|Kāma, in Hinduism, is one of the four goals of human life. Above illustrate examples of kāma.|
Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम) means desire, wish, longing in Indian literature. Kāma often connotes sexual desire and longing in contemporary literature, but the concept more broadly refers to any desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations.
Kāma is one of the four goals of human life in Hindu traditions. It is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals: Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization). Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha.
- 1 Definition and meaning
- 2 Kāma in Hinduism
- 3 Kama in Buddhism
- 4 Theosophy: kama, kamarupa and kamaloka
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Definition and meaning
Kāma means “desire, wish or longing”. In contemporary literature, kāma refers usually to sexual desire. However, the term also refers to any sensory enjoyment, emotional attraction and aesthetic pleasure such as from arts, dance, music, painting, sculptor and nature.
The concept kāma is found in some of the earliest known verses in Vedas. For example, Book 10 of Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat. There in hymn 129, it states:
कामस्तदग्रे समवर्तताधि मनसो रेतः परथमं यदासीत |
सतो बन्धुमसति निरविन्दन हर्दि परतीष्याकवयो मनीषा ||
Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire the primal seed and germ of Spirit,
Sages who searched with their heart's thought discovered the existent's kinship in the non-existent.
Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads of Hinduism, uses the term kāma, also in a broader sense, as any desire:
Man consists of desire (kāma),
As his desire is, so is his determination,
As his determination is, so is his deed,
Whatever his deed is, that he attains.
Ancient Indian literature such as the Epics, that followed the Upanishads, develop and explain the concept of kāma together with Artha and Dharma. The Mahabharata, for example, provides one of the expansive definitions of kāma. The Epic claims kāma to be any agreeable and desirable experience (pleasure) generated by the interaction of one of five senses with anything congenial to that sense and while the mind is concurrently in harmony with the other goals of human life (dharma, artha and moksha).
Kāma often implies the short form of the word kāmanā (desire, appetition). Kāma, however, is more than kāmanā. Kāma is an experience that includes the discovery of object, learning about the object, emotional connection, process of enjoyment and the resulting feeling of well being before, during and after the experience.
Vatsyayana, the author of Kamasutra, describes kāma as happiness that is a manasa vyapara (phenomenon of the mind). Just like the Mahabharata, Vatsyayana's Kamasutra defines kāma as pleasure an individual experiences from the world, with one or more senses - hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling and feeling - in harmony with one’s mind and soul. Experiencing harmonious music is kama, as is being inspired by natural beauty, the aesthetic appreciation of a work of art and admiring with joy something created by another human being. Kama sutra, in its discourse on kāma, describes many arts, dance and music forms, along with sex as means to pleasure and enjoyment.
John Lochtefeld explains kāma as desires, noting that it often refers to sexual desire in contemporary literature, but in ancient Indian literature kāma includes any kind of attraction and pleasure such as those from the arts.
Karl Potter describes kama as an attitude and capacity. A little girl who hugs her teddy bear with a smile is experiencing kama, as are two lovers in embrace. During these experiences, the person connects and identifies the loved as part of oneself, feels more complete, fulfilled and whole by experiencing that connection and nearness. This, in the Indian perspective, is kāma.
Hindery notes the inconsistent and diverse exposition of kāma in various ancient texts of India. Some texts, such as the Epic Ramayana, paint kāma through the desire of Rama for Sita, one that transcends the physical and marital into a love that is spiritual, and something that gives Rama his meaning of life, his reason to live. Both Sita and Rama, frequently express their unwillingness and inability to live without the other. This romantic and spiritual view of kāma in the Ramayana by Valmiki is quite different, claim Hindery and others, than the normative and dry description of kāma in the law codes of smriti by Manu for example.
Kāma in Hinduism
In Hinduism, kāma is regarded as one of the four proper and necessary goals of human life (purusharthas), the others being Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization).
Relative precedence between Kama, Artha, and Dharma
Vatsyayana in Kama Sutra recognizes relative value of three goals as follows: artha precedes kama, while dharma precedes both kama and artha. Vatsyayana, in Chapter 2 of Kama sutra, presents a series of philosophical objections argued against kama and then offers his answers to refute those objections. For example, one objection to kāma (pleasure, enjoyment), acknowledges Vatsyayana, is this concern that kāma is an obstacle to moral and ethical life, to religious pursuits, to hard work, and to productive pursuit of prosperity and wealth. The pursuit of pleasure, claim objectors, encourages individuals to commit unrighteous deeds, bring distress, carelessness, levity and suffering later in life. These objections were then answered by Vatsyayana, with the declaration that kāma is as necessary to human beings as food, and kāma is holistic with dharma and artha.
