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The Kambojas (Sanskrit: कम्बोज, Kamboja; Persian: کمبوہ, Kambūh) were a kshatriya tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature. Modern scholars conclude that the Kambojas were an Avestan speaking Eastern Iranian tribe who later settled in at the boundary of the ancient India.The Kambojas are classified as a Mleccha or barbarous tribe by the Vedic Inhabitants of India. Indologists believe that Kambojas have adopted Hinduism in a late Vedic Period.
Ethnicity and language 
The Kambojas were an Indo-Iranian tribe. However, the ancient Kambojas are sometimes described as Indo-Aryans or as having both Indian and Iranian affinities. However, most scholars now agree that the Kambojas were Iranians, cognate with the Indo-Scythians. The Kambojas are also described as a royal clan of the Sakas. This seems to be confirmed by the Mathura lion capital inscriptions made by Rajuvula and by one of the Edicts of Asoka. The Aśvakas were a subtribe of the Kambojas.
Iranian characteristics 
A number of ancient sources indicate links between the Kambojas and Iranian civilization.
To argue that the Kambojas were an Iranian group, recent historians have used:
- References to Zoroastrian customs
- References to Iranian linguistic forms used by Kambojas
- References to Kamboja horsemanship
- Bracketing with other non-Indic peoples
There are indications that the Kambojas spoke the Avestan language. Yaska (fl. 700 BCE), in Nirukta, contrasts the speech of the Kambojas with that of the "Aryans" (Indo-Aryans). He says that the verb shavati, "to go", was used by the Kambojas only, although its root, shava, was used by the Indo-Aryans. There is a similar mention of Kamboja speech in Patanjali's Mahaabhaasya from the 2nd century BCE. He says that the verb zav, in the sense of "going", was used only among the Kambojas, while the same verb in the nominal form zava was used by the Aryas in the sense of "transformation". Moreover, the word shavati, in the sense "to go", is not found in ancient Sanskrit literature but is a common Iranian word. Michael Witzel, who concludes that the Kambojas were East Iranians speaking the Avestan language, says that the Kamboja verb shavati represents the Younger Avestan sauuaiti "to go". The same arguments are presented by other scholars.
The Bhishamaparava and Shantiparava in the Mahabharata indicate that the Kambojas were living in the north of India. Like other people of the Uttarapatha region, they are called mlechchas (barbarians) or asuras, lying outside the Indo-Aryan fold. They are repeatedly listed with other north-western, non-Vedic people like the Yavanas, Sakas, Tusharas, Parsikas, Hunas and Kiratas. Majjhima Nikaya reveals that in the lands of Yavanas, Kambojas and some other frontier nations, there were only two classes of people: Aryas and Dasas, the masters and slaves. The Arya could become Dasa and vice versa. This social organisation was completely alien to India, where a four-class social structure was prevalent.
Indo-Aryan characteristics 
Various ancient documents mention "Kamboja" in the context of the Indo-Aryan civilisation. Vedic sage Kamboja Aupamanyava is mentioned in the Vamsa Brahmana in the Samaveda. His father or ancestor, the sage Upamanyu, is mentioned in the Rigveda. He has been described as the composer of Rigvedic Hymn 1.102.9. These references have made various scholars argue that the Kambojas were Indo-Aryans and that in the early Vedic times they formed an important division of the Vedic Aryans.
The Drona Parva section of the Mahabharata attests that, besides being fierce warriors, the entire Kamboja soldiery which participated in the Kurukshetra war was also noted as "learned people".
In the Paraskara Grhya-sutram (verse 2.1.2), the Kambojas, as scholarly people, are classed with the Vasishthas—the cultural heroes of ancient India—and were counted amongst the six great scholarly houses of Vedic India. The social and religious customs of the Kambojas and Vasishthas are stated to be identical..
Matsya Purana  refers to "Kamboja" as one of the Brahmana Gotras having Bhargava, Chyavana, Aurva, Jamadagnya & Apnuvana as its Pravara. Pt Bhupindranatha Datta observes that a Risi from amongst the ancient Kamboja people had founded this Gotra .
In the Ashtadhyayi (probably 4th century BCE), Pāṇini describes the Kamboja janapada as "one of the fifteen powerful Kshatriya janapadas" of his times, "inhabited and ruled by Kamboja Kshatriyas", implying that the Kambojas were both Indo-Aryan and Kshatriya.
References to the Kambojas as a tribe or kingdom appear in the Mahabharata and in Vedanga literature beginning in the final centuries BCE. Their Kamboja Kingdoms were located beyond Gandhara in eastern or northern Afghanistan.
Within traditional Hindu cosmography the Kambojas, with the Gandharas, Yavanas (Greeks), Madras, and Sakas are located in the Uttarapatha, the northern division of Jambudvipa, the island of the terrestrial world.
Some sections of the Kambojas crossed the Hindu Kush and planted Kamboja colonies in Paropamisadae and as far as Rajauri. The Mahabharata locates the Kambojas on the near side of the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Daradas, and the Parama-Kambojas across the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Rishikas (or Tukharas) of the Ferghana region.
The confederation of the Kambojas may have stretched from the valley of Rajauri in the south-western part of Kashmir to the Hindu Kush Range; in the south–west the borders extended probably as far as the regions of Kabul, Ghazni and Kandahar, with the nucleus in the area north-east of the present day Kabul, between the Hindu Kush Range and the Kunar river, including Kapisa possibly extending from the Kabul valleys to Kandahar.
Others locate the Kambojas and the Parama-Kambojas in the areas spanning Balkh, Badakshan, the Pamirs and Kafiristan, or in various settlements in the wide area lying between Punjab, Iran and Balkh. and the Parama-Kamboja even farther north, in the Trans-Pamirian territories comprising the Zeravshan valley, towards the Farghana region, in the Scythia of the classical writers. The mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes is also suggested as the location of the ancient Kambojas.
The name Kamboja may derive from (Kam + bhuj), referring to the people of a country known as "Kum" or "Kam". The mountainous highlands where the Jaxartes and its confluents arise are called the highlands of the Komedes by Ptolemy. Ammianus Marcellinus also names these mountains as Komedas. The Kiu-mi-to in the writings of Hiuen Tsang have also been identified with the Komudha-dvipa of the Puranic literature and the Iranian Kambojas.
The two Kamboja settlements on either side of the Hindu Kush are also substantiated from Ptolemy's Geography, which refers to the Tambyzoi located north of the Hindu Kush on the river Oxus in Bactria, and the Ambautai people on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae. Scholars have identified both the Ptolemian Tambyzoi and Ambautai with Sanskrit Kamboja. Ptolemy also mentions a people called Khomaroi and Komoi in Sogdiana. The Ptolemian Komoi is a classical form of Kamboi (or Kamboika, from Pali Kambojika, Sanskrit Kamboja).
The Kambojas on the far side of the Hindu Kush remained essentially Iranian in culture and religion, while those on the near side came under Indian cultural influence. Later some sections of the Kambojas moved even farther, to Arachosia, as attested by an inscription by Ashoka found in Kandahar.
Transcaucasian Theory 
The Sanskrit term Bahlikas may have its counterpart in the Avestan term Pairikas to cover the swarm of Eurasian and Central Asian nomads that, in the migration period of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE, poured out of the Eurasian steppe into the Punjab and beyond. It is also believed that these Cimmerians, Scythians, Kurus and the Kambojas tribes contributed to the formation of the Achaemenid Empire.
