George (Dormition) Cathedral in Kaniv.
Map of Ukraine of Kaniv within Cherkasy Oblast.
|• Mayor||Nikolenko Victor Volodymirovich|
|• Total||17.42 km2 (6.73 sq mi)|
|Elevation||101 m (331 ft)|
|• Density||1,534/km2 (3,970/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||+380 4736|
Kaniv (Ukrainian: Канів; Russian: Ка́нев, translit. Kanev; Polish: Kaniów) is a city located in the Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine. The city rests on the Dnieper River, and is also one of the main inland river ports on the Dnieper. The current estimated population is 26,426 (as of 2005). The city was called Kaniv because of the manufacture of knives during the 15th century.
The poet and painter of the Russian Empire Taras Shevchenko who is considered a founder of Ukrainian literature and ideologist of the Ukrainian nationalism buried near Kaniv on a hill (Taras Hill) overlooking the Dnieper. There is a memorial museum dedicated to him.
Industry in the city includes: Kaniv's hydro-electric power plant located on the Kaniv Reservoir on the Dnieper, the a fruit and vegetable, condiments factory, large milk and cheese factory, poultry processing.
Kaniv is the administrative center of the Kaniv Raion (district). However, the city is a city of oblast subordinance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the raion administration housed within the city itself.
The city's establishment is unknown. It was first mentioned in the Paterikon of Caves Monastery in Kiev of the 11th century and another chronicle of 1149, although some believe that it had been founded as early as the 10th century. There is no definite information on the source and meaning of the city's name; supposedly its name is derived from the personal nickname Kanya ('buzzard'). M.P.Yanko in his Toponymic dictionary of Ukraine says that the name is derived from Turkish word meaning the place of khan. There are also number of other hypotheses on the city's name.
In the Middle Ages it was located on the Road from Varangians to Greeks. Initially part of Kievan Rus', in the 14th century it was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was sacked by the Ottoman Turks in 1458. In 1569, Kaniv came under the rule of Poland, and it was also one of the centers of Cossack culture and military life. In 1600, it received the Magdeburg Rights, but the city's prosperity was halted by successive plagues, fires, and Cossack unrest. During The Deluge the town was captured by the forces of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1648.
In 1648-78 the city was center of the Kaniv regiment, Cossack formation of which was established long before the Khmelnytsky Uprising as part of the Polish registered Cossacks formations. In 1662, the Right-Bank forces of Yuri Khmelnytsky, supported by Polish and Crimean Tatar troops, were defeated in the battle of Kaniv by the Russian forces of Grigory Romodanovsky and the Left-Bank Cossacks of Yakym Somko. In 1678 the Kaniv regiment was overran by Turks and its administration was transferred to Bohuslav. In 1768, it was captured by one of the leaders of the Koliyivschyna, Maksym Zalizniak. As an effect of a pogrom, most of the local szlachta and Jews were killed.
Following the Second Partition of Poland the town with large parts of other territories came under the control of the Russian Empire. In 1787, Kaniów was visited by Catherine II. She met there with Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski. During the later stages of the Great War, on May 11, 1918, the town was the seat of the Battle of Kaniów, in which the forces of the 2nd Polish Corps and the Polish Legions under Józef Haller de Hallenburg failed to break through the Austro-German lines to the Russian side. During the Second World War, Kaniv was a site of tragically unsuccessful drop of Soviet paratroopers.
- Second World War Memorial Park;
- Monument of Taras Shevchenko;
- Monument to St.Makariy of Kaniv;
- Alley of Glory (Park Slavy);
Twin towns — Sister cities
Kaniv is twinned with:
|City||Country||Year of Signing|
|Viersen, North Rhine-Westphalia||Germany|
- E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow, 1998), p. 186.
- (1972) Icтopia мicт i ciл Укpaїнcькoї CCP - Черкаськa область (History of Towns and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR - Cherkasy Oblast), Kyiv. (Ukrainian)
- Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine