Kam–Sui languages

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Kam–Sui
Dong–Shui
Geographic
distribution:
eastern Guizhou, western Hunan, and northern Guangxi
Linguistic classification: Tai–Kadai
  • Northern
    • Lakkja–Kam?
      • Kam–Sui
Glottolog: kams1241[1]

The Kam–Sui languages (Chinese: 侗水語支; pinyin: Dòng-Shǔi) are a branch of the Tai–Kadai languages spoken by the Kam–Sui peoples. They are spoken mainly in eastern Guizhou, western Hunan, and northern Guangxi in southern China. Small pockets of Kam–Sui speakers are also found in northern Vietnam and Laos.[2]

Classification[edit]

Kam–Sui includes a dozen languages. The Lakkja and Biao languages are sometimes separated out as a sister branch to Kam–Sui within a "Be–Kam–Tai" branch of Kradai, but this is not well supported. Otherwise the languages are not subclassified.

The better known Kam–Sui languages are Dong (Kam), with over a million speakers, Mulam, Maonan, and Sui. Other Kam–Sui languages include Ai-Cham, Mak, and T’en, and Chadong, which is the most recently discovered Kam–Sui language. Yang (2000) considers Ai-Cham and Mak to be dialects of a single language.[3]

Graham Thurgood (1988) presents the following tentative classification for the Kam–Sui branch.[4] Chadong, a language which has only been recently described by Chinese linguist Jinfang Li, is also included below. It is most closely related to Maonan.[5]

Kam–Sui 


Mulam



Kam (Dong)





Then





Maonan



Chadong[5]




Sui




Mak



Ai-Cham[6]






Biao and Lakkja, which are of uncertain classification, may be the closest relatives of the Kam–Sui branch; Biao may even be a divergent Kam–Sui language.

Demographics[edit]

Nearly all speakers of Kam–Sui languages originate in the Qiandongnan (Dong) and Qiannan (Sui, Then, Mak, Ai-Cham) Prefectures of Guizhou, as well as the prefecture-level cities of Hechi (Mulam and Maonan) and Guilin (Chadong) in northern Guangxi. Many Kam–Sui speakers have also migrated to farther urban areas such as Guangzhou.

Small groups of Kam and Sui speakers also reside in Tuyên Quang Province, Vietnam, in the villages of Đồng Mộc and Hồng Quang, respectively.

By language[edit]

By location[edit]

(Listed counterclockwise: east to north to west to south)

By population[edit]

There is a total of about 2 million Kam–Sui speakers.

The four largest Kam–Sui ethnic groups, the Dong, Shui, Mulao, and Maonan, are officially recognized by the Chinese government. Non-recognized Kam–Sui ethnic groups (Chadong, Then, Mak, Ai-Cham) who can still speak their own languages number less than 50,000.

  1. Dong: about 1,500,000 speakers; 1.7 million in 1995
  2. Sui: 300,000 speakers
  3. Mulam: 86,000 speakers (ethnic population: 200,000)
  4. Maonan: 30,000 speakers (ethnic population: 100,000)
  5. Chadong: 20,000 speakers
  6. Then: 15,000 speakers
  7. Mak: 10,000 speakers
  8. Ai-Cham: 2,700 speakers

Other languages[edit]

The following peoples may also speak Kam–Sui languages.[7]

  • Mjuniang 谬娘 or Cao Miao 草苗 (ISO 639-3: cov): 60,000 (1991) in Liping, Tongdao, and Sanjiang; closely related to Dong.[8] Speakers are classified as ethnic Miao.
  • Diao 调 (刁人): 2,000 (1999) in southeastern Guizhou around Liping and Congjiang; may speak Chinese or Dong.[9] Speakers are classified as ethnic Dong.
  • Sanqiao 三锹 (三橇): 5,000 (1999) in Liping and Jinping counties, Guizhou; may be a subgroup of Mjuniang AKA Cao Miao, and thus related to Dong.[10] Speakers are classified as either ethnic Miao or Dong.
  • Xialusi 下路司: 3,000 (1999) in southeastern Guizhou; classified as Dong, but their linguistic affiliation is unknown (possibly Kam-Sui)[11] Speakers are classified as ethnic Dong.
  • Suantang 酸汤: A Sinitic language spoken by about 80,000 ethnic Miao in Baibu 白布, Dihu 地湖, Dabaozi 大堡子, and Sanqiao 三锹 in Tianzhu, Huitong, and Jing counties. (Chen Qiguang 2013:35)[12]
  • Shui of Yunnan: 6,800 (1990) in Huangnihe 黃泥河 and Gugan 古敢水族乡,[13] Fuyuan County, Yunnan; 490 (1990) in Dahe and Long'an of Yiliang County.[14] In Gugan, there is a village cluster known as the "Five Shui Villages" 水五寨,[15] consisting of Buzhang 补掌,[16] Dongla 咚喇,[17] Reshui 热水,[18] Dazhai 大寨,[19] and Duzhang 都章.[20] It is still spoken in Xinbao Village 新堡村, Laochang Township 老厂乡, Fuyuan County, Yunnan.[21][22] Also in Dacunzi 大村子, Geyi Township 格宜镇, Xuanwei City.[23][24]
  • Tayten: 300 (1995) in the 2 villages of Ban Phia and Ban Tenngiou in Pakxeng District, Luang Prabang Province, Laos; may be related to the Then (Yanghuang) of southern Guizhou, China[25] It could also possibly be a Khmuic or Tai language.

The Sanqiao are distributed in the following locations of Qiandongnan Prefecture, Guizhou.[26]

  • Liping County
    • Pingdi Township 平底乡, Shangchong District 尚重区: Cendun 岑趸, Wushan 乌山, Bijie 俾嗟, Yanpi 眼批, Dongweng 董翁, Guidou 归斗, Guiya 归雅, Wule 乌勒, Pingdi 平底, Wupeng 乌碰, Tangtu 塘途, Gaoliang 高练, Biyazhai 俾雅寨
    • Dajia Township 大稼乡: Cennuzhai 岑努寨
  • Jinping County
    • Pinglüe 平略 and Qimeng 启蒙 townships: Zhaizao 寨早, Wendou 文斗, Shengli 胜利, Guben 固本, Xinming 新明, Dicha 地茶, Qimeng 启蒙, Yuhe 玉河

Cao Miao locations include:[27]

  • Liping County, Guizhou
    • Tangbi Village 塘婢村, Leidong Township 雷洞乡
    • Jiujue Village 九厥村, Hongzhou Township 洪州镇
    • Guigong 归公, Diping Township 地坪乡
    • Guibai 归白, Diping Township 地坪乡
    • Pingsong 平松, Shuikou Township 水口镇
    • Bashan 八善, Shuikou Township 水口镇
    • Gaoze Village 高泽村, Shunhua Township 顺化乡
  • Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County, Guangxi
    • Fenshui 汾水, Bajiang Township 八江乡
    • Gaoya 高亚, Dudong Township 独峒乡
  • Rongshui Miao Autonomous County, Guangxi[28]
    • Rongtang Village 荣塘村, Sirong Township 四荣乡

Reconstruction[edit]

A preliminary of reconstruction of Proto-Kam–Sui had been undertaken by Graham Thurgood.[4] Another reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui, mostly based on Thurgood's reconstruction, was accomplished by Ilia Peiros, as part of his reconstruction of Tai-Kadai, which he accomplished without taking the Kra languages in account.[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kam–Sui". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ http://ling.uta.edu/~jerry/research/map.html
  3. ^ 杨通银 / Yang Tongyin. 莫语研究 / Mo yu yan jiu (A Study of Mak). Beijing: 中央民族大学出版社 / Zhong yang min zu da xue chu ban she, 2000.
  4. ^ a b Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam–Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
  5. ^ a b Li, Jinfang. 2008. "Chadong, a Newly-Discovered Kam–Sui Language in Northern Guangxi." In Diller, Anthony, Jerold A. Edmondson, & Yongxian Luo, ed. The Tai–Kadai languages, 596-620. New York: Routledge.
  6. ^ Lin, Shi and Cui Jianxin. 1988. "An investigation of the Ai-Cham language." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 59-85. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
  7. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/index.php/people-group-profiles/china/
  8. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/M/Mjuniang.pdf
  9. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/D/Diao.pdf
  10. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/S/Sanqiao.pdf
  11. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/X/Xialusi.pdf
  12. ^ Chen, Qiguang [陈其光] (2013). Miao and Yao language [苗瑶语文]. Beijing: China Minzu University Press.
  13. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vindex.aspx?departmentid=69626&classid=727585
  14. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/S/ShuiYunnan.pdf
  15. ^ http://file.lw23.com/5/54/542/5426d856-8bbb-4108-a310-96caa7bace36.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=69611
  17. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vindex.aspx?departmentid=69619&classid=727513
  18. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=69618
  19. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=69621
  20. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=69609
  21. ^ Hai Zuoliang [海佐良] (2006). 云南水族语言最后的余音. 《今日民族》2006年第04期.
  22. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=92314
  23. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=34677
  24. ^ 曲靖民族源流概述
  25. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/Laos/Tayten.jpg
  26. ^ 邓刚. 三锹人与清水江中下游的山地开发——以黔东南锦屏县岑梧村为. http://www.docin.com/p-361267415.html
  27. ^ http://www.caomiao.net/
  28. ^ http://comonca.org.cn/lh/doc/A13.pdf
  29. ^ Peiros, Ilia, 1998. "Comparative Linguistics in Southeast Asia", Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Further reading[edit]

  • Tai–Kadai Languages. (2007). Curzon Pr. ISBN 978-0-7007-1457-5
  • Diller, A. (2005). The Tai–Kadai languages. London [etc.]: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1457-X
  • Edmondson, J. A., & Solnit, D. B. (1988). Comparative Kadai: linguistic studies beyond Tai. Summer Institute of Linguistics publications in linguistics, no. 86. [Arlington, Tex.]: Summer Institute of Linguistics. ISBN 0-88312-066-6
  • Peiros, Ilia. 1998. "Comparative Linguistics in Southeast Asia". Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
  • Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam–Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.

External links[edit]