanced Laproscopic, Cancer surgery and pediatric hospital was inaugurated in Kalyan - Metro Criticare Hospital (Dr Nitin Zabak), Syndicate, Kalyan. Apart from this there is

  • Fortis Hospital,
  • Bhanujyot Hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Bhanujyot Hospital, Opposite Nitin-Raj Hotel, Kalyan (E).
  • Godbole Hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Shree Devi hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Sampada Hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Phadke Hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Meera Hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Shree Hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Apex Hospital, Kalyan (W).
  • Metro Multi Speciality Hospital, Kalyan (E).
  • Ashirwad Children Hospital, Kalyan (E).
  • Sanjivani Hospital, Kalyan (E).
  • Chaitanya Hospital, Kalyan (E).
  • Balaji Nursing Home, Kalyan (E).

Government[edit]

KDMC is a municipal corporation in Thane district of Maharashtra state, India. A municipal corporation formed in 1983 to administer the twin townships of Kalyan and Dombivali. The municipal corporation has a population 1,193,266 (2001 census). Due to its highly educated population it is often called the second cultural capital of Maharashtra after Pune. Kalyan was famous as a port since ancient times. Records of its existence as a premier port in the region have been found in ancient Greek manuscripts. Dombivli station is about 48 km from CST station along the central railway and is connected to all parts of Maharashtra by rail as well as road. Kalyan is one of the most important junctions in India with most of the outstation trains stopping at it. Nearest airport is Mumbai airport which is 40 km away. The corporation is governed by Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporation Act 1949. Following authorities are given charge to carry out the provisions of the act, namely - 1. A Corporation. 2. A Standing Committee. 3. Ward Committees 4. Municipal Commissioner Both the cities are divided into 107 wards. Municipal Corporation consists of Councillors elected directly at Ward Elections. The number and boundaries of the Wards into which the City is divided is specified by the State Election Commissioner. There are five Councillors nominated by the Corporation. As per the provisions of the Act, the total number of Councillors is 112. The Corporation elects one of its members as the Mayor and another to be the Deputy Mayor.[8]

Educational institutions[edit]

As per 2011 Census, Kalyan is a highly literate city with literacy rate of 93.06%

Mumbai University Affiliated Colleges and School-cum-Colleges [9]

  • Agarwal College, Kalyan (W)
  • Birla College of Arts, Science & Commerce
  • G.E.I Jr. College
  • Ideal Jr College, Kalyan (East)
  • Sonawane College, Adharwadi, Kalyan (W)
  • Saket College, Kalyan (E)
  • Model College of Science & Commerce , Kalyan(E).

Schools

  • Lourdes High School Kalyan West
  • C.Rly Seconary School
  • Arya Gurukul School, Kalyan (East)
  • Ideal English High School, Kalyan (East)
  • Ganesh Vidya Mandir, Kalyan (East) Marathi Medium School
  • Holy Cross Convent High School
  • Model English High School]], Kalyan (East)
  • G.E.I High School (Subhedar Wada)
  • NRC School
  • Sri Vani Vidyashala High School
  • St Thomas School, Kalyan
  • Nutan Vidyalay ,Kalyan West
  • Captain Ravindra Madhav Oak Highschool
  • Sai English High School, Kalyan (East)
  • Guru Nanak English High School
  • K.C Gandhi English High School
  • Birla School, Kalyan (West)
  • Saraswati Mandir
  • Don Bosco High School (Kalyan)|Don Bosco High School
  • Old Boy's English High School
  • Samrat Ashok School , Kalyan (E)
  • St.Jude's English High School , Kalyan (East) More than 100 years old.
  • Nutan Dnyan Mandir , kalyan (East).

Proposal for a new Kalyan District[edit]

The Thane district is proposed to be sub-divided and a new Kalyan district be carved out from it. The proposed Kalyan District will comprise Kalyan-Dombivali, Ulhasnagar, Ambernath, Kulgaon-Badlapur, Shahapur, and Murbad as well as the rural areas from the talukas of Bhivandi and Vasai which would be outside of any other municipal corporations. These held a combined population at the 2001 Census of 2,560,417. Also parts of Raigad District, namely the Talukas of Karjat, Panvel and Khalapur which are on the contiguous Kalyan - Karjat, Diva - Panvel and the Karjat - Panvel lines, may also merge with this district.[citation needed]

Proposed developments[edit]

  • MMRDA has drawn up plans for a monorail link between Thane-Kalyan-Navi Mumbai over a three year duration at the cost of Rs. 3000 Crores. The project is in the planning stage.
  • Developments on revamping Kalyan Junction as another Railway Terminus are planned to ease rail transport in Mumbai[citation needed].
  • MMRDA has plans for a multi-modal bus rapid transport system (BRTS) and mass rapid transport system (MRTS) which will cover Kalyan as well.
  • A four-lane expressway will enable people to travel between Virar-Vasai-Diva-Bhiwandi-Kalyan-Panvel to Alibag in a matter of few hours. The four-lane expressway will have wide footpaths, subways, foot-over bridges and service roads linking the major towns on the route.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eron, Carol (1979). "Women in Medicine and Health Care". In O'Neill, Lois Decker. The Women's Book of World Records and Achievements. Anchor Press. p. 204. ISBN 0-385-12733-2. First Hindu Woman Doctor 
  2. ^ "Historical Photos Depict Women Medical Pioneers". Public Radio International. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  3. ^ "Anandabai Gopal Joshi....A forgotten Indian icon". Deshdaaz. 29 October 2014. 
  4. ^ Page no. 120, The Gazetteers of Bombay Presidency, Thane 3rd Edition
  5. ^ "रिक्षाचालकांविरोधात प्रवासांचा एल्गार" (in Marathi). Kalyan, Thane: Sakal Publications. 24 February 2015. p. 6. 
  6. ^ "Mumbai CST-bound local train derails near Kalyan, 1 killed". Zee Media. Essel. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  7. ^ KDMC. "History of Kalyan" (PDF). kdmc.gov.in. 
  8. ^ kalyancity.com. "Government in Kalyan". kalyancity.com. 
  9. ^ kalyanguide.com. "Education in Kalyan". kalyanguide.com.