The Kambojas (Sanskrit: कम्बोज, Kamboja; Persian: کمبوہ, Kambūh) were a Kshatriya tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature. Modern scholars conclude that the Kambojas were an Avestan speaking Eastern Iranian tribe who later settled in at the boundary of the ancient India. The Kambojas are classified as a Mleccha or barbarous tribe by the Vedic Inhabitants of India. Indologists believe that Kambojas have adopted Hinduism in a late Vedic Period.
- 1 Ethnicity and language
- 2 Origins
- 3 The Kambojan States
- 4 Migrations
- 5 Mauryan period
- 6 Modern Descendants
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Ethnicity and language
The ancient Kambojas may be related to the present-day Kamboj were an Indo-Iranian tribe. They are however, sometimes described as Indo-Aryans and sometimes as having both Indian and Iranian affinities. The Kambojas are also described as a royal clan of the Sakas.
The Bhishamaparava and Shantiparava in the Mahabharata indicate that the Kambojas were living in the north of India. Like other people of the Uttarapatha region, they are called mlechchas (barbarians) or asuras, lying outside the Indo-Aryan fold. Majjhima Nikaya reveals that in the lands of Yavanas, Kambojas and some other frontier nations, there were only two classes of people: Aryas and Dasas, the masters and slaves. The Arya could become Dasa and vice versa. This social organisation was completely alien to India, where a four-class social structure was prevalent.
Various ancient documents, such as the Vamsa Brahmana and Rig Veda, mention "Kamboja" in the context of the Indo-Aryan civilisation. These references have made various scholars argue that the Kambojas were Indo-Aryans and that in the early Vedic times they formed an important division of the Vedic Aryans.
Some versions of Matsya Purana  refer to name "Kamboja" as one of the Brahmana Gotras, having Bhargava, Chyavana, Aurva, Jamadagnya & Apnuvana as its Pravara---whereas the other versions substitute "Vatsa" for "Kamboja". Pt Bhupindranatha Datta observes that a Rsi from amongst the ancient Kamboja people had founded this "Kamboja" Gotra.
The earliest reference to the Kamboja is in the works of Pāṇini, around the 5th century BCE. Other pre-Common Era references appear in the Manusmriti (2nd century) and the Mahabharata (1st century), both of which described the Kambojas as former kshatriyas who had degraded through a failure to abide by Hindu sacred rituals. Their territories were located beyond Gandhara, which lay in the area of northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan, and the 3rd century BCE Edicts of Asoka refers to the area under Kamboja control as being independent of the Mauryan empire in which it was situated.
Some sections of the Kambojas crossed the Hindu Kush and planted Kamboja colonies in Paropamisadae and as far as Rajauri. The Mahabharata locates the Kambojas on the near side of the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Daradas, and the Parama-Kambojas across the Hindu Kush as neighbors to the Rishikas (or Tukharas) of the Ferghana region.
The confederation of the Kambojas may have stretched from the valley of Rajauri in the south-western part of Kashmir to the Hindu Kush Range; in the south–west the borders extended probably as far as the regions of Kabul, Ghazni and Kandahar, with the nucleus in the area north-east of the present day Kabul, between the Hindu Kush Range and the Kunar river, including Kapisa possibly extending from the Kabul valleys to Kandahar.
Others locate the Kambojas and the Parama-Kambojas in the areas spanning Balkh, Badakshan, the Pamirs and Kafiristan, or in various settlements in the wide area lying between Punjab, Iran and Balkh. and the Parama-Kamboja even farther north, in the Trans-Pamirian territories comprising the Zeravshan valley, towards the Farghana region, in the Scythia of the classical writers. The mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes is also suggested as the location of the ancient Kambojas.