... the Kambojas and Kurus from Caucasian region north-west of Iran, took part in the volkerwanderung of the eighth and seventh centuries BCE and then split into two wings. (...) these two peoples who stamped their national names on the local landscape must have been closely associated and both played some part in Achaemenid history that had been auspicious as well as important.
The connection of the Achaemenid rulers of Persia to the Kambojas and Kurus is reflected in the royal name Kuru and Kambujiya or Kambaujiya, which several Achaemenean monarchs adopted. Close connections among the Kambojas (Parama-Kambojas), the Madras (Bahlika-Madras or Uttaramadras) and the Kurus (Uttarakurus), which tribes were all located around the Oxus in Central Asia in remote antiquity, suggests that the Kurus, the Kambojas and the Parśus were related. Kambujiya or Kambaujiya was the name of several great Persian kings of the Achaemenid line.
The names Kamboja (Cambyses) and Kuru (Cyrus) occur as place names both in Transcaucasia, in Media Atrapatein, close to the northern Hindu Kush and south of the Hindu Kush in the Indian sub-continent. and the name Cambysene or Cambyses may transliterate into Kamboja and the name Cyrus into Kuru of the Sanskrit texts. These invading Aryan Central Asian nomads may have been Scythian tribes from the "Cyrus" (Kurosh) and "Cambyses" (Kambujiya) valleys, around the "Cambysene" province of Armenia Major west of the Caspian Sea. The province Cambysene got its name from the river Cambyses, which in turn got its name from the Sanskrit word Kambhoja. In the Epitome of Strabo a nation of the Caspians is spoken of περι τὀν Καμβύσην ποταμόν (Kambysen). Stephen of Byzantium defines Kambysēnē as a Persian country and relates the name to the Achaemenid king Cambyses. The Greek form Kambysēnē must have been derived from an indigenous name, corresponding to Armenian Kʿambēčan, with the common ending -ēnē. In Georgian it is written Kambečovani, in Arabic Qambīzān. In Sanskrit it is believed to have been transliterated as Kamboja. The region Cambysene and the rivers Cyrus and Cambyses are believed to have borne these name since remote antiquity. The territorial name Cambysene (Gk. Kambysēnē) as well as the river names Cyrus (Kurosh) and Cambyses (Kambujiya) occurring in Strabo's Geography and Pliny's Histories may be related to the ethno-geographical name Kambuja/Kamboja and Kuru of the Sanskrit texts.
The hordes who had participated in the earlier invasion of Iran along with the Yauteyas were identified as the Kambysene Scythians living around the Kambysene region, near the Caucasus Mountains in ancient Armenia. Later, they became the Kuru-Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts. These Kuru-Kamboja later mixed with the mountain-based Parsa-Xsayatia (Purush-Khattis) Iranians giving rise to the Achaemenid dynastic line of Persia.
Before leaving the Caspian region for Iran and Afghanistan in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE these people may have been living in the valleys of Cyrus and Cambyses in Armenia. After migrating southwards to the Indian sub-continent they split-up into two clans, Kurus and Kambojas first settling in the Trans-Himalayan region as Uttarakurus and Parama Kambojas before moving to regions near the Himalayas as Kurus (south-east Punjab or Kuruksetra) and Kambojas (south-west Kashmir and in the Kabul valley).
In the Kurukshetra War, the Kurus and Kambojas are seen as closely allied tribes. The Mahabharata attests that the Kambojas and kindred Scythian tribes like the Sakas, Tusharas and Khasas played a prominent role in the Kurukshetra War where they fought under the command of Sudakshina Kamboja and had sided with the Kurus.
Others remark that the names Kuru and Kamboja are of disputed etymology, but may attach to Sanskrit Kura and Kamboja, originally Aryan heroes, whose names were revived in a royal house in Persia. Kamboja is a geographical name, and often so is Kuru: hence their appearance in Iranian to-day as Kur and Kamoj.
The Kambojan State 
The evidence in the Mahabharata and in Ptolemy's Geography distinctly supports two Kamboja settlements. The cis-Hindukush region from Nurestan up to Rajauri in southwest Kashmir sharing borders with the Daradas and the Gandharas constituted the Kamboja country. The capital of Kamboja was probably Rajapura (modern Rajori). The Kamboja Mahajanapada of Buddhist traditions refers to this cis-Hindukush branch.
The trans-Hindukush region constituted the Parama-Kamboja country. It included the Pamirs and Badakhshan, sharing borders with Bactria in the west and Sogdiana in the north. The trans-Hindukush branch of the Kambojas remained culturally Iranian, but a large section of the Kambojas of cis-Hindukush appears to have come under Indian cultural influence.
In the Mahabharata, Kamboja is referred to as a republic or a kingless country where elected chiefs among the people ruled the country. It refers to several Ganah (or republics) of the Kambojas. Kautiliya's Arthashastra  and Ashoka's Edict No. XIII also attest that the Kambojas followed a republican constitution. Pāṇini's Sutras tend to convey that the Kamboja of Pāṇini was a "Kshatriya monarchy", but "the special rule and the exceptional form of derivative" he gives to denote the ruler of the Kambojas implies that the king of Kamboja was a titular head (king consul) only. A kingless country is otherwise called Arashtra or Aratta. This name is sometimes collectively used to denote many other western kingdoms like Madra, Kekeya and Gandhara. Another collective name denoting the western kingdoms is Bahika ( Vahika, Vahlika, Bahlika or Vahika) meaning outsider. This is to denote that their culture was outside or different from the Vedic culture, prevailing in the Kuru, Panchala and other kingdoms of the Gangetic plain.
A clan of tribes called Kinnaras were believed to be the Kamboja horse warriors. Kinnaras were described as "horse-headed humans". This could be an exaggeration of their extra ordinary skill in cavalry warfare. In Kali Yuga, Kambojas had many colonial states in central India, including the Asmaka or Aswaka of Maharashtra state.
During the reign of Cyrus (558-530 BCE) or in the first year of Darius these nations fell prey to the Achaemenids of Persia. Kamboja and Gandhara formed the twentieth and richest strapy of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus I is said to have destroyed the famous Kamboja city called Kapisi (modern Begram) in Paropamisade.
The Aśvakas 
The Kambojas were famous in ancient times for their excellent breed of horses and as remarkable horsemen located in the Uttarapatha or north-west. They were constituted into military sanghas and corporations to manage their political and military affairs. The Kamboja cavalry offered their military services to other nations as well. There are numerous references to Kamboja having been requisitioned as cavalry troopers in ancient wars by outside nations.
It was on account of their supreme position in horse (Ashva) culture that the ancient Kambojas were also popularly known as Ashvakas, i.e. horsemen. Their clans in the Kunar and Swat valleys have been referred to as Assakenoi and Aspasioi in classical writings, and Ashvakayanas and Ashvayanas in Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi.
The Kambojas were famous for their horses and as cavalry-men (aśva-yuddha-Kuśalah), Aśvakas, 'horsemen', was the term popularly applied to them... The Aśvakas inhabited Eastern Afghanistan, and were included within the more general term Kambojas.—K.P.Jayswal
Elsewhere Kamboja is regularly mentioned as "the country of horses" (Asvanam ayatanam), and it was perhaps this well-established reputation that won for the horsebreeders of Bajaur and Swat the designation Aspasioi (from the Old Pali aspa) and assakenoi (from the Sanskrit asva "horse").
Alexander's Conflict with the Kambojas 
The Kambojas entered into conflict with Alexander the Great as he invaded Central Asia. The Macedonian conqueror made short shrifts of the arrangements of Darius and after over-running the Achaemenid Empire he dashed into Afghanistan. There he encountered incredible resistance of the Kamboja Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes.
