Kamloops

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This article is about the city in British Columbia. For other uses, see Kamloops (disambiguation).
Kamloops
City
City of Kamloops
City view of Kamloops
City view of Kamloops
Coat of arms of Kamloops
Coat of arms
Official logo of Kamloops
Logo
Nickname(s): Tournament Capital of Canada, The Loops
Motto: Salus et Opes (Health and Wealth)
Kamloops is located in British Columbia
Kamloops
Kamloops
Location of Kamloops in British Columbia
Coordinates: 50°40′34″N 120°20′27″W / 50.67611°N 120.34083°W / 50.67611; -120.34083Coordinates: 50°40′34″N 120°20′27″W / 50.67611°N 120.34083°W / 50.67611; -120.34083
Country Canada
Province British Columbia
Regions Thompson Country
District Thompson-Nicola District
Founded 1811 (fur trading post)
Incorporated 1893
Government
 • Type Elected city council
 • Mayor Peter Milobar
 • Governing body Kamloops City Council
 • MP Cathy McLeod
 • MLAs Terry Lake
Todd Stone
Area[1][2]
 • Land 299.23 km2 (115.53 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,668.64 km2 (2,188.67 sq mi)
Elevation[3][4] 345 m (1,132 ft)
Population (2011)[1][2]
 • City 85,678
 • Density 286.3/km2 (742/sq mi)
 • Metro 98,754
 • Metro density 17.4/km2 (45/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC−8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
Postal code span V2B to V2E
Area code(s) +1-250 & +1-778
GNBC Code JAFNW[5]
NTS Map 092I09[5]
Website www.kamloops.ca

Kamloops is a city in south central British Columbia in Canada, located at the confluence of the two branches of the Thompson River near Kamloops Lake. It is the largest community in the Thompson-Nicola Regional District and the location of the regional district's offices. The surrounding region is more commonly referred to as the Thompson Country. It is ranked 37th on the list of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada and represents the 44th largest census agglomeration nationwide, with 85,678 residents in 2011.

History[edit]

Kamloops and the Thompson River, 1886

Prior to the arrival of European settlers, The Cree-Saulteaux band led by Chief Yawassannay had migrated to this region in the early 15th century where they met the local Secwepemc (Shuswap) nation (part of the Interior Salish language group). The Yawassanay band's Kamloops settlement was the largest of their three tribal areas. The first European explorers arrived in 1811, in the person of David Stuart, sent out from Fort Astoria, then still a Pacific Fur Company post, and who spent a winter there with the Secwepemc people, with Alexander Ross establishing a post there in May 1812 - "Fort Cumcloups".

The rival North West Company established another post - Fort Shuswap - nearby in the same year. The two operations were merged in 1813 when the North West Company officials in the region bought out the operations of the Pacific Fur Company. After the North West Company's forced merger with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, the post became known commonly as Thompson's River Post, or Fort Thompson, which over time became known as Fort Kamloops.[6] The post's journals, kept by its Chief Traders, document a series of inter-Indian wars and personalities for the period and also give much insight to the goings-on of the fur companies and their personnel throughout the entire Pacific slope.

Soon after the forts were founded, the main local village of the Secwepemc, then headed by a chief named Kwa'lila, was moved close to the trading post in order to control access to its trade, as well as for prestige and protection. With Kwalila's death, the local chieftaincy was passed to his nephew and foster-son Chief Nicola, who led an alliance of Okanagan and Nlaka'pamux people in the plateau country to the south around Stump, Nicola and Douglas Lakes.

Relations between Nicola and the fur traders were often tense but in the end Nicola was recognised as a great help to the influx of whites during the gold rush, though admonishing those who had been in parties waging violence and looting on the Okanagan Trail, which led from American territory to the Fraser goldfields.[7][8] Throughout, Kamloops was an important way station on the route of the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail, which originally connected Fort Astoria with Fort Alexandria and the other forts in New Caledonia to the north (today's Omineca Country, roughly), and which continued in heavy use through the onset of the Cariboo Gold Rush as the main route to the new goldfields around what was to become Barkerville.

The gold rush of the 1860s and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s brought further growth, resulting in the City of Kamloops being incorporated in 1893 with a population of about 500. The logging industry of the 1970s brought many Indo-Canadians into the Kamloops area, mostly from the Punjab region of India. In 1973, Kamloops annexed Barnhartvale and other nearby communities.