Kama is necessary for existence
Just like good food is necessary for the well being of the body, good pleasure is necessary for healthy existence of a human being, suggests Vatsyayana. A life without pleasure and enjoyment - sexual, artistic, of nature - is hollow and empty. Just like no one should stop farming crops even though everyone knows herds of deer exist and will try to eat the crop as it grows up, in the same way claims Vatsyayana, one should not stop one's pursuit of kāma because dangers exist. Kama should be followed with thought, care, caution and enthusiasm, just like farming or any other life pursuit.
Vatsyayana's book the Kama Sutra, in parts of the world, is presumed or depicted as a synonym for creative sexual positions; in reality, only 20% of Kama Sutra is about sexual positions. The majority of the book, notes Jacob Levy, is about the philosophy and theory of love, what triggers desire, what sustains it, how and when it is good or bad. Kama Sutra presents kama as an essential and joyful aspect of human existence.
Kama is holistic
Vatsyayana claims kama is never in conflict with dharma or artha, rather all three coexist and kama results from the other two.
A man practicing Dharma, Artha and Kama enjoys happiness now and in future. Any action which conduces to the practice of Dharma, Artha and Kama together, or of any two, or even one of them should be performed. But an action which conduces to the practice of one of them at the expense of the remaining two should not be performed.—Vatsyayana, The Kama sutra, Chapter 2
Pleasure in general, sexual pleasure in particular, is neither shameful nor dirty, in Hindu philosophy. It is necessary for human life, essential for well being of every individual, and wholesome when pursued with due consideration of dharma and artha. Unlike the precepts of some religions, kāma is celebrated in Hinduism, as a value in its own right. Together with artha and dharma, it is an aspect of a holistic life. All three purusharthas - Dharma, Artha and Kama - are equally and simultaneously important.
Kama and stage of life
Some ancient Indian literature observe that the relative precedence of artha, kama and dharma are naturally different for different people and different age groups. In a baby or child, education and kāma (artistic desires) take precedence; in youth kāma and artha take precedence; while in old age dharma takes precedence.
Kama as deity
Kāma is personified as deity Kamadeva and his consort Rati. Deity Kama is comparable to the Greek deity Eros - they both trigger human sexual attraction and sensual desire. Kama rides a parrot, and the deity is armed with bow and arrows to pierce hearts. The bow is made of sugarcane stalk, the bowstring is a line of bees, and the arrows are tipped with five flowers representing five emotions-driven love states. The five flowers on Kama arrows are lotus flower (infatuation), ashoka flower (intoxication with thoughts about the other person), mango flower (exhaustion and emptiness in absence of the other), jasmine flower (pinning for the other) and blue lotus flower (paralysis with confusion and feelings). Kama is also known as Ananga (literally "one without body") because desire strikes formlessly, through feelings in unseen ways. The other names for deity Kama include Madan (he who intoxicates with love), Manmatha (he who agitates the mind), Pradyumna (he who conquers all) and Kushumesu (he whose arrows are flowers).
Kama in Buddhism
In Buddhism's Pali Canon, the Gautama Buddha renounced (Pali: nekkhamma) sensuality (kāma) in route to his Awakening. Some Buddhist lay practitioners recite daily the Five Precepts, a commitment to abstain from "sexual misconduct" (kāmesu micchācāra). Typical of Pali Canon discourses, the Dhammika Sutta (Sn 2.14) includes a more explicit correlate to this precept when the Buddha enjoins a follower to "observe celibacy or at least do not have sex with another's wife."
Theosophy: kama, kamarupa and kamaloka
Kamaloka is a semi-material plane, subjective and invisible to humans, where disembodied "personalities", the astral forms, called Kama-rupa remain until they fade out from it by the complete exhaustion of the effects of the mental impulses that created these eidolons of human and animal passions and desires. It is associated with Hades of ancient Greeks and the Amenti of the Egyptians, the land of Silent Shadows; a division of the first group of the Trailõkya.
