Kalyazin

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Coordinates: 57°14′N 37°51′E / 57.233°N 37.850°E / 57.233; 37.850

The Flooded Belfry is a part of the church flooded during the Stalinist era and the most eye-catching landmark of Kalyazin

Kalyazin (Russian: Каля́зин) is a town and the administrative center of Kalyazinsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volga River, 25 kilometers (16 mi) southeast of Kashin, 110 kilometers (68 mi) north of Sergiyev Posad, and 55 kilometers (34 mi) southwest of Uglich (by highway). Population: 13,867 (2010 Census);[1] 14,820 (2002 Census);[2] 15,544 (1989 Census).[3]

History[edit]

Kalyazin appeared in the 12th century as a sloboda (a settlement for people relieved from paying taxes). The town's importance grew significantly with the foundation of the Makaryevsky Monastery on the opposite bank of the Volga in the 15th century. This abbey used to be the most conspicuous landmark of Kalyazin and comprised numerous buildings of historic interest, including a refectory from 1525. The name of the town originates from certain Kolyaga, a land proprietor in the 15th century.[4]

In the 18th century, the area was included into Moscow Governorate. In 1775, Kalyazin was granted town rights, and Kalyazinsky Uyezd was established. It was a part of newly established Tver Viceroyalty. In 1796, the Viceroyalty was abolished and transformed into Tver Governorate. Kalyazinsky Uyezd was abolished, but in 1803, it was re-established.[5] On May 30, 1922 Kalyazinsky Uyezd was abolished and merged into Kashinsky Uyezd. On October 3, 1927 Kashinsky Uyezd was abolished and split between Bezhetsky and Kimrsky Uyezds.[6]

On 12 August 1929, Tver Governorate was abolished, and the area was transferred to Moscow Oblast.[6] Uyezds were abolished as well, and Kalyazinsky District, with the administrative center in Kalyazin, was established within Kimry Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Kalyazinsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast. On February 13, 1963, during the abortive Khrushchyov administrative reform, Kalyazinsky District was merged into Kimrsky District, but on March  4, 1964 it was re-established.[6] In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.

In 1940, the monastery and most of the old town were submerged under water during the construction of the Uglich Hydroelectric Station, which created the Uglich Reservoir. After that, the town was effectively relocated to a new, higher spot.

On November 19, 2001, a chartered IRS Aero Ilyushin Il-18 airplane crashed in Kalyazin, Russia killing all twenty-seven on board.[7]

On August 26, 2010, dozens of Central Asian guest workers were deported from the town after mass clashes with the locals.[8] Their construction site jobs were given to locals instead.[9]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Two factories in Kalyazin one producing oil extraction equipment and another one manufacturing some parts of MiG airplanes, are responsible for 42% of the total industrial production of the district. Chemical, food, leather, and textile industry are present as well.[10]

Transportation[edit]

The Kalyazin railway station

Kalyazin is home to one of the largest railway stations in Tver Oblast. Trains from St. Petersburg, Moscow (Savyolovsky railway station), Kashin, Uglich, Rybinsk, Sonkovo, Savyolovo, and other major locations pass through the station.

Kalyazin is connected by roads with Sergiyev Posad, Uglich, and with Tver and Kimry via Kashin. There are local roads as well. There is bus traffic originating from Kalyazin.

The Volga is navigable, however, there is no passenger navigation.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Former Ryzhkov House

Kalyazin contains sixteen cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally twenty-two objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The town landmark is the Kalyazin Bell Tower, submerged by the Uglich Reservoir and located only partially above the water level. Other federal monuments include the ensemble of administrative buildings and living houses in the center of the town, and the Ascencion and the Epiphany Churches.[11]

The Kalyazin District Museum is located in Kalyazin.[12]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  4. ^ Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 175. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  5. ^ "Российская империя: административно-территориальное деление (1708–1917): Тверская губерния" (in Russian). Russian National Library. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области" (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 
  7. ^ http://www.1tv.ru/news/world/128531
  8. ^ "A ‘Kondopoga at the gates of Moscow’". 
  9. ^ "На стройке в Калязине Тверской области начали работать местные жители". 
  10. ^ "Промышленность" (in Russian). Administration of Kalyazinsky District. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  11. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Калязинский краеведческий музей" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article&nbp;2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №27-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Калязинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №60-ЗО от 13 июля 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Калязинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #27-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Kalyazinsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #60-ZO of July 13, 2009 On Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Kalyazinsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]