Etymology[edit]

Paddle steamer at Kamloops in 1887

"Kamloops" is the anglicised version of the Shuswap word "Tk'əmlúps", meaning 'meeting of the waters'. Shuswap is still spoken in the area by members of the Tk'emlúps Indian Band.[9]

An alternate origin sometimes given for the name may have come from the native name's accidental similarity to the French "Camp des loups", meaning 'Camp of Wolves'; many early fur traders spoke French.[6] One story perhaps connected with this version of the name concerns an attack by a pack of wolves, much built up in story to one huge white wolf, or a pack of wolves and other animals, traveling overland from the Nicola Country being repelled by a single shot by John Tod, then Chief Trader, thus preventing the fort from attack and granting Tod a great degree of respect locally.[10]

Industry[edit]

KPMG building in Kamloops.

Industries in the Kamloops area include primary resource processing such as Domtar Kamloops Pulp Mill, Tolko-Heffley Creek Plywood and Veneer, Lafarge Cement, Highland Valley Copper Mine (in Logan Lake), and others. RIH (Royal Inland Hospital) is the city's largest employer. TRU (Thompson Rivers University) serves a student body of 10,000 including a diverse international contingent. Thompson Rivers University, Open Learning (TRU-OL) is the biggest distance education provider in British Columbia and one of the biggest in Canada.

There are tertiary industrial sector entities such as

Culture[edit]

Kamloops is home to many galleries including nationally recognized Kamloops Art Gallery,[11] the Kamloops Symphony Orchestra,[12] Western Canada Theatre, the British Columbia Wildlife Park,[13] the Kamloops Heritage Railway,[14] Kenna Cartwright Park and Riverside Park.[15] Kamloops is also well known for its public art including numerous pole carvings and murals.[16]

Transportation[edit]

Kamloops is a transportation hub for the region due to its connections to Highways 5 and 97, the Trans-Canada and Yellowhead Highways.

Kamloops is also a rail transportation hub. The Canadian Pacific (CPR) and Canadian National (CNR) main line routes connect Vancouver BC in the west with Kamloops. The two rail roads diverge to the north and east where they connect with the rest of Canada. Kamloops North railway station is served three times per week (in each direction) by Via Rail's The Canadian.

Kamloops is home to Kamloops Airport (Fulton Field), a small Regional airport currently being expanded, with construction underway into 2010. Airlines currently flying to Kamloops are Air Canada, WestJet and Central Mountain Air.

Greyhound Canada connects Kamloops with Vancouver, Edmonton and Calgary.

Local bus service is provided by the Kamloops Transit System.

Geography and location[edit]

Kamloops is situated in the Thompson Valley and the Montane Cordillera Ecozone. The central core of the city is located in the valley near the confluence of the north and south branches of the Thompson River. Suburbs stretch for more than a dozen kilometres along both north and south branches, as well as to the steep hillsides along the south portion of the city and lower northeast hill sides.

Kamloops Indian Band areas begin just to the northeast of the downtown core but are not located within the city limits. As a result of this placement, it is necessary to leave Kamloops' city limits and pass through the band lands before re-entering the city limits to access the communities of Rayleigh and Heffley Creek. Kamloops is surrounded by the smaller communities of Cherry Creek, Pritchard, Savona, Scotch Creek, Adams Lake, Chase, Paul Lake, Pinantan and various others.

The Thompson River.

Climate[edit]

Canadian National trains pull through North Kamloops then cross this rail bridge over the North Thompson River to the Kamloops Indian Reserve, and CN's large rail yards.

The climate of Kamloops is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSk) due to its rain shadow location. Because of milder winters and aridity, the area west of Kamloops in the lower Thompson River valley falls within Köppen climate classification BWk climate. Kamloops gets short cold snaps where temperatures can drop to around −20 °C (−4 °F) when Arctic air manages to cross the Rockies and Columbia Mountains into the Interior.