- Kaam, a word with a similar meaning
- Kama sutra
- Alcmaeon (mythology)
- James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 340
- Monier Williams, काम, kāma Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, pp 271, see 3rd column
- Macy, Joanna (1975). "The Dialectics of Desire". Numen (BRILL) 22 (2): 145–60. JSTOR 3269765.
- Lorin Roche. "Love-Kama". Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, University of Toronto Archives, pp. 8
- A. Sharma (1982), The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology, Michigan State University, ISBN 9789993624318, pp 9-12; See review by Frank Whaling in Numen, Vol. 31, 1 (Jul., 1984), pp. 140-142;
- A. Sharma (1999), The Puruṣārthas: An Axiological Exploration of Hinduism, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 1999), pp. 223-256;
- Chris Bartley (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Editor: Oliver Learman, ISBN 0-415-17281-0, Routledge, Article on Purushartha, pp 443
- Kama in Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, 2009
- R. Prasad (2008), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445, pp 249-270
- Rig Veda Book 10 Hymn 129 Verse 4
- Ralph Griffith (Translator, 1895), The Hymns of the Rig veda, Book X, Hymn CXXIX, Verse 4, pp 575
- Klaus Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, pp. 173-174
- R. Prasad (2008), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445, Chapter 10, particularly pp 252-255
- Karl H. Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807792, pp. 1-29
- Roderick Hindery, Hindu Ethics in the Ramayana, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Fall, 1976), pp. 299
- See verses at 2.30, 4.1, 6.1, 6.83 for example; Abridged Verse 4.1: “Sita invades my entire being and my love is entirely centered on her; Without that lady of lovely eyelashes, beautiful looks, and gentle speech, I cannot survive, O Saumitri.”; for peer reviewed source, see Hindery, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Fall, 1976), pp 299-300
- Benjamin Khan (1965), The concept of Dharma in Valmiki Ramayana, Delhi, ISBN 978-8121501347
- Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302, pp 11-13
- Thomas Donaldson (2005), Konark, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195675917
- Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5.
- Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302, pp 16-21
- The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, University of Toronto Archives, pp. 9-10
- The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, University of Toronto Archives, Chapter 2, pp 8-11; pp 172
- Jacob Levy (2010), Kama sense marketing, iUniverse, ISBN 978-1440195563, see Introduction
- Alain Daniélou, The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text, ISBN 978-0892815258
- The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), Answer 4, The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, University of Toronto Archives, pp. 11
- Bullough and Bullough (1994), Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0824079727, pp 516
- Gary Kraftsow, Yoga for Transformation - ancient teachings and practices for healing body, mind and heart, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-019629-0, pp 11-15
- C. Ramanathan, Ethics in the Ramayana, in History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization (Editor: R. Prasad), Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445, pp 84-85
- P.V. Kane (1941), History of Dharmashastra, Volume 2, Part 1, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, pp. 8-9
- Coulter and Turner, Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities, Francis & Taylor, ISBN 978-1135963903, pp 258-259
- William Joseph Wilkins (193), Hindu mythology, Vedic and Puranic, Thacker & Spink, Indiana University Archives, pp 268
- See, for instance, Dvedhavitakka Sutta (MN 19) (Thanissaro, 1997a).
- See, for instance, Khantipalo (1995).
- Farthing 1978 p.210.
- Ireland, John D. (trans.) (1983). Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika (excerpt) (Sn 2.14). Retrieved 5 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/snp/snp.2.14.irel.html.
- Khantipalo, Bhikkhu (1982, 1995). Lay Buddhist Practice: The Shrine Room, Uposatha Day, Rains Residence (The Wheel No. 206/207). Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 5 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/khantipalo/wheel206.html.
- Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series (n.d.) (SLTP). Pañcaṅgikavaggo (AN 126.96.36.199, in Pali). Retrieved 3 Jul 2007 from "MettaNet-Lanka" at http://metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/4Anguttara-Nikaya/Anguttara3/5-pancakanipata/003-pancangikavaggo-p.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Sorts of Thinking (MN 19). Retrieved 3 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.019.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). Samadhanga Sutta: The Factors of Concentration (AN 5.28). Retrieved 3 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an05/an05.028.than.html.
- H. P. Blavatsky, 1892. The Theosophical Glossary. London: The Theosophical Publishing Society
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