These Ashvayana and Ashvakayana clans fought the invader to a man. When worse came to worst, even the Ashvakayana Kamboj women took up arms and joined their fighting husbands. Diodorus gives a graphic account how the Ashvakayanas conducted themselves when faced with the sudden onslaught from Alexander:
Undismayed by the greatness of their danger, the Ashvakayanas drew their ranks together in the form of a ring within which they placed their women and children to guard them on all sides against their assailants. As they had now become desperate, and by their audacity and feats of valour, made the conflict in which they closed, hot work for the enemy—great was the astonishment and alarm which the peril of the crisis had created. For, as the combatants were locked together fighting hand-to-hand, death and wounds were dealt round in every variety of form. While many were thus wounded, and not a few killed, the women, taking the arms of the fallen, fought side by side with their men. Accordingly, some of them who had supplied themselves with arms, did their best to cover their husbands with their shields, while the others, who were without arms, did much to impede the enemy by flinging themselves upon them and catching hold of their shields. The defenders, however, after fighting desperately along with their wives, were at last overpowered by superior numbers, and thus met a glorious death which they would have disdained to exchange for the life of dishonour
The Ashvakas fielded 30,000 strong cavalry, 30 elephants and 20,000 infantry against Alexander.
The Ashvayans (Aspasioi) were also good cattle breeders and agriculturists. This is clear from the large number of bullocks, 230,000 according to Arrian, of a size and shape superior to what the Macedonians had known, that Alexander captured from them and decided to send to Macedonia for agriculture.
During the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, clans of the Kambojas from north Afghanistan in alliance the with Sakas, Pahlavas and the Yavanas entered India, spread into Sindhu, Saurashtra, Malwa, Rajasthan, Punjab and Surasena, and set up independent principalities in western and south-western India. Later, a branch of the same people took Gauda and Varendra territories from the Palas and established the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal in Eastern India.
In their advance from their original home one branch of the Kamboja allied with the Sakas and Pahlavas, had proceeded to Sindhu, Sauvira and Saurashtra, while the other branch, allied with the Yavanas, appears to have moved to Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
There are references to the hordes of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, and Pahlavas in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana. In these verses one may see glimpses of the struggles of the Hindus with the invading hordes from the north-west. The invading hordes from the north-west entered Punjab, Sindhu, Rajasthan and Gujarat in large numbers, wrested political control of northern India from the Indo-Aryans and established their respective kingdoms as independent rulers in the land of the Indo-Aryans, as also attested by the Mahabharata as well as the Kalki Purana. There is literary as well as inscriptional evidence supporting the Yavana and Kamboja overlordship in Mathura in Uttar Pradesh. The royal family of the Kamuias mentioned in the Mathura Lion Capital are believed to be linked to the royal house of Taxila in Gandhara. The Maitraka Dynasty of Saurashtra, in all probability, belonged to the Kambojas, who had settled down in south-western India around the beginning of the Christian era. In the medieval era, the Kambojas are known to have seized north-west Bengal (Gauda and Radha) from the Palas of Bengal and established their own Kamboja-Pala Dynasty. Indian texts like Markandeya Purana, Vishnu Dharmottari Agni Purana, Garuda Purana, Arthashastra of Barhaspatya and Brhatsamhita of Vrahamihira attest Kamboja references in south-western and southern India. The inscriptions of the medieval rulers of Vijayanagara of southern India also attest a Kamboja kingdom abutting on the borders of the Vijayanagara Empire, which may indicate that there was a Kamboja kingdom near Gujarat. Some Buddhist inscriptions found in the Pal caves, located about a mile north-west of Mhar in Raigad district of Maharashtra, contain a reference to a chief of a Kamboj dynasty, Prince Vishnupalita Kambhoja, as ruling in Kolaba (near Bombay) probably around the 2nd century CE.
The Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, Pahlavas etc. were foreign tribes from the west but were absorbed among the Kshatriyas in Indian population.
Sri Lanka 
There are several ancient inscriptional references found in Rohana province, Sri Lanka, belonging to the 2nd century BCE which may indicate Kamboja presence in various parts of Sri Lanka in the late centuries BCE and mention a Kamboja Sangha as well as "grand Kamboja guilds" located in the island, thus indicating that the Kambojas had also migrated to Sri Lanka before 1 CE. The Sihalavatthu, a Pali text of about the 4th century CE, also attests a group of people called Kambojas living in Rohana province in southern Sri Lanka.
Eastern Kambojas 
A branch of Kambojas seems to have migrated eastwards towards Tibet in the wake of Kushana (1st century) or else Huna (5th century) pressure and hence their notice in the chronicles of Tibet ("Kam-po-tsa, Kam-po-ce, Kam-po-ji") and Nepal (Kambojadesa). The 5th-century Brahma Purana mentions the Kambojas around Pragjyotisha and Tamraliptika.
The Kambojas of ancient India are known to have been living in north-west, but in this period (9th century AD), they are known to have been living in the north-east India also, and very probably, it was meant Tibet.
Later these Kambojas appear to have moved towards Assam from where they may have invaded Bengal during the Pala Empire and wrested north-west Bengal from them. The Buddhist text Sasanavamsa also attests the Kambojas in or around Assam. These Kambojas had made a first bid to conquer Bengal during the reign of king Devapala (810–850) but were repulsed. A later attempt was successful when they were able to deprive the Palas of the suzerainty over northern and western Bengal and set up a Kamboja dynasty in Bengal towards the middle of the 10th century.
Mauryan period 
Chandragupta Maurya's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, as referred to in the Mudrarakshas play Visakhadutta and the Jain work Parisishtaparvan, gave him an army made up of Yavanas, Kambojas, Sakas, Kiratas, Parasikas (Persians) and Bahlikas (Bactrians). With the help of these warlike clans from the north-west frontier, whom Justin brands as "a band of robbers", Chandragupta managed to defeat, upon Alexander's death, the Macedonian satraps of Punjab and Afghanistan and the Nanda ruler of Magadha, thereby laying the foundations of a powerful Maurya Empire in northern and north-western India.
The Kambojas find prominent mention as a unit in the 3rd-century BCE Edicts of Ashoka. Rock Edict XIII tells us that the Kambojas had enjoyed autonomy under the Mauryas. The republics mentioned in Rock Edict V are the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Nabhakas and the Nabhapamkitas. They are designated as araja. vishaya in Rock Edict XIII, which means that they were kingless, i.e. republican polities. In other words, the Kambojas formed a self-governing political unit under the Maurya emperors.
Ashoka sent missionaries to the Kambojas to convert them to Buddhism, and recorded this fact in his Rock Edict V. Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa attest that Ashoka sent missionaries to Yona, Kashmir and Gandhara to preach among the Yonas, Gandharas and Kambojas. The Sasanavamsa attests that a missionary went to Yonaka country and "established Buddha's Sasana in the lands of the Kambojas and other countries" Due to the efforts of Ashoka and his envoys the Zoroastrian as well as Hindu Kambojas appear to have embraced Buddhism in large numbers.