Locator map for Kamloops, BC

The January mean temperature is −2.8 °C (27 °F).[17] That average sharply increases with an average maximum temperature of 4.3 °C (40 °F) in February. The average number of cold days below −10 °C (14 °F) per year is 19.9 as recorded by Environment Canada.[17]

Although Kamloops is located above 50° north latitude, summers are warm to hot with prevailing dry, and sunny weather. Daytime humidity is generally low (sometimes less than 20% after a dry spell) which allows for substantial nighttime cooling. Occasional summer thunderstorms can create dry-lightning conditions, sometimes igniting forest fires which the area is prone to.

Spring and Fall are usually pleasant and dry but can be short in duration.

Kamloops lies in the rain shadow leeward of the Coast Mountains and is biogeographically connected to similar semi-desert areas in the Okanagan region, and a much larger area covering the central/eastern portions of Washington, Oregon and intermontane areas of Nevada, Utah and Idaho in the US.

These areas of relatively similar climate have many distinctive native plants and animals in common, such as Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fragilis in this case), rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), Black widow spiders and Lewis's Woodpecker.

The hottest temperature ever recorded at the airport, 40.7 °C (105 °F), occurred on July 13, 2014; the hottest reliably accurate temperature ever recorded within the city, 41.7 °C (107 °F), occurred first on July 27, 1939 and again two years later on July 16, 1941.[18][19][20]

Climate data for Kamloops Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high Humidex 15.8 17.0 23.3 31.9 36.8 39.0 47.4 40.3 38.4 31.2 22.8 15.0 47.4
Record high °C (°F) 15.9
(60.6)
17.0
(62.6)
23.3
(73.9)
33.0
(91.4)
37.2
(99)
39.1
(102.4)
40.7
(105.3)
39.6
(103.3)
34.9
(94.8)
31.3
(88.3)
22.8
(73)
16.1
(61)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
4.3
(39.7)
11.0
(51.8)
16.6
(61.9)
21.5
(70.7)
25.1
(77.2)
28.9
(84)
28.3
(82.9)
22.3
(72.1)
13.7
(56.7)
5.6
(42.1)
0.3
(32.5)
14.8
(58.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8
(27)
0.1
(32.2)
5.2
(41.4)
9.9
(49.8)
14.6
(58.3)
18.4
(65.1)
21.5
(70.7)
20.9
(69.6)
15.6
(60.1)
8.5
(47.3)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.7
(27.1)
9.3
(48.7)
Average low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.2
(37.8)
7.7
(45.9)
11.6
(52.9)
14.2
(57.6)
13.4
(56.1)
8.8
(47.8)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
−5.8
(21.6)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F) −37.2
(−35)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−26.1
(−15)
−8.8
(16.2)
−5.6
(21.9)
1.1
(34)
3.3
(37.9)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.9
(25)
−17.1
(1.2)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−36.1
(−33)
−37.2
(−35)
Wind chill −42.0 −36.7 −33.9 −13.0 −5.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 −6.5 −23.2 −39.1 −45.1 −45.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 21.1
(0.831)
12.4
(0.488)
12.8
(0.504)
14.2
(0.559)
27.3
(1.075)
37.4
(1.472)
31.4
(1.236)
23.7
(0.933)
29.4
(1.157)
19.4
(0.764)
23.3
(0.917)
25.4
(1)
277.6
(10.929)
Rainfall mm (inches) 5.3
(0.209)
5.9
(0.232)
9.7
(0.382)
14.0
(0.551)
27.3
(1.075)
37.4
(1.472)
31.4
(1.236)
23.7
(0.933)
29.4
(1.157)
19.0
(0.748)
14.2
(0.559)
7.1
(0.28)
224.3
(8.831)
Snowfall cm (inches) 18.7
(7.36)
8.0
(3.15)
3.5
(1.38)
0.2
(0.08)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.12)
10.9
(4.29)
21.9
(8.62)
63.5
(25)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.7 7.2 6.8 6.2 10.2 10.7 8.4 8.0 7.6 9.0 10.0 11.7 105.6
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 3.6 3.8 5.5 6.1 10.2 10.7 8.3 8.0 7.6 8.8 7.1 3.4 83.3
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 7.6 4.1 1.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.9 9.3 27.4
 % humidity 72.6 60.0 43.0 35.6 36.2 36.4 33.5 34.4 41.4 52.9 65.9 70.9 48.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.2 95.6 165.3 202.8 251.6 252.0 303.4 289.5 223.3 130.9 63.7 46.6 2,079.8
Percent possible sunshine 20.9 33.9 45.0 49.0 52.4 51.2 61.2 64.3 58.7 39.2 23.5 18.6 43.2
Source: [21]



