Kameyama Station was opened on December 25, 1890, as a station on the Kansai Railway. The Kansai Railway was nationalized on October 1, 1907, and the station became part of the Japanese Government Railways (JGR) system. A new station building was completed on November 3, 1913. The JGR became the Japan National Railways (JNR) after World War II. The station was absorbed into the JR Central network upon the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987. A new station building was completed in 2012.