Modern Descendants 
The Kafirs of Kafiristan (modern Nurestan) once occupied a wider region before the pressure of events squeezed them into their present narrow valleys. They or some earlier ethnic type on which they become superimposed, may have been the Kambhojas and the Alinas of the Vedas whose offshoots were probably the tribes encountered by Alexander in Kunar, Bajaur and Swat. Among the Greek writers Arrian refers to them as Assakenoi and Aspasioi. These names are associated with the old Aryan word for horse (asva) and that the horse's head is still recognized as a sacred symbol by these Kafir remnants.—The Pakistan review, 1962
The Kamboj tribe of the Greater Punjab and the Kom and Kata of the Siah-Posh tribe in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan are believed by scholars to represent some of the modern descendants of the Kambojas. The modern Kamboj are estimated to number around 1.5 million, while other descendants of the Kambojas have merged with other castes of the Indian sub-continent like the Khatris, Rajputs, Jats, Arain and others.
The Kambojs, by tradition, are divided into fifty-two and eighty-four clans. The fifty-two clans are said to be descendants of a cadet branch and the eighty-four from the elder branch. This division is said to have originated with the younger and elder military divisions under which the Kambojas had fought the Kurukshetra War. Numerous clan names overlap with those of other kshatriyas and the Rajput castes of the north-west India, suggesting that some of the kshatriya and Rajput clans of the north-west have descended from the ancient Kambojas.
See also 
- Dwivedi 1977: 287 "The Kambojas were probably the descendants of the Indo-Iranians popularly known later on as the Sassanians and Parthians who occupied parts of north-western India in the first and second centuries of the Christian era."
- Law 1924
- Mishra 1987
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe. The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1962, p 264,
- "Political History of Ancient India", H. C. Raychaudhuri, B. N. Mukerjee, University of Calcutta, 1996.
- See: Vedic Index of names & subjects by Arthur Anthony Macdonnel, Arthur. B Keath, I.84, p 138.
- See more Refs: Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain; The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.)
- Marrī, Munīr Aḥmad (1989) Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt. Ko'iṭah: Goshah-yi Adab (in Urdu)
- India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311
- A. B. Keith and A. A. Macdonnel, the authors of the Vedic Index
- India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311.
- Das Volk Der Kamboja bei Yaska, First Series of Avesta, Pahlavi and Ancient Persian Studies in honour of the late Shams-ul-ulama Dastur Peshotanji Behramji Sanjana, Strassberg & Leipzig, 1904, pp 213 ff, Ernst Kuhn; The Language of the Kambojas, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society 1911, pp 801-02; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256; Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, p 256, D. C. Sircar; Journal Asiatique, CCXLVI 1958, I, pp 47-48, E. Benveniste; Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda, Persica-9, 1980, fn 81, p 114, Michael Witzel; The Afghans (Peoples of Asia), 2001, p 127, also Index, W. J. Vogelsang and Willem Vogelsang; Also Fraser 1979; History of India, Vol. I, R. Thapar 1961/1997: p 276;
- A History of Zoroastrianism, 1975-, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet, Roger Beck
- Frye 1984, p. 154
- Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 34, Moti Chandra - India; The Achaemenids in India, 1950, p 27, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya; Indo-iranica, 1946, p iii, Iran Society (Calcutta, India)
- Ref: La vieille route de l'Inde de Bactres à Taxila, p 271, Alfred A. Foucher.
- In Huet 2008 "Kamboja" is more precisely defined as "Clan royal Kamboja des Śakās" (Kamboja, a royal clan of the Sakas)
- See ref: "A bilingual Graeco-Aramaic edict by Aśoka: the first Greek inscription discovered in Afghanistan", 1964, p 17, Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni Garbini - Aśoka, India, Published by Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo Oriente, 1964
- Thion 1993, p. 51
- Walker and Tapp 2001
- Cf: Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute - India; cf: Notes on Indo-Scythian chronology, Journal of Indian History, xii, 21; Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, S. Konow; Cf: History of Indian Administration, p 94, B. N. Puri.
- IMPORTANT NOTE: Indian Epic Mahabharata (See: Mahabharata 5.19.21-23; See also: "The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, F. E. Pargiter, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) states that Kamboja ruler Sudakshina Kamboj marshaled and led an Akshuni army of warriors which, besides the Kambojas, also comprised a strong contingent from the Sakas (or Scythians). This fact clearly proves that the Sakas, in general, were subservient to the Kamboja ruler Sudakshina Kamboj and that Sudakshina's clan was ruling over the Sakas. Thus the epic evidence suggests that the Kambojas were indeed a royal or ruling Scythian clan and the Scythians formed an indispensable part of the Kamboja army. Furthermore, the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions connect Kharaosta Kamuia (a Kamboja) and his daughter Aiyasi Kamuia, chief queen of the Scythian Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, to the imperial house ruling in Taxila (See: Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions, Edition 1991, p 36, Sten Konow)
- See Rock Edict 13, 30 (see Bloch).
- The Kamboja Janapada, January 1964, Purana, Vol VI, No 1, V. S. Aggarwala, p 229; Jataka edited by Fausboll, Vol VI, p 210.
- Nirukuta II/2
- Patanjali's Mahaabhaa. sya is p. 9, in Vol. 1 Kielhorn's Edition
- The Language of the Kambojas, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1911, p 802, G. A. Grierson
- Persica, 9, 1980, p 92, Michael Witzel.
- Witzel 2000
- Oberlies 2001, p.7
- Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256, G. A. Grierson; Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, p 256, D. C. Sircar; Journal Asiatique, CCXLVI 1958, I, pp 47-48, E. Benveniste; A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, 1989, p 10, fn 1, M. A. Dandamaev, W. J. Vogelsang; 'K etimologii drevnepersidskikh imen', Etimologija 1965, Moscow, 1967, p 288ff, V. I. Abaev
- Witzel 1999b, p. 5
- The Afghans (Peoples of Asia), 2001, p 127, also Index, W. J. Vogelsang and Willem Vogelsang; Also Fraser 1979
- Boardman et al. 1988, p. 199
- "Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda", Persica-9, 1980, fn 81, p 114, Michael Witzel who however, locates the Kambojas in Arachosia and Kandhahar
- The History of Indian Literature, 2005 edition, p 178, Albrecht Weber - Sanskrit literature
- Karttunen, 1989, p. 225
- Bongard-Levin 1985, p. 120
- Cf: A View of the History, Literature, and Mythology of the Hindoos, 1818, p 559, William Ward
- Ref: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118; cf: Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 455-56, G. A. Grierson; cf: History and archaeology of India's contacts with other countries, from earliest times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana - Social Science
- Sethna, K. D. (2000) Problems of Ancient India, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-7742-026-7
- Geographical data in the early Purāṇas: a critical study, 1972, p 164 sqq, M. R. Singh - History; Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, pp 93-96, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
- Scholars like H. C. Raychaudhury, B. C. Law locate Kamboja from South-west Kashnmir (Abhisara, Rajauri/Poonch) to Kafiristan in Hindukush (See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 132 sqq, H. C. Chaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; The History and Culture of the Indian People: The age of imperial unity, 1969, p 15, Editors Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti - India).
- Scholars like V. S. Aggarwala etc locate the Kamboja country in Pamirs and Badakshan (Ref: A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews.., 1953, p 48, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1963, p 38, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India; The North-west India of the Second Century B.C., 1974, p 40, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan - Greeks in India; The Greco-Sunga period of Indian history, or, the North-West India of the second century B.C, 1973, p 40, India) and the Parama Kamboja further north, in the Trans-Pamirian territories (See: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala).
- And many scholars like Vladimirovich Gankovskiĭ, Haroon Rashid etc locate Kamboja confederation from south-west Kashmir (Rajaurri) to Kafiristan, Kabul, Ghazni and extending as far as Kandhahar (See: The Peoples of Pakistan: An Ethnic History, 1971, pp 64-67, I︠U︡riĭ Vladimirovich Gankovskiĭ - Ethnology; History of the Pathans, 2002, p 11, Haroon Rashid - Pushtuns).