Hottest summer Most days above 30 °C (86 °F) Driest Warmest spring Fewest fog days Most sunny days in warm months Most growing degree days Most days without precipitation
Rank among 100 largest Canadian cities 1st 1st 2nd
(next to Whitehorse)
2nd
(next to Chilliwack)
2nd
(next to Penticton)
2nd
(next to Portage la Prairie)
3rd
(next to Windsor and St. Catharines-Niagara)
3rd
(next to Medicine Hat and Lethbridge)
Value 27.43 °C (81.4 °F) 32.8 277.63 mm (10.93 in) 9.65 °C (49.4 °F) 7.28 148.93 2308.61 258.12
Data[22] is for Kamloops Airport (YKA), in the city of Kamloops, 5 NM (9.3 km; 5.8 mi) west northwest of the town.[4]

Sports[edit]

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Kamloops Blazers
WHL
Ice hockey Interior Savings Centre
1981
9
Kamloops Rattlers
TOJLL
Box lacrosse Memorial Arena
2001
5
Kamloops Storm
KIJHL
Ice hockey McArthur Park Arena
2006
0
Kamloops Broncos
CJFL
Football Hillside Stadium
2000
0
Kamloops Excel
PCSL
Soccer Hillside Stadium
2007
0
Sun Rivers golf course in Kamloops.

Kamloops hosted the 1993 Canada Summer Games. It co-hosted (with Vancouver and Kelowna) the 2006 IIHF World U20 Championship from December 26, 2005, to January 5, 2006. It hosted the 2006 BC Summer Games. In the summer of 2008, Kamloops, and its modern facility the Tournament Capital Centre, played host to the U15 boys and girls Basketball National Championship. The city is known as, and holds a Canadian trademark as, Canada's Tournament Capital.[23]

Sun Peaks Resort is a nearby ski and snowboard hill. Olympic medallist skier Nancy Greene is director of skiing at Sun Peaks and the former chancellor of Thompson Rivers University. The Overlander Ski Club runs the Stake Lake cross country ski area with 50 km (31 mi) of trails. Kamloops is home to world-famous mountain bikers such as freeride pioneers and Mountain Bike Hall of Fame members Wade Simmons, Brett Tippie, (also a former Canadian National Team member for snowboard cross and giant slalom), Richie Schley. Also home to freerider Matt Hunter.[24] Kamloops was featured in the first mountain bike film by Greg Stump, "Pulp Traction", and later the first three "Kranked" films, which starred the original Froriders, Tippie, Simmons and Schley. In 2007, the Kamloops Bike Ranch opened in Juniper Ridge along Highland Drive. The Kamloops Rotary Skatepark located at McArthur Island is one of the largest skateboard parks in Canada.[25]

Kamloops is home to the Western Hockey League's Kamloops Blazers who play at the Interior Savings Centre. Alumni of the Kamloops Blazers include Mark Recchi, Jarome Iginla, Darryl Sydor, Nolan Baumgartner, Shane Doan, Scott Niedermayer, Rudy Poeschek and Darcy Tucker. Two-time champion coach Ken Hitchcock would later win the Stanley Cup with the Dallas Stars. Lacrosse teams include the Thompson Okanagan Junior Lacrosse League's Kamloops Junior B Rattlers, as well as the Kamloops Storm. Also calling Kamloops home is the Canadian Junior Football League's Kamloops Broncos, and Pacific Coast Soccer League's Kamloops Excel, both of whom play at Hillside Stadium.

Soccer for the city includes: Kamloops Youth Soccer Association, Kamloops Blaze rep team and the Kamloops Excel (see above). TRU hosts the Thompson Rivers WolfPack, and has sports teams that include men's and women's volleyball, basketball, soccer and badminton. Also the WolfPack have hockey, rugby, badminton, golf and baseball teams.