The name Kamboja may derive from (Kam + bhuj), referring to the people of a country known as "Kum" or "Kam". The mountainous highlands where the Jaxartes and its confluents arise are called the highlands of the Komedes by Ptolemy. Ammianus Marcellinus also names these mountains as Komedas. The Kiu-mi-to in the writings of Hiuen Tsang have also been identified with the Komudha-dvipa of the Puranic literature and the Iranian Kambojas.
The two Kamboja settlements on either side of the Hindu Kush are also substantiated from Ptolemy's Geography, which refers to the Tambyzoi located north of the Hindu Kush on the river Oxus in Bactria, and the Ambautai people on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae. Scholars have identified both the Ptolemian Tambyzoi and Ambautai with Sanskrit Kamboja. Ptolemy also mentions a people called Khomaroi and Komoi in Sogdiana. The Ptolemian Komoi is a classical form of Kamboi (or Kamboika, from Pali Kambojika, Sanskrit Kamboja).
Theory of Origin - Eurasian Nomads
Some scholars believe that the Trans-Caucasian hydronyms and toponyms viz. Cyrus, Cambyses and Cambysene were due to tribal extension of the Iranian ethnics — the Kurus and Kambojas of the Indian texts, who according to them, had moved to the north of the Medes in Armenian Districts in remote antiquity. The Cambyses (Jora/Yori or Gori) was the sacred river Champsis of the Scythians before they went to the north Caucasus isthmus via Caspian and Nlanytsch.
But German scholar Friedrich Spiegel speculates that the Kambojas of the Kabul/Indus-land as mentioned in the Indian texts had originally migrated from Kambuja (Kambysene) of Transcaucasian Steppe (in Armenia and Albania). Chandra Chakraberty also theorizes that the Kambojas---the Kambohs of NW Panjab was a branch of the Scythian Cambysene from ancient Armenia.
As against the above, Buddha Prakash, S. Misra and others have done further research on this topic and have come to the conclusion that the Kurus and Kambojas were in fact, a Eurasian Nomads from the Central Asian Steppe who, as a composite horde, had entered Iran, Armenia, Anatolia as well as Indian Sub-continent through the passage between the Pamir mountains and the Caspian sea around 8th or 9th century BCE (or even earlier).
The Kambojan States
Kautiliya's Arthashastra and Ashoka's Edict No. XIII attest that the Kambojas followed a republican constitution. Pāṇini's Sutras tend to convey that the Kamboja of Pāṇini was a "Kshatriya monarchy", but "the special rule and the exceptional form of derivative" he gives to denote the ruler of the Kambojas implies that the king of Kamboja was a titular head (king consul) only.
The Kambojas were famous in ancient times for their excellent breed of horses and as remarkable horsemen located in the Uttarapatha or north-west. They were constituted into military sanghas and corporations to manage their political and military affairs. The Kamboja cavalry offered their military services to other nations as well. There are numerous references to Kamboja having been requisitioned as cavalry troopers in ancient wars by outside nations.
It was on account of their supreme position in horse (Ashva) culture that the ancient Kambojas were also popularly known as Ashvakas, i.e. horsemen. Their clans in the Kunar and Swat valleys have been referred to as Assakenoi and Aspasioi in classical writings, and Ashvakayanas and Ashvayanas in Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi.
The Kambojas were famous for their horses and as cavalry-men (aśva-yuddha-Kuśalah), Aśvakas, 'horsemen', was the term popularly applied to them... The Aśvakas inhabited Eastern Afghanistan, and were included within the more general term Kambojas.—K.P.Jayswal
Elsewhere Kamboja is regularly mentioned as "the country of horses" (Asvanam ayatanam), and it was perhaps this well-established reputation that won for the horsebreeders of Bajaur and Swat the designation Aspasioi (from the Old Pali aspa) and assakenoi (from the Sanskrit asva "horse").
Alexander's Conflict with the Kambojas
The Kambojas entered into conflict with Alexander the Great as he invaded Central Asia. The Macedonian conqueror made short shrifts of the arrangements of Darius and after over-running the Achaemenid Empire he dashed into Afghanistan. There he encountered incredible resistance of the Kamboja Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes.