- Sircar says that Kamboja lay roughly to the east and south of Bahlika country, and to the west of Pancala (western Punjab and southern Kashmir) and also comprised Peshawr-Hazara in western Pakistan and Kafiristan-Kandhahar in Afghanistan, including tribal territories lying between the two (See: Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1990, p 203, Dineschandra Sircar; Also: Cosmography and geography in early Indian literature, 1967, p 109, Dineschandra Sircar - Indic literature).
- Michael Witzel also extends Kamboja including the Kapisa and Kabul valleys to Arachosia/Kandahar (See: Persica-9, p 92, fn 81. Michael Witzel).
- Historical and Cultural Chronology of Gujarat, 1960, p 43, Manjulal Ranchholdlal Majmudar
- Sarkar, 1987, p. 43
- History of Dharmaśāstra: (ancient and Mediæval Religious and Civil Law), 1930, p 13, Pandurang Vaman Kane, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, India.(Bombay)
- Lamotte 1988, p. 106
- Mahabharata 6.9.63-65, Mahabharata 12.201.40, Mahabharata 12.65.12-15. See also: Indian Caste, 1877, p 266, John Wilson; Original Sanskrit Texts, I, p 180.
- Majjhima Nikaya 43.1.3
- 2nd century CE according to Freedom, Progress and Society: Essays in honor of K. Satchidananda Murty, 1966, p 109, B. Subramanian, K. Satchidananda).
- Quoted in: Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 256, by India Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.
- , Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1979
- Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 351, Buddha Prakash; Cultural Heritage of India, p 625, Debala Mitra; Indological Studies, 1950, p 78, Bimala Churn Law.
- Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 84, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India); Indian studies: past & present, 1964, p 365, Indo-Aryan philology; Maurya and Post-Maurya Art: A Study in Social and Formal Contrasts, 1975, p 36, Niharranjan Ray.
- Cf: The Śikh Gurus and the Śikh Society: A Study in Social Analysis, 1975, p 139, Niharranjan Ray.
- Jataka, VI, p 110, Trans. E. B. Cowell; cf: Videvati XIV.5-6; cf: Herodotus I.140; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256, G. A. Grierson.
- Vamsa Brahmana verses 18-19.
- v 1. 102. 9.
- Trans of Rig Veda, III,113, Ludwig; Alt-Indisches Leben, p 102, H. Zimmer; History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, p 260, R. C. Majumdar, A. D. Pusalkar; Bhandarkar Oriental Series, 1939, p 1, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; The Geographical Observer, p 96, Meerut College Geographical Society; Location of Kamboja, Purana, Vol VI No1, January 1964 pp 212-213
- Dialectics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, pp 59, 133, Bhupendranātha Datta
- Purana, Vol VI, No 1, January 1964, p 212.13
- Literary History of Ancient India, 1952, Chandra Chakraverty
- The Society of the Rāmāyaṇa, 1991, p 88, Ananda W. P. Guruge; ; The Racial History of India - 1944, p 810,Chandra Chakraberty; Aspects of Sanskrit Literature, 1976, P 71, Sushil Kumar De; see also: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 290-291, Nanimadhab Chaudhuri.
- The Racial History of India - 1944, Chandra Chakraberty
- Tribes in Ancient India, 1943, p 1, B. C. Law; Indological Studies, 1950, p 7, B. C. Law; The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1962, p 264, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, K. M. Munshi
- Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India, 1874, p 356; Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India, 1860, pp 368-370, John Muir; H. C. Raychaudhuri, B. N. Mukerjee, University of Calcutta; National Geographer, 1977, p 60, Allahabad Geographical Society - Geography.
- (Mahabharata 7.12.43-44)
- Paraskara Grhya-sutram Verse 2.1.2, Commentary: Pt Harihar.
- Ch. 95, verse 18; see also: Vedic Index, Vol 1(Hindi Translation), page 138 , A. A. Keith, Arthur Berridale; Iranians and Greeks in Ancient Panjab, 1973' p 3, fn 15, D. C. Sircar
- See: Dielectrics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, pp 59/60, Bhupindranath Datta; See also: Hindu Law of Inheritance-- An Anthropological Study, 1957, p 3
- Mahabharata 12.167.1-87 (Vulgo edition); Mahabharata 12.161.1-87 (Critical edition)).
- See also: Sabha Parava, Udyoga Parva, Bhishma Parva, Drona Parva, Karna Parva, Shalya Parva sections of the Mahabharata.
- Mahabharata 7.12.43-44.
- Ashtadhyayi IV.1.168-177. Ashtadhyayi, Trans: R. M. Sharma, 1999, p. 148.
- Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi, 4.1.168-177
- The Astadhyayi of Pāṇini, 1999, p 148/149, Literary Collections.
- History of the Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D., 2001, p 136/137, P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar
- Singh et al. 1990, p. 67
- Journal of the Assam Research Society, 1983, p 91, Kāmarūpa Anusandhāna Samiti
- Encyclopaedia Indica, "The Kambojas: Land and its Identification", First Edition, 1998 New Delhi, page 528
- Mahabharata verses (12/201/40), (6/11/63-64), 5/5/15, 5/159/20 etc
- Kirfels text of Uttarapatha countries of Bhuvankosha
- Brahama Purana 27/44-53, Vayu Purana 45/115; Brahmanda Purana 12/16-46; Vamana Purana 13/37
- Ashoka's Rock Edicts, V and XIII
- Mahabharata 2/27/23-25
- Numerous scholars now locate the Kamboja realm on the southern side of the Hindu Kush ranges (in the Kabul, Swat, and Kunar valleys) and the Parama-Kambojas in the territories on the north side of the Hindu Kush. See: Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 11-13, Moti Chandra - India; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165/66, M. R. Singh
- Purana, Vol VI, No 1, January 1964, p 207 sqq; Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury - Inscriptions, Prakrit).
- The Peoples of Pakistan: An Ethnic History, 1971, pp 64-67, Yuri Vladimirovich Gankovski - Ethnology.
- History of the Pathans, 2002, p 11, Haroon Rashid - Pushtuns.
- Michael Witzel Persica-9, p 92, fn 81.
- J. C. Vidyalanakara, V. S. Aggarwala, K. C. Mishra, J. L. Kamboj
- Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, pp 93-96, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
- Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 100, D. C. Sircar.
- Mandal and Sinha 1980, p. 57
- See: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, J. C. Vidyalankara
- The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
- Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIII, 1937, No 3, p. 400; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 37, (India) Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asia; cf: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 176, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana; Mahabharata Myth and Reality, 1976, p 232, Swarajya Prakash Gupta, K. S. Ramachandran. Cf also: India and Central Asia, p 25 etc, P. C. Bagchi.
- Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters, 1885, pp 268-69, (Alexandrinus Claudius Ptolemy), Trans. John Watson McCrindle; Indian Studies, V-7, p 386, Indo-Aryan philology).
- Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 403; Central Asiatic provinces of the Maurya Empire, p403, H.C. Seth
- History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 152, Shashi Asthana; Mahabharata Myth and Reality, 1976, p 232, Swarajya Prakash Gupta, K. S. Ramachandran.
- "The Town of Darwaz in Badakshan is sill called Khum (Kum) or Kala-i-Khum. It stands for the valley of Basht. The name Khum or Kum conceals the relics of ancient Kamboja" (Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Buddha Prakash [Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal]).
- Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Xuanzang (Hsüan-tsang), Trans. Samuel Beal.
- the Tartary region north of the Oxus, i.e., the southern tip of the Saka-dvipa of the Puranas.
- India and the World, p 71, Buddha Prakash; also see: Central Asiatic Provinces of Maurya Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth; India and Central Asia, p 25, P. C. Bagchi
- Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal.
- Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters... 1885, p 268, John Watson McCrindle - Geography, Ancient
- Talbert 2000, p. 99
- Geography 6.18.3; See map in McCrindle, p 8.
- For Tambyzoi=Kamboja, see refs: Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Sylvain Lévi, Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye
- Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1956, p 37; Purana, Vol VI, No 2, January 1964, pp 207-208; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 88, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal); Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165, M. R. Singh; Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, p 96, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 38, Moti Chandra - India; Journal asiatique, 1923, p 54, Société asiatique (Paris, France), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France) - Oriental philology
- Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold
- Lalye 1985, p. 133
- For Ambautai=Kamboja, see Witzel 1999a
- Patton and Bryant 2005, p. 257
- The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy; Linguistic Aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory, Part I, Koenraad Elst, ; "The official pro-invasionist argument at last, A review of the Aryan invasion arguments" in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia, Koenraad Elst, .
- Geography 6.18.3; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p 199; Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters, 1885, p 268, John Watson McCrindle - Geography, Ancient.
- The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 403; Central Asiatic Provinces of Maurya Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth.
- Vedic Index I, p 138, Macdonnel, Keith.
- Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata–1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain.
- The Journal of Asian Studies–1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.).
- India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī–1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
- Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet.
- Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.
- Iran, 1956, p 53, Herbert Harold Vreeland, Clifford R. Barnett.
- Geogramatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Revisions of the Best Books..., 1953, p 49, Peggy Melcher, A. A. McDonnel, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackmangel, V. S. Agarwala.
- Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 33, Moti Chandra - India.
- A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the ..., 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India.
- Political and social movements in ancient Panjab (from the Vedic age upto [sic] the Maurya period), 1964, pp 105/06, 126, Buddha Prakash - Punjab (India); Paradise of Gods, 1966, p 323, Qamarud Din Ahmed.
- A Study of History, Vol. VII (London, 1961), Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Edward DeLos Myers, Royal Institute of International Affairs.
- Singh 1996, p. 43
- Toynbee also writes: "...the occurrence of the two names in Transcaucasia as well as in and near India—and in Transcaucasia at close quarters—indicates that we have here two more names of Eurasian Nomad peoples who took part, and this in one another's company, in the Volkerwanderung of eighth and seventh centuries B.C; and, if, like so many of their fellows, these Kurus and Kambojas split into two wings whose paths diverged so widely, it does not seem unwarrantable to guess that a central detachment of this pair of migrating peoples may have found its way to Luristan and there have been taken into partnership by Kurus I's father Cispis" (Op cit, p 653).
- "Kambujiy-a (Cambyses), Kambujiy-ahya (Cambysis), Kambujiy-am (Cambysem), Kabujiy-a (Cambyse). This is the true vernacular orthography of name which was written Cambyses by the Greeks and Kavaus in Zend and which in Arabic and modern Persian has given birth to the forms of Kabus and Kavus or Kaus. From the name of a king of this name was derived the geographical title of Kamboja which retained to this day in the Kambyses was derived the geographical title of Kamboja (Sanskrit), which is retained to present days in the Kamoj of Cafferstan, became also by a regular orthographical procession Kabus, Kabur and Kabul... The Persian historians do not seem to be aware that the name Kabus, which was borne by the Dilemite sovereigns, is the same with the Kaus of Romance; yet the more ancient form of Kaubus or Kabuj for latter name renders the identification also most certain. The Georgians, even to the present day, name the hero of romance Kapus still retaining the labial which has merged in the Persian Kaus... It can be hardly doubted that Zend Avestan alludes to Cambyses the elder, and Cyrus the Great, under the name of Kai-Kaus and Kai Khusro; but the actual forms under which the names are expressed, Kava-Uc and Hucarava, are to be adoptions of the Sassanian age... The native kings of Persis, agreeably to the usual system of oriental nomenclature, appear for several generations to have borne the alternative names of Cyrus and Cambyses. The two immediate ancestors of Cyrus the Great are named Cambyses and Cyrus by Herodotus and according to a doubtful passage of Diodorus Siculus preserved by Photius there was still another Cambyses, the fifth in ascent from the Kambujiya of the Inscriptions (See: Herodotus lib. I. c III and Phot. Bibilioth. p 1158 (Ed. And. Schot.)" (See: Memoir on Cuneiform Inscription, 1849,p 97-98, Cuneiform inscriptions; Also: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume XI, Part 1, 1849, Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson-- Re-Published 1990, pp 97-98, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal Asiatic Society [etc.]; See also: Yacna, p 438, sqq., M. Burnouf.
- Cambysene/Cambyses (Kamboja, modern Jori or Jora) and Cyrus/Kyros (Kuru, modern Kura) as place names/river names were anciently located in Armenia Major (See: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 1878, pp 488/489, 737, William Smith - Classical geography.; The Geography of Ananias of Širak, 1992, pp 146, Robert H. Hewsen, Anania Shirakatsʻi, Moses; Strabo XI. 14.4; Histoires, 2002, p 90, Ammianus Marcellinus, Edouard Galletier, Jacques Fontaine, Guy Sabbah, Edmond Frézouls, J.-D. Berger, Marie-Anne Marié, Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle; Revue des études arméniennes, 1985, pp 71-72, Société des études armeniennes, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian). The modern Republic of Georgia is located on River Kura (See: Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Inc, Merriam-Webster).
- For Cyrus/Kyros=Kuru/Kura, Kurush, and Cambyses/Cambysene=Kamboja, Kambujiya See: Erânische Alterthumskunde, 1871, pp 442, 496, Friedrich Spiegel; The New Werner Twentieth Century Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, 1907, p 648; Histoires, 2002, p 90 Ammianus Marcellinus, Eng Trans: Edouard Galletier, Jacques Fontaine, Guy Sabbah, Edmond Frézouls, J.-D. Berger, Marie-Anne Marié, Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle.
- Ptolemy Geog. vi. 2. § 1; Ammianus Marcellinus xxiii. 6; A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 1878, p 489, William Smith - Classical geography.
- Classical Dictionary of Geography, Mythology and Geography, p 141, William Smith.
- Uttarakuru and the (Parama)-Kamboja located in Trans-Himalaya i.e. north of Hindukush/Karakoram (See Mahabharata 2, Chapters 26/27, Trans: Kisari Mohan Ganguli.
- Kamboja of SW Kashmir/NW Punjab (Mahabharata 7.4.5) and Kuru of the Kurukshetra, east Punjab. Place name Kura, reminding of Kuru, is also found in Salt-range, Punjab which contains 6th-century inscription of emperor Toramana, end of the 5th century CE. (See: Buddhist Sects in India, 1998, p 55, Nalinaksha Dutt).
- Epitome, xi.
- See also: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 1878, p 489, William Smith - Classical geography.
- Chaumont 2005
- Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorum quae supersunt, Berlin, 1849, p. 351, (s.v. Kambysēnē), A. Meineke, ed.
- Dandamayev 2005
- The Persian Empire: Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East, 1968, p 345, Ernst Herzfeld, Gerold Walser.