Kamloops hosted the World Masters Indoor Championships 2010 on March 1–6, 2010.[26]

Kamloops hosted the 2011 Western Canada Summer Games.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1881 200 —    
1891 1,500 +650.0%
1901 1,359 −9.4%
1911 3,772 +177.6%
1921 4,501 +19.3%
1931 6,167 +37.0%
1941 5,959 −3.4%
1951 8,099 +35.9%
1956 9,096 +12.3%
1961 10,076 +10.8%
1966 10,759 +6.8%
1971 26,168 +143.2%
1976 58,311 +122.8%
1981 64,048 +9.8%
1986 61,773 −3.6%
1991 67,057 +8.6%
1996 76,394 +13.9%
2001 77,281 +1.2%
2006 80,376 +4.0%
2011 85,678 +6.6%
Sources: Statistics Canada[27][28]
Canada 2011 Census Population  % of Total Population
Visible minority group
Source:[29]
South Asian 1,970 2.4%
Chinese 1,090 1.3%
Black 235 0.3%
Filipino 545 0.7%
Latin American 135 0.2%
Arab 355 0.4%
Southeast Asian 195 0.2%
West Asian 0 0%
Korean 230 0.3%
Japanese 815 1%
Other visible minority 45 0.1%
Mixed visible minority 100 0.1%
Total visible minority population 5,720 6.8%
Aboriginal group
Source:[30]
First Nations 5,385 6.4%
Métis 2,405 2.9%
Inuit 75 0.1%
Total Aboriginal population 7,625 9.1%
White 70,380 84.1%
Total population 83,725 100%

Demographics of the City of Kamloops according to Statistics Canada 2006 census.[1]

Religious groups[edit]

Data is from the 2001 census.[31]

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Kamloops

Education[edit]

K-12[edit]

Public schools in the Kamloops area are part of School District 73 Kamloops/Thompson. Private schools include Kamloops Christian School, Our Lady of Perpetual Help School (Catholic), and St. Ann's Academy (Catholic).

Post-secondary[edit]

Thompson Rivers University[32] offers a range of undergraduate and graduate degrees as well as certificate and diploma programs. It has satellite campuses in

Thompson Rivers University also has an open-learning division. Thompson Rivers University, Open Learning (TRU-OL) is the biggest distance and online education provider in British Columbia and one of the biggest in Canada.

Thompson Career College and Sprott Shaw College are private post-secondary institutions with campuses in Kamloops.

Neighbourhoods[edit]

Officially recognised neighbourhoods within the city of Kamloops.[33]

Unofficially recognized areas are listed beneath the neighborhoods to which they belong:

Notable people[edit]

Below is a list of people who are from Kamloops, or who lived there for an extended period.

Historical figures[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Arts, culture and media[edit]

Other notable people[edit]

Politics[edit]

Elections into the municipality in Kamloops are held with the rest of the province every three years.

Provincially, Kamloops is considered to be bellwether, having voted for the governing party in every provincial election since the introduction of parties to British Columbian elections. By contrast, Kamloops has regularly voted against the party in power federally until the 2006 Federal election. Kamloops is represented in two provincial ridingsKamloops and Kamloops-North Thompson – and one federal riding – Kamloops—Thompson—Cariboo.

  • Mayor – Peter Milobar
  • Members of the Legislative Assembly:
Kamloops crater on Mars

Federal Members of Parliament:

Planetary nomenclature[edit]

The city's name has been given to a crater on the surface of Mars. Crater Kamloops was officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN) in 1991. The crater lies at 53.8° south latitude and 32.6° west longitude, with a diameter of 65 km (40 mi).[58][59]

Sister cities[edit]

In media[edit]

In "Cementhead," a 1989 episode of the television series Booker, the titular detective (played by Richard Grieco) tracks a capricious professional hockey player (Stephen Shellen) back to his hometown of Kamloops.