These Ashvayana and Ashvakayana clans fought the invader to a man. When worse came to worst, even the Ashvakayana Kamboj women took up arms and joined their fighting husbands.
The Ashvakas fielded 30,000 strong cavalry, 30 elephants and 20,000 infantry against Alexander.
The Ashvayans (Aspasioi) were also good cattle breeders and agriculturists. This is clear from the large number of bullocks, 230,000 according to Arrian, of a size and shape superior to what the Macedonians had known, that Alexander captured from them and decided to send to Macedonia for agriculture.
During the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, clans of the Kambojas from north Afghanistan in alliance the with Sakas, Pahlavas and the Yavanas entered India, spread into Sindhu, Saurashtra, Malwa, Rajasthan, Punjab and Surasena, and set up independent principalities in western and south-western India. Later, a branch of the same people took Gauda and Varendra territories from the Palas and established the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal in Eastern India.
There are references to the hordes of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, and Pahlavas in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana. In these verses one may see glimpses of the struggles of the Hindus with the invading hordes from the north-west. The invading hordes from the north-west entered Punjab, Sindhu, Rajasthan and Gujarat in large numbers, wrested political control of northern India from the Indo-Aryans and established their respective kingdoms as independent rulers in the land of the Indo-Aryans, as also attested by the Mahabharata as well as the Kalki Purana. There is literary as well as inscriptional evidence supporting the Yavana and Kamboja overlordship in Mathura in Uttar Pradesh. The royal family of the Kamuias mentioned in the Mathura Lion Capital are believed to be linked to the royal house of Taxila in Gandhara. The Maitraka Dynasty of Saurashtra, in all probability, belonged to the Kambojas, who had settled down in south-western India around the beginning of the Christian era. In the medieval era, the Kambojas are known to have seized north-west Bengal (Gauda and Radha) from the Palas of Bengal and established their own Kamboja-Pala Dynasty. Indian texts like Markandeya Purana, Vishnu Dharmottari Agni Purana,
A branch of Kambojas seems to have migrated eastwards towards Tibet in the wake of Kushana (1st century) or else Huna (5th century) pressure and hence their notice in the chronicles of Tibet ("Kam-po-tsa, Kam-po-ce, Kam-po-ji") and Nepal (Kambojadesa). The 5th-century Brahma Purana mentions the Kambojas around Pragjyotisha and Tamraliptika.
The Kambojas of ancient India are known to have been living in north-west, but in this period (9th century AD), they are known to have been living in the north-east India also, and very probably, it was meant Tibet.—R.R. Diwarkar
Later these Kambojas appear to have moved towards Assam from where they may have invaded Bengal during the Pala Empire and wrested north-west Bengal from them. These Kambojas had made a first bid to conquer Bengal during the reign of king Devapala (810–850) but were repulsed. A later attempt was successful when they were able to deprive the Palas of the suzerainty over northern and western Bengal and set up a Kamboja dynasty in Bengal towards the middle of the 10th century.
The Kambojas find prominent mention as a unit in the 3rd-century BCE Edicts of Ashoka. Rock Edict XIII tells us that the Kambojas had enjoyed autonomy under the Mauryas. The republics mentioned in Rock Edict V are the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Nabhakas and the Nabhapamkitas. They are designated as araja. vishaya in Rock Edict XIII, which means that they were kingless, i.e. republican polities. In other words, the Kambojas formed a self-governing political unit under the Maurya emperors.
The Kamboj tribe of the Greater Punjab and the Kom and Kata of the Siah-Posh tribe in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan are believed by scholars to represent some of the modern descendants of the Kambojas.
- Dwivedi 1977: 287 "The Kambojas were probably the descendants of the Indo-Iranians popularly known later on as the Sassanians and Parthians who occupied parts of north-western India in the first and second centuries of the Christian era."
