Kamal Haasan

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Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan at Promotions of 'Vishwaroop' with Videocon (03).jpg
Kamal Haasan at Vishwaroopam promotions
Born (1954-11-07) 7 November 1954 (age 59)[1]
Paramakudi, Tamil Nadu, India
Residence Neelankarai,Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Occupation Film actor, producer, director, screenwriter, playback singer, lyricist, choreographer,song writer
Years active 1959–present
Spouse(s) Vani Ganapathy (m. 1978–88)
Sarika Thakur (m. 1988–2004)
Partner(s) Gouthami (2005-present)
Children Shruti Haasan (b. 1986)
Akshara Haasan (b. 1991)
Awards Padma Bhushan (2014)[2]
Padmashri (1990)
Kalaimamani (1979)[3]

Kamal Haasan (born 7 November 1954) is an Indian film actor, screenwriter, director, producer, playback singer, choreographer and lyricist who works primarily in the Tamil film industry. Haasan has won several Indian film awards including four National Film Awards and 19 Filmfare Awards. With seven submissions, Kamal Haasan has starred in the highest number of films submitted by India for the Best Foreign Language Film Oscar. Haasan's production company, Rajkamal International, has produced several of his films. Kamal Haasan received the Padma Shri in 1990 and the Padma Bhushan in 2014.

After several projects as a child, Haasan's breakthrough as a lead actor came in the 1975 drama Apoorva Raagangal, in which he played a rebellious youth in love with an older woman. He won his first National Film Award for his portrayal of a guileless schoolteacher who cares for a childlike amnesiac in Moondram Pirai. Haasan was noted for his performance in Mani Ratnam's Tamil film Nayagan (1987), rated by Time magazine as one of the best films in cinema history. Since then he has appeared in a number of films including his own productions, Hey Ram and Virumaandi, and the Dasavathaaram (in which he played ten different roles).

Early life[edit]

Haasan was born in 1954 into a Tamil family in Paramakudi (now a part of Ramanathapuram district), Tamil Nadu. His father, D. Srinivasan (a lawyer), was a militant.[4] Kamal is the youngest child in his family; his brothers Charuhasan (born 1930) and Chandrahasan (born 1936) are also lawyers, and Charuhasan became an actor during the 1980s. Haasan's sister, Nalini (born 1946), is a classical dancer. He received his primary education in Paramakudi, moving to Madras (now Chennai) as his brothers pursued their higher education.[4] Haasan continued his education in Santhome, Madras;[4] attracted by film and the fine arts, he was encouraged by his father.[4] When a physician friend of Haasan's mother visited Avichi Meiyappa Chettiar (AVM) to treat his wife, she brought Haasan with her.[5] Impressed by Haasan's demeanor, M. Saravanan (AVM's son) recommended him for their upcoming production Kalathur Kannamma.[4]

Career[edit]

Child actor (1959–1963)[edit]

Haasan won the President's Gold Medal – Rashtrapathi Award for his performance in Kalathur Kannamma at age four, and starred in five more films as a child. He debuted in the Malayalam film industry in Kannum Karalum (1962). With his father's encouragement Haasan joined a repertory company (T. K. S. Nataka Sabha) headed by T. K. Shanmugam, continuing his education at the Hindu Higher Secondary School in Triplicane. His time with the theatre company shaped Haasan's craft, and kindled his interest in makeup.[6][7]

Lead roles, 1970–1975[edit]

After a seven-year hiatus from films Haasan returned to the industry as a crew member, playing a few supporting roles. His first role as an adult was in the 1970 film Maanavan, where he appeared in a dance sequence. Haasan also had a supporting role in Annai Velankani (where he was assistant director), and appeared in K. Balachander's 1973 film Arangetram. He played the antagonist in Sollathaan Ninaikkiren and Gumasthavin Magal. Haasan's first serious role was in K. Balachander's Aval Oru Thodar Kathai (1974). His last supporting role was in Naan Avan Illai, also in 1974.

Haasan's second Malayalam film was 1975's Kanyakumari, for which he won his first regional Filmfare Award.[8] Other Malayalam films were Kanyakumari and Raasaleela. He played the lead in the Tamil film Apoorva Raagangal, directed by K. Balachander (for which he won his first Filmfare Award in Tamil).[9] Its plot involved a young man in love with an older woman,[10] and the film won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil. Haasan learned to play the mridangam for his role.[11]

Late 1970s[edit]

In 1976, Balachander cast Haasan as a womaniser in Manmadha Leelai; this was followed by Oru Oodhappu Kan Simittugiradhu, which won him his second consecutive Regional Filmfare (Tamil) Best Actor Award. Haasan later appeared in the Balachander drama Moondru Mudichu. Avargal (1977) concerned the women's movement; for this role, he learned ventriloquism.[12] The film was remade in Telugu as Idi Katha Kaadu (1979), with Haasan reprising his role. 16 Vayathinile, in which he played a village bumpkin, won him a third consecutive Best Actor award. In 1977 Haasan starred in his first Kannada film, Kokila, the directorial debut of friend and mentor Balu Mahendra. That year he also appeared in a Bengali film, Kabita, a remake of the Tamil film Aval Oru Thodar Kathai. In 1978 Haasan made his Telugu film debut with a lead role in the cross-cultural romantic film, Maro Charithra, directed by Balachander. His fourth consecutive Filmfare Award resulted from Sigappu Rojakkal, a thriller in which he played a psychopathic sexual killer.

In the 1978 Telugu film Sommokadidhi Sokkadidhi, Haasan played two parts. He also appeared in the musical Ninaithale Inikkum, a snake-horror film (Neeya) and Kalyanaraman. At the end of the 1970s he had a total of six regional Best Actor Filmfare Awards, including four consecutive Best Tamil Actor Awards.

Bollywood (1980s)[edit]

Haasan's films during the 1980s included 1980's Tamil-language Varumayin Niram Sigappu, in which he played an unemployed youth; he also made a cameo appearance in Rajinikanth's 1981 Thillu Mullu. Haasan made his Bollywood debut in Ek Duuje Ke Liye, the remake of his Telugu-language film Maro Charithra directed by K. Balachander (which earned him his first Filmfare Hindi-language nomination). He made his 100th film appearance in 1981 in Raja Paarvai, debuting as a producer. Despite the film's relatively poor box-office performance, his portrayal of a blind session violinist earned him a Filmfare Award.[13] After a year of starring in commercial films, Haasan won the first of three National Awards for Best Actor for his portrayal of a schoolteacher caring for an amnesia patient in Balu Mahendra's Moondram Pirai, later reprising his role in the Hindi version, Sadma.[8] During this period he focused on Bollywood remakes of his Tamil films, including Yeh To Kamaal Ho Gaya and Zara Si Zindagi. In 1983 he appeared in Sagara Sangamam, directed by K. Vishwanath. His portrayal of an alcoholic classical dancer won him his first Nandi Award for Best Actor and his second Filmfare Best Telugu Actor Award.

After 1984's Raaj Tilak Haasan appeared in Saagar (released 1985), winning the Filmfare Best Actor Award and nominated for the Best Supporting Actor award. The film was India's representative for the Best Foreign Language Oscar in 1985.[8] He appeared in Geraftaar and later featured in Japanil Kalyanaraman (a sequel to his 1979 Kalyanaraman).

In 1986 Haasan again collaborated with K. Vishwanath in Swathi Muthyam, playing an autistic person who tries to change society; it was India's entry for Best Foreign Language Film at the Academy Awards in 1986.[8] These Tollywood films found him a large audience in Andhra Pradesh, and many of his later Tamil films were dubbed into Telugu.[14]

Following Punnagai Mannan (in which he played two roles, including a satire of Charlie Chaplin as Chaplin Chellappa) and Vetri Vizha (where he played an amnesiac), Haasan appeared in Mani Ratnam's 1987 film Nayakan. He received his second Indian National Award for his performance; Nayakan was submitted by India as its entry for Best Foreign Language Film at the 1987 Academy Awards, and is on the Time's All-Time 100 Movies list.[15] In 1988 Haasan appeared in his only silent film to date: Pushpak, a black comedy.[8] He appeared in Unnal Mudiyum Thambi (a remake of the Telugu film Rudraveena), Sathya in 1988 and Apoorva Sagodharargal in 1989.[8] Haasan played two parts in Indrudu Chandrudu, winning the Filmfare Best Actor and Nandi Awards for his performance. He ended the decade with his last starring role in an original Malayalam film to date, in Chanakyan. By the end of the 1980s Haasan was successful in the Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu and Hindi film industries, with Filmfare Awards in each industry and two national awards.[14][16][17]

Comedy (1990s)[edit]

In 1990, Michael Madhana Kamarajan saw Haasan build on Apoorva Sagodharargal by playing quadruplets. It began as a collaboration with writer Crazy Mohan for future comedy films.[18] Haasan won successive Best Actor awards for his portrayal of deranged, obsessive protagonists in Guna and Thevar Magan (which was remade in Hindi as 1997's Virasat). He was credited with the story for the latter, and won his third National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil as a producer. The film was India's submission for the Academy Awards that year. A series of films followed: Singaravelan, Maharasan, Kalaignan, Mahanadi, Nammavar, and Sathi Leelavathi (based on the British film She-Devil). The film (produced by Haasan) featured Haasan, Kannada actor Ramesh Arvind and comedienne Kovai Sarala. He resumed his collaboration with Kasinadhuni Viswanath in the Telugu film, Subha Sankalpam, and starred in the police story Kuruthipunal with Arjun Sarja. Haasan's success in the latter was followed by his third National Film Award for Best Actor for Indian.[19]

After Indian Haasan played a woman in the comedy Avvai Shanmughi (inspired by Mrs. Doubtfire),[20] which was a box-office success. He chose Shantanu Sheorey to direct the Hindi remake of Avvai Shanmughi, Chachi 420,[21] but after dissatisfaction with five days of shooting Haasan took over as director.[22][23] In 1997 Haasan began directing an unfinished biopic of Mohammed Yusuf Khan, Marudhanayagam; a half-hour of film and a trailer was shot.[24] Marudhanayagam was expected to be the biggest, most expensive film in Indian cinematic history; a number of well-known actors and technicians had been signed, and it was launched at a public ceremony by Queen Elizabeth during her 1997 visit to India.[25] Although the film failed to materialise due to budget constraints, Haasan expressed an interest in reviving the project.[26] In 1998, he appeared in Singeetham Srinivasa Rao's romantic comedy, Kaathala Kaathala opposite Prabhu Deva. The film was a commercial success and was also dubbed in Hindi as Mirch Masala, which was never released.[27]

2000–present[edit]

After a two-year hiatus from Indian cinema, Haasan decided against reviving Marudhanayagam. He directed his second film, Hey Ram,[28] a period drama, told in flashback, with a fact-based plot centering around the partition of India and the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. Haasan produced and choreographed the film, writing its screenplay and lyrics, and was India's submission for the Academy Awards that year.[29] Hey Ram was a box-office failure in India (partly due to Congress enforcing a ban on the film), but was successful worldwide. Also in 2000, Haasan appeared in the comedy Thenali as a Sri Lankan Tamilian with PTSD who is under a psychiatrist's care. Thenali, starring Malayalam actor Jayaram, was a box-office success. Haasan's next film was 2001's Aalavandhan, in which he played two roles (for one of which he had his head shaved and gained ten kilograms). To play the other Army major in Aalavandhan, he went to the NDA for a crash course.[30] The Hindi version was distributed by Shringar Films.[31][32] Despite pre-release publicity, the film was a commercial failure and Haasan repaid distributors who had lost money.[33]

After a number of successful comedies[34] (including Pammal K. Sambandam and Panchathantiram) and guest appearances Haasan directed Virumaandi, a film about capital punishment which won the Best Asian Film Award at the Puchon International Fantastic Film Festival.[35] He also appeared in Anbe Sivam with Madhavan. Priyadarshan, its original director, left and Sundar C. completed the film. Anbe Sivam tells the story of Nallasivam, portrayed by Haasan as a communist. His performance was praised by critics, with The Hindu saying that he "has once again done Tamil cinema proud".[36]

In 2004 Haasan appeared in Vasool Raja MBBS, a remake of Bollywood's Munnabhai MBBS with Sneha which was a box-office success. The following year, he wrote and starred in the comedy Mumbai Express. Released during Tamil New Year with Rajinikanth's Chandramukhi and Vijay's romantic comedy Sachien, it was a disappointment at the box office despite positive reviews. In 2006 Haasan's long-delayed project, the stylish police story Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu, was a success. Directed by Gautham Menon, the film is about a police officer sent to the US to investigate a series of medical murders. In 2008's Dasavathaaram, he played ten different roles; the film was released in a number of languages (including Tamil, Telugu and Hindi) throughout India and overseas. Dasavathaaram, written by Haasan and director K. S. Ravikumar, is one of the first modern science-fiction films made in India. Starring Haasan and Asin Thottumkal, it was the highest-grossing Tamil film (as of 2008) and his performance was critically praised.[37] In Canada, Dasavathaaram was the first Tamil film distributed by Walt Disney Pictures.[38]

After Dasavathaaram Haasan directed a film tentatively entitled Marmayogi, which stalled after a year of pre-production. He then produced and starred in Unnaipol Oruvan, a remake of the Bollywood film A Wednesday, where he reprised the role originally played by Naseeruddin Shah with Malayalam actor Mohanlal playing Anupam Kher's role.[39][40] The film was also released in Telugu as Eeenadu, with Venkatesh reprising the role played by Kher.[41] Both versions were critically acclaimed and commercially successful.[41][42] Haasan collaborated for the fifth time with Ravikumar in Manmadan Ambu, also writing the screenplay. The story concerns a man who hires a detective to find out if his fiancée is cheating on him.[43] The film was released in December 2010 to mixed reviews, with Behindwoods calling it "an entertainer, but in parts"[44] and Sify saying it "lacks the punch to captivate the audiences".[45]

Haasan's next film after Manmadhan Ambu was 2013's Vishwaroopam, released in Hindi as Vishwaroop. It won two National Film Awards (Best Production Design and Best Choreography) at the 60th National Film Awards.[46] In May 2014, he was appointed as the official Indian delegate to the 67th Cannes Film Festival.[47] As of June 2014, he is working on two films – Uthama Villain, and Vishwaroopam II, the sequel of Vishwaroopam.[48]

Off-screen contributions[edit]

In addition to acting, Haasan is noted for his involvement in other aspects of filmmaking.[6][22] He has written many of his films, including Raja Paarvai, Apoorva Sagodharargal, Michael Madhana Kamarajan, Thevar Magan, Mahanadhi, Hey Ram, Aalavandhan, Anbe Sivam, Nala Damayanthi, Virumaandi, Dasavathaaram, Manmadhan Ambu and Vishwaroopam. Haasan's production company (Rajkamal International) has produced several of his films, and he directed Chachi 420, Hey Ram, Virumaandi and Vishwaroopam. He considered directing full-time if Hey Ram was successful, but changed his mind when the film failed at the box office.[49] In his earlier career, he has also choreographed for MGR in Naan Yen Pirandhen, Sivaji Ganesan in Savaale Samaali and Jayalalithaa in Anbu Thangai[50] In 2010 Haasan said he wanted to do more directing, since young actors wished to work for him. When he played supporting roles early in his career he wanted to become a technician, and joked: "Film makers like K. Balachander told me that I won't be able make much money by being a technician. So the end result is that the star Kamal funds the technician Kamal in pursuing his dreams".[51] Kamal attended workshops for makeup technicians in the US for several years, and trained as a makeup artist under Michael Westmore.[52]

Haasan has also written songs for his films. He wrote the lyrics for a single in Hey Ram, songs in Virumaandi and Unnaipol Oruvan and the album for Manmadhan Ambu. Haasan's musical work has been well received by his peers in Tamil film.[53] He is also a playback singer,[54] singing in Tamil, Hindi, Telugu, Malayalam and English.[55] Currently Haasan is part of the Mission "Clean India" set by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Modi nominated 9 important VIPs to spread it to people via media or by their own example and one in nine people is Kamal Haasan who is chosen for his sincere work towards social welfare moves.

Personal life[edit]

Family[edit]

Young, dark-haired, mustachioed man with older man in hat and sunglasses
Haasan (right) with M. G. Ramachandran

Haasan was born in the town of Paramakudi, in the Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu, to criminal lawyer D. Srinivasan and Rajalakshmi (a housewife).[56] One source says that his parents originally named him Parthasarathy.[57] In an interview with Karan Thapar, Haasan said his father was literate in Sanskrit. Kamal was the youngest of four children; his siblings are Charuhasan, Chandrahasan and Nalini (Raghu). His two older brothers followed their father's example, and studied law.