Kamloops and surrounding areas have been used for various Hollywood films such as The A Team, 2012, The Pledge, Shooter, Firewall, The Sisterhood of the Travelling Pants and various others.[60]

"The Eye of Jupiter", the eleventh episode of the third season of Battlestar Galactica was filmed in Kamloops in 2006.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kamloops Community Profile - Statistics Canada. 2006 Community Profiles.
  2. ^ a b Kamloops, British Columbia (Census agglomeration)
  3. ^ Elevation at the airport
  4. ^ a b Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 24 July 2014 to 0901Z 18 September 2014
  5. ^ a b Natural Resources Canada Mapping Services
  6. ^ a b "Kamloops". BC Geographical Names. http://apps.gov.bc.ca/pub/bcgnws/names/3006.html.
  7. ^ Fort Kamloops Journals, various authors (traders), primary source.
  8. ^ History of the Okanagan Chiefs in James Teit, The Shuswap People, vol XII of the Papers of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition
  9. ^ Tk'emlúps Indian Band, Tk'emlúps History, 2011. Accessed 2011-06-01.
  10. ^ Fur and Gold: Stories, Tales and Legends of British Columbia, John Pearson, undated S.K. Press Holdings, undated., White Rock, B.C.
  11. ^ Kamloops Art Gallery
  12. ^ Kamloops Symphony Orchestra
  13. ^ BC Wildlife Park
  14. ^ Kamloops Heritage Railway
  15. ^ Phil Lee; Tim Jepson (2013). The Rough Guide to Canada. Rough Guides. p. 682. ISBN 1409332152. 
  16. ^ "Public Art - PictureKamloops Provides A Comprehensive Visual Tour Of Kamloops". Picturekamloops.com. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  17. ^ a b "Kamloops A" (CSV (8222 KB)). Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 1163780. Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  18. ^ "Daily Data Report for July 2014". Environment Canada. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Daily Data Report for July 1939". Environment Canada. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Daily Data Report for July 1941". Environment Canada. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Calculation Information for 1981 to 2010 Canadian Normals Data". Environment Canada. Retrieved July 9, 2013. 
  22. ^ [1] - from Environment Canada's Weather Winners
  23. ^ Kamloops Municipal Home Page
  24. ^ Santa Cruz Sentinel
  25. ^ Kamloops Rotary Skatepark
  26. ^ Kamloops World Masters Athletics 2010 - Canadian Athlete Entries
  27. ^ Belshaw, John (2009). Becoming British Columbia: A Population History. ISBN 9780774815451. 
  28. ^ "British Columbia – Municipal Census Populations (1921–2011)". BC Stats. Retrieved May 9, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Community Profiles from the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.gc.ca. 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  30. ^ "Aboriginal Peoples - Data table". 2.statcan.ca. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  31. ^ Kamloops Community Profile - Statistics Canada. 2001 Community Profiles.
  32. ^ Thompson Rivers University
  33. ^ Maps By Neighbourhood
  34. ^ PARLINFO - Parliamentarian File - Federal Experience - FRAZER, John L. (Jack), O.M.M., M.S.C., C.D
  35. ^ PARLINFO - Parliamentarian File - Federal Experience - FULTON, The Hon. Edmund Davie, P.C., O.C., Q.C.LL.B., LL.D
  36. ^ Leonard Marchand: The first Status Indian elected to Canada's Parliament
  37. ^ Federal Political Biography from the Library of Parliament
  38. ^ "Former Kamloops mayor dies at 93". Times-Colonist. 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  39. ^ Don Ashby hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  40. ^ Mitch Berger
  41. ^ Rick Boh hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  42. ^ Craig Endean hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  43. ^ http://www.peaksmedia.com. "Official Web Site of Nancy Greene Canadian Olympic Champion Skier". Nancy Greene. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  44. ^ "NHL Player Search - Player - Stu Grimson". Legends of Hockey. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  45. ^ Don Hay hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  46. ^ Murray Kennett hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  47. ^ Doug Lidster hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  48. ^ Steve Marr hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  49. ^ Bert Marshall hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  50. ^ Bob Mowat hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  51. ^ NHL.com, Players Profile Mark Recchi[dead link]
  52. ^ Peter Soberlak hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  53. ^ Tim Watters hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  54. ^ [2]
  55. ^ Internet Movie Database
  56. ^ http://robertwservice.blogspot.fr/2014/02/kamloops-july-december-1904.html//
  57. ^ Holness Law Group
  58. ^ IAU/USGS/WGPSN Planetary Feature Nomenclature Database, USGS Branch of Astrogeology, Flagstaff, Arizona
  59. ^ USGS Martian Quadrangle Map MC-26 showing crater KAMLOOPS, just beneath crater GALLE, and on the Eastern edge of ARGYRE Planitia.
  60. ^ Past Productions

External links[edit]