- Mishra 1987
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe. The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1962, p 264,
- "Political History of Ancient India", H. C. Raychaudhuri, B. N. Mukerjee, University of Calcutta, 1996.
- See: Vedic Index of names & subjects by Arthur Anthony Macdonnel, Arthur. B Keath, I.84, p 138.
- See more Refs: Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain; The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.)
- India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311
- Thion 1993, p. 51
- Walker and Tapp 2001
- Persica, 9, 1980, p 92, Michael Witzel.
- Oberlies 2001, p.7
- Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, p 256, D. C. Sircar; Journal Asiatique, CCXLVI 1958, I, pp 47-48, E. Benveniste; A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, 1989, p 10, fn 1, M. A. Dandamaev, W. J. Vogelsang; 'K etimologii drevnepersidskikh imen', Etimologija 1965, Moscow, 1967, p 288ff, V. I. Abaev
- Witzel 1999b, p. 5
- The Afghans (Peoples of Asia), 2001, p 127, also Index, W. J. Vogelsang and Willem Vogelsang; Also Fraser 1979
- Boardman et al. 1988, p. 199
- "Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda", Persica-9, 1980, fn 81, p 114, Michael Witzel who however, locates the Kambojas in Arachosia and Kandhahar
- The History of Indian Literature, 2005 edition, p 178, Albrecht Weber - Sanskrit literature
- Karttunen, 1989, p. 225
- Bongard-Levin 1985, p. 120
- Ref: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118; cf: Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 455-56, G. A. Grierson; cf: History and archaeology of India's contacts with other countries, from earliest times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana - Social Science
- Sethna, K. D. (2000) Problems of Ancient India, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-7742-026-7
- Geographical data in the early Purāṇas: a critical study, 1972, p 164 sqq, M. R. Singh - History; Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, pp 93-96, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
- Scholars like H. C. Raychaudhur locate Kamboja from South-west Kashnmir (Abhisara, Rajauri/Poonch) to Kafiristan in Hindukush (See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 132 sqq, H. C. Chaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; The History and Culture of the Indian People: The age of imperial unity, 1969, p 15, Editors Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti - India).
- Scholars like V. S. Aggarwala etc locate the Kamboja country in Pamirs and Badakshan (Ref: A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews.., 1953, p 48, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1963, p 38, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India; The North-west India of the Second Century B.C., 1974, p 40, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan - Greeks in India; The Greco-Sunga period of Indian history, or, the North-West India of the second century B.C, 1973, p 40, India) and the Parama Kamboja further north, in the Trans-Pamirian territories (See: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala).
- And many scholars like Vladimirovich Gankovskiĭ, Haroon Rashid etc locate Kamboja confederation from south-west Kashmir (Rajaurri) to Kafiristan, Kabul, Ghazni and extending as far as Kandhahar (See: The Peoples of Pakistan: An Ethnic History, 1971, pp 64-67, I︠U︡riĭ Vladimirovich Gankovskiĭ - Ethnology; History of the Pathans, 2002, p 11, Haroon Rashid - Pushtuns).
- Sircar says that Kamboja lay roughly to the east and south of Bahlika country, and to the west of Pancala (western Punjab and southern Kashmir) and also comprised Peshawr-Hazara in western Pakistan and Kafiristan-Kandhahar in Afghanistan, including tribal territories lying between the two (See: Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1990, p 203, Dineschandra Sircar; Also: Cosmography and geography in early Indian literature, 1967, p 109, Dineschandra Sircar - Indic literature).
- Michael Witzel also extends Kamboja including the Kapisa and Kabul valleys to Arachosia/Kandahar (See: Persica-9, p 92, fn 81. Michael Witzel).