Haasan referred to his parents in Unnaipol Oruvan and the song "Kallai Mattum" in Dasavathaaram.[58] His oldest brother Charuhasan, like Kamal, is a National Film Award-winning actor who appeared in the Kannada film Tabarana Kathe. Charuhasan's daughter Suhasini is also a National Film Award winner married to director (and fellow award-winner) Mani Ratnam, who collaborated with Haasan on 1987's Nayakan.[59] Chandrahasan has produced several of Haasan's films, and is an executive with Rajkamal International. Chandrahasan's daughter Anu Hasan has had supporting roles in several films, including Suhasini's Indira. Haasan's sister, Nalini Raghu, is a dance teacher for whom he named an auditorium (Nalini Mahal).[60] Her son, Gautham, played Haasan's grandson in Hey Ram.

Relationships[edit]

Bearded man in white, flanked by two young women in black dresses
Haasan with daughters Akshara(right) and Shruti

Early in his career, he co-starred in several films with Srividya. They were reported to have had an affair during the 1970s, and their relationship was explored in the 2008 Malayalam film Thirakkatha by Renjith (with Anoop Menon as Haasan and Priyamani as Srividya). Haasan visited Srividya when she was on her deathbed in 2006.[61]

In 1978, at age 24, Haasan married dancer Vani Ganapathy.[62] They divorced ten years later.

Haasan and the actress Sarika began living together in 1988, marrying after the birth of their first child, Shruti Haasan (born 1986). Shruti Haasan is a singer and a Tollywood-Kollywood actress. Their younger daughter, Akshara (born 1991), was assistant director for 2013's Vishwaroopam. Sarika stopped acting soon after their marriage, replacing Vani Ganapathy as Haasan's costume designer for Hey Ram. In 2002, the couple filed for divorce, which became final in 2004.[63] Haasan's affair with co-star Simran Bagga (22 years younger than him) triggered the breakup.[64] His relationship with Simran (who appeared in Pammal K. Sambandam and Panchathantiram) was brief, since Simran married her childhood friend in late 2003. Haasan has been living with former actress Gouthami Tadimalla (who starred with him in several films during the late 1980s and early 1990s) since 2005. Shruti, Akshara and Gouthami's daughter Subbalakshmi (from an annulled marriage) live with them.[65]

Views[edit]

Haasan has often questioned the existence of God and has highlighted the theme in his films like Anbe Sivam and Dasavathaaram.[66] He has been thought to be Muslim because of his Arabic-sounding name, most notably when he was denied preclearance by U.S. Customs and Border Protection authorities at Toronto Pearson International Airport in 2002.[67] In Sanskrit Kamal means "lotus", but it was rumoured that his name originated with a friend of his father (Yaakob Hassan, a Muslim militant who was imprisoned with the elder Haasan by the British). In a BBC interview with Karan Thapar Haasan said that his last name derives from the Sanskrit word hasya, and although the Yaakob Hassan connection was publicised by the media it was only "a story".[68] Although he has abstained from politics, Haasan is considered left-leaning or independent[69] and has said that his politics would result in his death within a year.[70]

Humanitarian work[edit]

Man with jacket standing with smiling, bespectacled younger man
Haasan (left) with social activist M. B. Nirmal in Chennai

Haasan is the first Tamil actor to convert his fan clubs into welfare organisations,[71] and is involved in social-service activities through the clubs under the name Kamal Narpani Iyakkam (Kamal Welfare Association).[72][73] His fan clubs help organise blood- and eye-donation drives, and donate educational materials to students.[74][75][76] Haasan received the first Abraham Kovoor National Award for his humanist activities and secular life in 2004.[77] He was project ambassador for Hridayaragam 2010, which raised funds for an orphanage for HIV/AIDS-affected children.[78] In September 2010 Haasan launched a children’s cancer relief fund and gave roses to children with cancer at Sri Ramachandra University in Porur, Chennai.[79] He has pledged his product-endorsement income to social causes.[80][81] Haasan won INR 5 million on Neengalum Vellalam Oru Kodi in March 2013 and promised that his prize money would be used for Petral Thaan Pillaya, supporting children with HIV.

