The town was first mentioned in historical documents from 1291. It received its city charter in 1374. It lost its city status in 1870, then regained it in 1994. Throughout its history the town was also called Kamińsko, Canisko, Camiesko and Kamińsk. The towns name Kamieńsk has been used in reference to the town since 1918.
Jews began to settle in Kamieńsk in the 18th Century. The oldest Jewish tombstone in the Kamieńsk cemetery is from 1831. In the 1870s the town selected Israel Stieglitz as its rabbinic leader. He served as its chief rabbi for over 40 years and died in 1921. His son, Pinchas Stieglitz, was selected as his successor and served in that capacity for a short time. There were three synagogues in the city. In the year 1900, there were 1,064 Christians and 787 Jews in Kamieńsk. By the year 1917 the Jewish population had reached 1,163. The principle occupations of the Jewish people were tailoring, shoe-making and small trade. Pinchas Stieglitz and most of his family perished in the Holocaust.