- Historical and Cultural Chronology of Gujarat, 1960, p 43, Manjulal Ranchholdlal Majmudar
- Sarkar, 1987, p. 43
- History of Dharmaśāstra: (ancient and Mediæval Religious and Civil Law), 1930, p 13, Pandurang Vaman Kane, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, India.(Bombay)
- Lamotte 1988, p. 106
- Majjhima Nikaya 43.1.3
- 2nd century CE according to Freedom, Progress and Society: Essays in honor of K. Satchidananda Murty, 1966, p 109, B. Subramanian, K. Satchidananda).
- Quoted in: Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 256, by India Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.
- , Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1979
- Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 351, Buddha Prakash; Cultural Heritage of India, p 625, Debala Mitra; Indological Studies, 1950, p 78, Bimala Churn Law.
- Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 84, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India); Indian studies: past & present, 1964, p 365, Indo-Aryan philology; Maurya and Post-Maurya Art: A Study in Social and Formal Contrasts, 1975, p 36, Niharranjan Ray.
- Cf: The Śikh Gurus and the Śikh Society: A Study in Social Analysis, 1975, p 139, Niharranjan Ray.
- The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1962, p 264, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, K. M. Munshi
- Ch. 95, verse 18; see also: Vedic Index, Vol 1(Hindi Translation), page 138 , A. A. Keith, Arthur Berridale; Iranians and Greeks in Ancient Panjab, 1973' p 3, fn 15, D. C. Sircar
- See: Dielectrics of Hindu Ritualism, 1956, pp 59/60, Bhupindranath Datta; See also: Hindu Law of Inheritance-- An Anthropological Study, 1957, p 3
- Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Barbara A. West, Infobase Publishing (2009), ISBN 9781438119137 p. 359
- Encyclopaedia Indica, "The Kambojas: Land and its Identification", First Edition, 1998 New Delhi, page 528
- Numerous scholars now locate the Kamboja realm on the southern side of the Hindu Kush ranges (in the Kabul, Swat, and Kunar valleys) and the Parama-Kambojas in the territories on the north side of the Hindu Kush. See: Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 11-13, Moti Chandra - India; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165/66, M. R. Singh
- Purana, Vol VI, No 1, January 1964, p 207 sqq; Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury - Inscriptions, Prakrit).
- The Peoples of Pakistan: An Ethnic History, 1971, pp 64-67, Yuri Vladimirovich Gankovski - Ethnology.
- History of the Pathans, 2002, p 11, Haroon Rashid - Pushtuns.
- Michael Witzel Persica-9, p 92, fn 81.
- Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, pp 93-96, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
- Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 100, D. C. Sircar.
- Mandal and Sinha 1980, p. 57
- See: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, J. C. Vidyalankara
- The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
- Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIII, 1937, No 3, p. 400; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 37, (India) Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asia; cf: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 176, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana; Mahabharata Myth and Reality, 1976, p 232, Swarajya Prakash Gupta, K. S. Ramachandran. Cf also: India and Central Asia, p 25 etc, P. C. Bagchi.
- Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 403; Central Asiatic provinces of the Maurya Empire, p403, H.C. Seth
- History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 152, Shashi Asthana; Mahabharata Myth and Reality, 1976, p 232, Swarajya Prakash Gupta, K. S. Ramachandran.
- "The Town of Darwaz in Badakshan is sill called Khum (Kum) or Kala-i-Khum. It stands for the valley of Basht. The name Khum or Kum conceals the relics of ancient Kamboja" (Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Buddha Prakash [Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal]).
- India and the World, p 71, Buddha Prakash; also see: Central Asiatic Provinces of Maurya Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth; India and Central Asia, p 25, P. C. Bagchi
- Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 256, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Asiatic Society of Bengal.
- Talbert 2000, p. 99
- For Tambyzoi=Kamboja, see refs: Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Sylvain Lévi, Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye
- Lalye 1985, p. 133
- For Ambautai=Kamboja, see Witzel 1999a
- Patton and Bryant 2005, p. 257
- Geography 6.18.3; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p 199; Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters, 1885, p 268, John Watson McCrindle - Geography, Ancient.