- The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, 1907, p 648; Eranische Alterthumskunde, Vol II, p 294; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel - Old Persian inscriptions; Zur Erklärung des Avesta, Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1872, p 716, Von Fr. Spiegel- Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft - Oriental philology.
- C. Chakravarty, pp 32-33, Cf: "The Achaemenids were Kamboja-Kuru Scythian people on the base of Parsa ('Khatti-Puru') tribe. It was a marvelous racial blend and their culture was a similar good synthesis...." (The Racial History of India, 1944, p 225, Chandra Chakraberty; See also: Paradise of Gods–1966, p 330, Qamarud Din Ahmed); Cf: "It seems therefore, that the Achaemenidae were mixed with the Scythian Kuru-Kambojas with the Alpine base Khatti-Purus (who became known as Parsa)" (See: The Racial History of India, 1944, p 153, Chandra Chakraberty).
- Referring to the names "Kambysene" and "Kambyses" the 19th-century German scholar Friedrich Spiegel speculated that the Iranian Kambojas had moved from the Indus region taking the name Kamboja with them and lent it to the regions and rivers north-west of Iran. Ref: Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1872, p 716, Friedrich Spiegel, Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft - Oriental philology; Cf: Erânische Alterthumskunde, 1871, p 442, Friedrich Spiegel - Iran. Cambyses was said to have been the sacred river Champsis of the Scythians before they went to the north Caucasus isthmus via Caspian and Nlanytsch. See: The Deluged Civilization of the Caucasus Isthmus, Chapter 11, The Egyptian and Aryan Home-lands, section 12, Reginald Aubrey Fessendan.
- Mahabharata 5.19.21); See also: The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, F. E. Pargiter.
- Early Zoroastrianism, 2005, Page 45, James Hope Moulton; Zoroastrian and Israel, The Thinker: A Review of World-wide Christian Thought, 1892, p 490, fn, Theology.
- Ptolemy's Geography mentions Tambyzoi located in eastern Bactria (Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters ... 1885, p 268, John Watson McCrindle - Geography, Ancient; Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, History - 2000, p 99,(Editors) Richard J.A. Talbert) and Ambautai people located to south of Hindukush Mountains(Geography 6.18.3; See map in McCrindle, p 8). Dr S Levi has identified Tambyzoi with Kamboja (Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services) while land of Ambautai has also been identified by Dr Michael Witzel (Harvard University) with Sanskrit Kamboja (Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, Vol. 5,1999, issue 1 (September), Dr. M. Witzel; Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, 2005, p 257, Laurie L. Patton, Edwin Bryant; The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy.
- MBH VII.4.5; II.27.23.
- See: Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 5-6; cf: Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, p 168.
- MBH II.27.27.
- MBH 7/91/39.
- Arthashastra 11/1/4.
- Ashtadhyayi IV.1.168-175.
- Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, Parts I and II., 1955, p 52, Dr Kashi Prasad Jayaswal - Constitutional history; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja - Kamboja (Pakistan).
- The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103
- Hindu Polity, 1978, pp 121, 140, K. P. Jayswal.
- Shakati-Sangam-Tantra, 'Shatpanchashadddeshavibhag', Verse 24.
- India in Early Greek Literature: academic dissertation, 1989, p 225, Klaus Karttunen - Greek literature.
- History, Literature and Religion of the Hindus, 1820, p 451; A View of the History, Literature, and Mythology of the Hindus, 1818, p 559, William Ward - India.
- The Social and Military Position of the Ruling Caste in Ancient India, 1889, p 257, Edward Washburn Hopkins; Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1889, p 257, American Oriental Society - Oriental philology.
- Kautiliya's Arathashastra 4.1.1-4.
- Mahabharata 7.91.39-40.
- War in Ancient India, 1944, p 178, V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar - Military art and science.
- The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; The Achaemenids in India, 1950, p 47, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya; Poona Orientalist: A Quarterly Journal Devoted to Oriental Studies, 1945, P i, (edi) Har Dutt Sharma; The Poona Orientalist, 1936, p 13, Sanskrit philology; Tribes in Ancient India, 1943, p 4, B. C. Law - Ethnology; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1949, p 103.
- Hindu Polity, Part I & II, 1978, pp 121, 140; K. P. Jayswal.
- "Par ailleurs le Kamboja est régulièrement mentionné comme la "patrie des chevaux" (Asvanam ayatanam), et cette reputation bien etablie gagné peut-etre aux eleveurs de chevaux du Bajaur et du Swat l'appellation d'Aspasioi (du v.-p. aspa) et d’assakenoi (du skt asva "cheval")". E. Lamotte, Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p. 110. (WP translation. Quotation should be taken from the published English translation: Lamotte 1988, p. 100)
- Essai sur les origines du mythe d'Alexandre: 336-270 av. J. C:, 1978, p 152, Paul Goukowsky; East and West, 1950, pp 28, 149/158, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo, Editor, Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors: Mario Bussagli, Lionello Lanciotti.
- History of Punjab, 1997, Editors: Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi
- The Pakistan review, 1962, p 15, Published by Ferozsons, History
- Glimpses of Ancient Panjab, 1966, p 23, Punjab (India); Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Buddha Parkash; Raja Poros, 1990, Publication Buareau, Punjabi University, Patiala; History of Poros, 1967, pp 12,39, Buddha Prakash; History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100 - History. J. W. McCrindle, Romila Thapar, R. C. Majumdar etc also think that Ashvakas were Kamboja people
- History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100 - History.
- East and West, 1950, pp 28, 157-58, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Editor, Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors Mario Bussagli, Lionello Lanciotti.
- Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10; also see: History of Porus, pp 12, 38, Buddha Parkash
- Proceedings, 1965, p 39, by Punjabi University. Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies - History.
- Diodorus in McCrindle, p 270
- Diodorus in McCrindle, p 269/270; Classical Accounts of India, p 112-113
- Arrian Anabasis Book 4b, Chapter 25, DEFEAT OF THE ASPASIANS, Trans E.J. Chinnock (1893).
- تاريخ قوم كمبوه: جديد تحقيق كى روشنى ميں , 1996, p 170, چوهدرى محمد يوسف حسن, Cauhdrī Muhammad Yusuf Hasan
- Acharya 2001, p 91
- Yadav and Gupta 1996, p. 173
- Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, p xxxvi and p 36, Sten Konow
- Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, M. R. Singh - India.
- History of Ceylon, 1959, p 91, Ceylon University, University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, Hem Chandra Ray, K. M. De Silva.
- Le Monde oriental, 1941, p 94, Kirfel; Bharatavarsa Bhuvankosa, 1931, pp 25, 29, 31, Kirfel
- Bhat 1981, p. 174
- Kautiliya's Arathashastra mentions the Kambojas and Surashtras as living by warfare and trade. The Petavathua mentions Dvaraka connected by direct road to country of Kambojas which the merchants from Kamboja used for a regular trade and the commentary identifies this Dvaraka with Dvarvati... These references suggest that the Gujarat settlement of Kambojas took place in the time either of the Yavana or the Saka invasions but unfortunately they do not provide enough material for a satisfactory decision of the point... It is very possible that it were the adventurers from this Gujarat settlement of the Kambojas who founded a short-lived dynasty bearing their name in tenth century, in north-west Bengal (Epi. Ind. XXII, 1933-34, pp 150ff) (Extracts taken from: Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1939, p 231.32); Cf also: Main Currents in the Ancient History of Gujarat, 1960, pp 1-68, Bhasker Anand Saletore, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Dept. of History - Gujarat (India).
- Pande (R.) 1984, p. 93
- Ramayana 1.54.21-23; 1.55.2-3.