Writings[edit]

Haasan publishes the magazine Mayyam, by the Kamal Haasan Welfare Association (Narpani Iyakkam). His views on cinema, child and drug abuse and the Kashmir conflict have been published as Thedi Theerpom Va (Come, Let's Solve Together) by his fan club.[82] Haasan is also interested in Tamil literature.[83][84]

Awards and honours[edit]

Ang Lee, a gray-haired man, looking at Haasan (who is speaking)
Haasan with Ang Lee

Haasan received in 1990 the Padma Shri and in 2014 the Padma Bhushan for his contributions to Indian cinema.[85] At age six he won the President's Gold Medal for Best Child Actor for his debut film, Kalathur Kannamma.[86] Haasan is tied with Mammootty and Amitabh Bachchan for the most Best Actor National Film Awards with three. He won a National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil for producing the 1992 Tamil film, Thevar Magan. Haasan has a record 19 Filmfare Awards in five languages; after his last award, in 2000, he wrote to the organisation requesting no further awards.[77][87] In 2003, his films Hey Ram, Pushpak, Nayakan and Kuruthipunal were showcased in the "Director in Focus" category at the Rotterdam Film Festival.[88] In 2004, Virumaandi won the inaugural Best Asian film award at the Puchon International Fantastic Film Festival (PiFan).[35][88]

In 2005, Sathyabama Deemed University awarded Haasan an honorary doctorate.[89] He received the Chevalier Sivaji Ganesan Award for Excellence in Indian Cinema at the inaugural Vijay Awards in 2006.[90] Haasan received the Living Legend Award in 2007 from FICCI.[91] In 2010, the United Progressive Alliance government organised a retrospective of his films. Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Ambika Soni said the actor was unique, since his films broke regional and language barriers.[92] That year, the government of Kerala honoured him for 50 years in Indian cinema during statewide Onam celebrations in Thiruvananthapuram.[93]

Haasan received the Kalaimamani Award from the government of Tamil Nadu in 1979.[3] Other honours include Tamil Nadu State Film Awards, Nandi, Screen and Vijay Awards, including four awards for his performance in Dasavathaaram. In 2009 Haasan was appointed chairman of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Media and Entertainment Business Conclave, organised by FICCI's entertainment division.[94] He is on the academic advisory council for ISFM (International school of Film+Media),[95] and was the first Indian actor invited aboard an American ship as a special friend of the US.[96] In April 2013 Haasan received an award on behalf of Indian cinema from Chris Brown, executive vice-president for conventions and business operations of the National Association of Broadcasters, as part of the New York Festivals International Film & TV Awards.[97] He is one of 20 film celebrities recognised by Coca-Cola India with the launch of the 24th edition of the Limca Book of Records in 2013.[98]

Critique, professional and public perception[edit]

Mani Ratnam, who directed Haasan in Nayakan, has said that there are many things he can do that no other actor can.[99] Veteran Tamil actor Nagesh called Haasan the best actor he had ever seen.[100] Haasan's contributions to film have been praised by his peers in the Indian film industry, including Sridevi, Meena, Amitabh Bachan, Mohanlal, Shahrukh Khan and Aamir Khan.[101][102][102][103][104] Younger actors (Surya and Madhavan)[105][106][107] and filmmakers (Bala, Ameer and Gautham Menon) have been inspired by him.[108][109][110][111] M. F. Husain said Haasan was the most exciting Indian filmmaker-actor he had ever seen.[112]

The animated action sequence in Quentin Tarantino's 2003 film, Kill Bill, was inspired by 2D animated sequences in an Indian film believed to be Aalavandhan.[113][114][115] Hollywood filmmaker Barrie M. Osburne called Haasan's knowledge of literature, history and films "encyclopedic",[116] and Ang Lee said he was stunned by his brilliance and knowledge of films.[117]

Haasan has been accused of self-indulgence[118] and criticised for sexually explicit scenes and themes, offensive religious sentiments and superficiality about the social issues depicted in his films.[119][120][121][122] Other criticism includes complaints about his obsession with perfection, which may have caused some of his films to run over budget.[123][124][125]*

References[edit]

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