- The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 403; Central Asiatic Provinces of Maurya Empire, p 403, H. C. Seth.
- Vedic Index I, p 138, Macdonnel, Keith.
- Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata–1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain.
- The Journal of Asian Studies–1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.).
- India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī–1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
- Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet.
- Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.
- Iran, 1956, p 53, Herbert Harold Vreeland, Clifford R. Barnett.
- Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 33, Moti Chandra - India.
- Histoire Auguste: Pt. 2. Vies des deux Valérines et des deux Galliens, 2000, p 90, Ammn Marcellin, Jean Pierre Callu, O. Desbordes (Les hydronymes de Transcaucasie, en question ici, auraient pu, dès lors, aussi dériver aussi de ces ethniques, lors de l'extension des tribus iraniennes vers le Nord de la Médie, et non pas de ces souverains achéménides — dont la présente légende répond mieux à l'ingéniosité «heurématique» des Grecs)
- The Deluged Civilization of the Caucasus Isthmus, Chapter 11, The Egyptian and Aryan Home-lands, section 12, Reginald Aubrey Fessendan.
- Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1872, p 716, Friedrich Spiegel, Cf also: Erânische Alterthumskunde, 1871, p 442
- Literary History of Ancient India, in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 2010, p 165, Chandra Chakraberty
- See: Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 5-6; cf: Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, p 168.
- Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, Parts I and II., 1955, p 52, Dr Kashi Prasad Jayaswal - Constitutional history; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja - Kamboja (Pakistan).
- The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103
- Hindu Polity, 1978, pp 121, 140, K. P. Jayswal.
- India in Early Greek Literature: academic dissertation, 1989, p 225, Klaus Karttunen - Greek literature.
- War in Ancient India, 1944, p 178, V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar - Military art and science.
- The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; The Achaemenids in India, 1950, p 47, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya; Poona Orientalist: A Quarterly Journal Devoted to Oriental Studies, 1945, P i, (edi) Har Dutt Sharma; The Poona Orientalist, 1936, p 13, Sanskrit philology; Tribes in Ancient India, 1943, p 4, B. C. Law - Ethnology; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1949, p 103.
- "Par ailleurs le Kamboja est régulièrement mentionné comme la "patrie des chevaux" (Asvanam ayatanam), et cette reputation bien etablie gagné peut-etre aux eleveurs de chevaux du Bajaur et du Swat l'appellation d'Aspasioi (du v.-p. aspa) et d’assakenoi (du skt asva "cheval")". E. Lamotte, Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p. 110. (WP translation. Quotation should be taken from the published English translation: Lamotte 1988, p. 100)
- Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10; also see: History of Porus, pp 12, 38, Buddha Parkash
- Proceedings, 1965, p 39, by Punjabi University. Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies - History.
- History of Punjab, 1997, Editors: Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi
- Acharya 2001, p 91
- Yadav and Gupta 1996, p. 173
- Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, M. R. Singh - India.
- History of Ceylon, 1959, p 91, Ceylon University, University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, Hem Chandra Ray, K. M. De Silva.
- Pande (R.) 1984, p. 93
- Shrava 1981, p. 12
- Rishi, 1982, p. 100
- Indological Studies, 1950, p 32, B. C. Law
- See: Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, p xxxvi; see also p 36, Sten Konow; Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute; Cf: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 142, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - Middle East.
- Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 127
- Shastri and Choudhury 1982, p. 112
- B. C. Sen, Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p. 342, fn 1
- Vaidya 1986, p. 221
- M. R. Singh, A Critical Study of the Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, p. 168
- Pala-Sena Yuger Vamsanucarita, p. 70
- Ganguly 1994, p. 72, fn 168
- H. C. Ray, The Dynastic History of Northern India, I, p. 309
- A. D. Pusalkar, R. C. Majumdar et al., History and Culture of Indian People, Imperial Kanauj, p. 323,
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