Kaḷyāṇ or Kaḷyāṇī, alternatively called Yaman, is a melakarta rāga (parent musical scale) in the Carnatic music, and is also an important raga in Hindustani music tradition. Its Western equivalent is the Lydian mode.
- 1 Kalyani in Carnatic music
- 2 Kalyan in Hindustani music
- 3 Historical Information
- 4 References
- 5 Literature
- 6 External links
Kalyani in Carnatic music
In South Indian weddings this is a very prominently played rāga. The word Kaḷyāṇī means she who causes auspicious things.
Specifics on this raga
Kalyani is slightly difficult to elaborate on in raaga alapana due to its similarity with Sankarabharanam with the only difference of the Madyamam (Ma). One should not remain too long on panchamam (pa) or alternate between shadjamam and panchamam too frequently. Also, one must stress the characteristic madhyama very frequently or risk confusion with other raagas. Rishabham and Dhaivatam are also very key to this raagam and also aren't stressed very much in Sankarabharanam. Kaḷyāṇī is a very beautiful raaga, and is prominently known among the public. This raga is very special because it is sung with all higher notes.
Structure and Lakshana
It is the 5th ragam in the 11th chakra Rudra. The mnemonic name is Rudra-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu mi pa dhi (or 'di') nu. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):
The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chatushruti rishabam, antara gandharam, prati madhyamam, chatushruti dhaivatam, kakali nishadam. It is a Sampurna raga in Carnatic music, that is to say, has all the seven notes: Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni. It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Dheerasankarabharanam, which is the 29th melakarta. This raga is very significant to the chart, because it is sung with all higher notes.
Kaḷyāṇī has many janya rāgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Hamīr Kaḷyāṇī, Mohanakalyani, Saranga, Sunadavinodini and Yamuna Kaḷyāṇī are very popular. See List of Janya Rāgams for full list of rāgams associated with Kaḷyāṇī.
Nearly every significant Carnatic composer (including the Trinity of Carnatic music) has composed several pieces in the Kaḷyāṇī rāgam. Kaḷyāṇī is also considered one of the "major" rāgams of Carnatic music along with Sankarabharanam, Todi and Kharaharapriya (the set of "major" rāgams is an informal grouping of the most popular rāgams used for elaboration and exploration, and which often form the centerpiece of a Carnatic music concert in the form of a Rāgaṃ tānaṃ Pallavi (RTP) or a kriti). See next section for further information on relationships between these rāgams.
Here is a short list of well known compositions in Kaḷyāṇī.
- Vanajāksha, an Ata tala varnam composed by Pallavi Gopala Iyer.
- Nidhi chāla sukhamā, Etavunnārā, Sundari nī Divya, Ammā Rāvammā and Vāsudēvanyani by Tyagaraja in Telugu
- Kamalāmbāṃ bhajarē and Bhajarē Recita by Muthuswami Dikshitar in Sanskrit
- Nambi Kettavarillavo, kallu sakkare koLLiro by Purandara Dasa
- Himādri sutē pāhimaṃ and Talli Ninnu Nēranammi by Syama Sastri in Telugu
- Unnai allal by Papanasam Sivan
- Sadanandame by Koteeswara Iyer
- Pankacha lōcana and Pahimaṃ Śri Vāgīśvari by Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma
- Needu Charana by Pallavi Gopala Iyer
The most popular film composition set in Kalyani is "Amma Endrazhaikkaatha Uyirillaye" by Ilayaraja. The track Kalaivaniye in Sindhu Bhairavi that is set in the Kalyani rāgam and sung without an avarohaṇam. The Bharathiar composition Veenai Adi Nee Enakku from the movie Ezhavathu Manithan is also set in the Kalyani rāgam. The Telugu movie Sankarabharanam has a Shloka "Māṇikya Vīṇāṃ Upalālayanti" set in this rāgam.
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of Kalyani.
Kalyani's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major Melakarta rāgams, namely, Hanumatodi, Sankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bhedam of this rāgam refer Related rāgams section in Sankarabharanam page.
Kalyan in Hindustani music
Avarohana S' N D P M+ G R S
Vadi and Samavadi
Vadi is ga, Samvadi is ni .
Pakad or Chalan
Kalyan has no specific phrases or particular features, many musicians avoid Sa and Pa in ascend or treat them very weakly. You often hear N0 R G M+ D N S' in ascent and S' N G M+ G R S in descend).