- Shrava 1981, p. 12
- Journal, 1920, p 175, University of Calcutta. Department of Letters.
- Rishi, 1982, p. 100
- Indological Studies, 1950, p 32, B. C. Law; Political History of India from the Accession of Parikshit to the Coronation of Bimbisara, 1923, Page iii, Raychaudhury; Indological Studies, 1950, p 4, B. C. Law.
- Mahabharata 3.187.28-30.
- The Kalki Purana also states that Aryan India was under the overlordship of the Kambojas, Sakas, Khasaas and Mlechchas (See: Kalki Purana, Chapter 20/40 sqq; See also: Kalki Purana, 2004, pp 58, 60, 61, B K Chaturvedi.
- MBH 12/105/5, Kumbhakonam Ed. Cf: "Mathura was under outlandish people like the Yavanas and Kambojas... who had a special mode of fighting (Manu and Yajnavalkya, K. P. Jayswal; Cf: "Epic Mahabharata refers to the siege of Mathura by the Yavanas and Kambojas" (History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 153, Shashi Asthana); Also cf.: "Mahabharata reference mentions the Yavanas-Kambojas as settled in the outlying parts of Mathura city" (Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1926, p 11, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute - Indo-Aryan philology).
- See: Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, p xxxvi; see also p 36, Sten Konow; Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute; Cf: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 142, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - Middle East.
- Markandeya 58.30-32.
- V.D. I.9.6.
- Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 127
- Garuda Purana 1.15.13; Garuda Purana, Trans: Manmatha Nath Dutt, 1908, p 148
- Ed. F. W. Thomas, pp 20-22.
- Brhatsamhita 14/17-19.
- Indian Antiquary, 1893, p. 171, J. F. Fleet; Indo-Greek numismatics, 1970, 14, Richard Bertram Whitehead.
- Maharashtra State gazetteers, 1964, p 57, Maharashtra (India). Gazetteers Dept, Maharashtra (India); Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1883, Chapter VII, p 137, Bombay Presidency; Also see: Burgess' Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, X. 4, 9, 14, 15, 17. NOTE: Kanabhoja is same as Kambhoja=Kamboja, See Ibid. p 2
- History and Culture of Indian People, 1951, Vol-1, P 314, R. C. Majumdar, A. D. Pusalkar
- according to S Parnavitana, C. W. Nicholas
- Gota-Kabojhyana.......Archaeological Survey of Ceylon, Inscription Register No 316.
- Kabojhiya-Maha. Pugiyana...Archaeological Survey of Ceylon, Inscription Register No 1118.
- The third story of this text, called Metteyya-vatthu, reveals that the Elder named Maleyya was residing in Kamboja-gama, in the province of Rohana on the Island of Tambapanni (Sri Lanka)--S. Paranavitana. See: History of Ceylon, 1973, p xxxi, Hem Chandra Ray, K. M. De Silva - Sri Lanka.
- A Concise History of Ceylon: From the Earliest Times to the Arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, Edition 1961, p 25, Cyril Wace Nicholas, Senarat Paranavitana - Sri Lanka; Proceedings of the Pakistan History Conference, 1968, p 114, Pakistan Historical Society; Early History of Education in Ceylon: From Earliest Times to Mahāsena, 1969, U. D. Jayasekera - Education
- Collins 1998, p. 616
- Barnes and Parkin 2002, pp. 108-09
- Early History of Education in Ceylon: From Earliest Times to Mahāsena, 1969, p 153, U. D. Jayasekera - Education; The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia, 2003, p 206, Himanshu Prabha Ray - Business & Economics etc.
- Shastri and Choudhury 1982, p. 112
- B. C. Sen, Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p. 342, fn 1
- Vaidya 1986, p. 221
- Brahama Purana 53/16
- M. R. Singh, A Critical Study of the Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, p. 168
- Pala-Sena Yuger Vamsanucarita, p. 70
- Ganguly 1994, p. 72, fn 168
- H. C. Ray, The Dynastic History of Northern India, I, p. 309
- A. D. Pusalkar, R. C. Majumdar et al., History and Culture of Indian People, Imperial Kanauj, p. 323,
- R. R. Diwarkar (ed.), Bihar Through the Ages, 1958, p. 312
- Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha, Syed Hasan Askari, Comprehensive History of Bihar, 1974, p. 252
- Journal of Tamil Studies, 1985, p. 86-87
- International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 1984, p. 348
- Sasanavamsa (Pali Text Series), pp 64-65, 83 etc
- Mudrarakshasa II)
- H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; Asoka and His Inscriptions, 3d Ed, 1968, p 149, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
- Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc
- Bimbisāra to Aśoka: With an Appendix on the Later Mauryas, 1977, p 123, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya.
- The North-west India of the Second Century B.C., 1974, p 40, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan - India; Tribes in Ancient India, 1973, p 7, B. C. Law - Ethnology
- Anand 1996, p. 79
- Yar-Shater 1983, p. 951
- Sasanavamsa (P.T.S.), p. 49
- The Pakistan review, 1962, p 15, Published by Ferozsons.
- An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891, pp. 2, 146, 150, H. W. Bellew; Supplementary Glossary of Tribes, 1844, p 304, H. M. Ellot; The Tribes and Castes of North-western and Oudh, 1906, pp 119-120, 458, William Crooke; Report on the Settlement of Land Revenue of Sultanpur Distt. (With) Accompaniment; 1873, p 88, A. F. Millet; Die Holztempel Des Oberen Kulutales in Ihren Historischen, Religiosen Und Kunstgeschichtlichen ..., 1974, p 26, Gabriele Jettmar; Report on the settlement of the land revenue of the Sultánpur district. [With] Accompaniments, 1873, p 88, A F. Millett; Paradise of Gods, 1966, p 331, Qamarud Din Ahmed;
- Bhatia 1984, p. 50
- Problems of Indian Society, 1968, p 69, D. Bose; Bhartiya Itihaas ki Mimamsa, p 230, J. C. Vidyalankar; Bani Kanta Kakati Memorial Lecturers, p 21, Gauhati University; "India and the World", 1964, p 154, Buddha Prakash; Geographical Data in Early Purana, A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, M. R. Singh; Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 322, M. Choudhury; Early History of India, 1942, p 2, Roshan Rai; History of Poros, 1967, p 12, Buddha Prakash; Kirata-Kriti: The Indo-Mongloloids, Their Contribution to History and Culture of India, 1974, p 113, S. K. Chatterjee; Cf: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediæval history, 1881, 187, Rājendralāla Mitra; Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals, 1989, p 24, Parmanand Gupta
- Jindal 1992, p. 149
- تاريخ قوم كمبوه: جديد تحقيق كى روشنى ميں, چوهدرى محمد يوسف حسن, 1996, Cauhdrī Muḥammad Yūsuf Ḥasan; Folklore of the Punjab, 1971, p 7, Sohindara Singh Wanajārā Bedī; Cf: Inscriptions of A�soka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury etc.
- See refs: Mountstuart Elphinstone, "An account of the kingdom of Caubol", fn p 619; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1843, p 140; Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874, p 260 fn; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel; H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Banerjee; The Achaemenids and India, 1974, p 13, S. Chattopadhyaya.
- Cf: "There is an apparent trace of their [the Kambojas'] name in the Caumogees of Kaferistan, who may have retreated to the mountains before the advance of the Turk tribes" (H. H. Wilson). See fn 374:15:  .
- For reference to overlap of the Kamboj/Kshatriya clan names, see Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444, fn. iii.
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