Sa is avoided in beginning the ascend such as N0 R G M+ P D N S'
Organization and relationships
There is some discussion whether Yaman and Kalyan really just are different names for the same raga, or that these are actually 2 ragas. Joep Bor says "Kalyan (today usually referred to as Yaman)", Kaufmann says that Yaman and Kalyan are just different names, but insists that rāga Yaman-kalyan is different as there natural Ma is occasionally inserted between two Ga, like Ga Ma Ga Re Sa, while in all other instances tivra Ma (Ma+ is used as in Kalyan). S. Bagchee agrees with Kaufmann. Bor : If natural Ma is occasionally added in a concluding figure leading to Sa, the raga is known as Yaman-Kalyan.
Kalyan is mixed with several ragas:
Thaat: Kalyan is type raga of Kalyan thaat. In thaat Kalyan, all notes are shuddha (natural) except teevra (sharp) Ma.
Yaman is regarded one of the grandest and most fundamental rāgas in Hindustani music. It is one of the first rāgas taught to students.
Kalyan should be performed during the first quarter of the night.
Kalyan is described by Meshakarna(1570) as "lord in white garments and pearl necklace on a splendid lion-throne, under a royal umbrella, fanned with whisk, chewing betel"
A song text is:
Hey friend, without my lover
I don't find peace
At any moment of the day;
Since my lover went away
I spend my nights counting the stars
Yaman is not an ancient rāga. It is first mentioned in the literature in the late 16th century, by which time it was very popular: The Sahasras contains 45 dhrupad song-texts for Kalyan and five for Iman-Kalyan. According to Venkatamakhin(1620), Kalyan was a favourite melody to the Arabs, and Pundarika included Yaman among his 'Persian' Ragas.
- Amir Khan – Shuddh Kalyan, Yaman, and Yaman Kalyan
- Rashid Khan – bandish in vilambit ektal (India Archive Music IAM CD 1003)
- Ravi Shankar in matta tal: "The Genius of Pandit Ravi Shankar", Oriental Records Inc, New York AAMS CD108
- Imrat Khan "Nordindische Ragas, Live"
- Zia Mohiuddin Dagar on Nimbus Records, LS5871 / NI7047/8
- "Man re, tu kaahe na dheer dhare" in "Chitralekha"
- "Zindagi bhar nahin bhulegi barsaat ki raat" in "Barsaat Ki Raat" (1960)
- "Aansoo bhari hai yeh jeevan ki raahen" in "Parvarish" (1977)
- "Chandan Sa Badan, Chanchal Chitvan" in SaraswatiChandra (1968)
- "Kalyani Kalyani" in Kannada Movie - Ksheera Sagara (1992)
- "Saathiyan Toone Kya Kiya" in Love (1991)
- Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
- Bor 1997
- Kaufmann 1968
- Bagchee 1998
Bor, Joep (1997), The Raga Guide, Charlottesville,Virginia: Nimbus Records
Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The Ragas of North India, Calcutta: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company.
Bagchee, Sandeep (1998), Nād, Understanding Rāga Music, Mumbai: Eshwar (Business Publications Inc.).
Bhatt, Balvantray (1964–1974), Bhāvaranga, Varanasi: Motilal Barnasidas.
Gandharva, Kumar (1965), Anūparāgavilāsa, Bombay: Mauj Prakashan.
Patwardhan, Vinayak Rao (1961–74), Rāga Vijñāna, Poona: Sangeet Gaurav Granthamala.
Srivastava, Harichandra (1973–79), Rāga Paricaya, Allahabad: SangeetSadan Prakashan.
Telang, Gokulanand; Bhartendu, Banwari Lal (1962), Sangīta Rāga Aṣṭachāpa, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya.
Thakar, Vasant Vaman, Sangīta Rāga Darśana, Prayag: Gandharva Mahavidyalaya Mandal Prakashan.
Rao, B. Subba (1964–66), Raganidhi, Madras: Music Academy.
Examples of Kalyan:
- Chandan Sa Badan
- Riyaz of Prashant Uday Manohar on violin
- song "Bhuli Hui Yaadein" on Saaj
- Abhik Mukherjee, sitar, Raag Yaman, drut
Examples of Yaman-Kalyan:
Examples of Shuddha Kalyan:
- Vilambit bandish by Roshanara Begum in Shuddha Kalyan
- Alap by Arnab Chakrabarty in Shuddha Kalyan on the sarod
- Alāp by Budhaditya Mukherjee Kolkata, India, 6 January 2006
- Drut Gat by Budhaditya Mukherjee Kolkata, India, 6 January 2006
Moutal, Patrick (1991), Hindustāni Rāga-s Index, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, ISBN 81-215-0525-7.