Kankalis

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Kankalis, Qanqlis, Kangly or Kangar (Kanglı/Qangli/Kenger) were a Turkic people of Eurasia. Kangar was not applied to all the Pechenegs, but only attached to the three leading tribes.[1][2][3] Alternatively they could have been Kipchaks.[4] Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos notes in his De Administrando Imperio that three groups of the Pechenegs are called Kangar.[5][6] The name "Kangar" is associated with the Kang territory and probably with the Kangaris people and the city of Kangu Tarban, mentioned in the Kul Tigin inscription of the Orkhon Turkic peoples.[7] There still exist clans with the names of Chushan-Kangli and Kabil-Kangle-Agakli among the Nogais.[8]

They first appear on history as minor branch of ancient Oghuz Turks. They formed one of the five sections which Oghuz khan divided his subjects. After the fall of Pecheneg Khanate in early 10th century, the role of Kankali Turks became prominent. They were closely related to Kypchaks.[9] They may have been a separate nomadic people earlier but the Turkic peoples in Pontic-Steppe become assimilated to each other by the 13th century.

Many Kankali warriors joined the Khwarezmid Empire in the 11th century. They suffered heavy losses from Genghis Khan in 1219-1223. For example, Kankalis in Bukhara who were higher than a wheel were all slain. Jochi subdued their relations who still lived along the land of Kyrghyz and Kipchak steppes in 1225. Khwarizmi Kankali remnants submitted to Great Khan Ögedei after the long resistance under Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu against his general Chormaqan and governor Chin-temur. After the Mongol conquest, the remaining Kankalis were absorbed into other Turks and Mongols. Some of them who served in the Yuan Dynasty became Kharchins.

There are Kankali clans among the Kazakhs, the Uzbegs, the Nogais and the Karakalpaks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter B. Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, András Róna-Tas in: The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives, part 8, vol. 17, p.189
  2. ^ Henry Hoyle Howorth, History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century, Cosimo, Inc., 2008, p.4
  3. ^ Constantine Porphyrogenitus, ca 950, De Administrando Imperio, http://faculty.washington.edu/dwaugh/rus/texts/constp.html
  4. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1, Denis Sinor, pg 272
  5. ^ Denis Sinor, The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, vol 1., Cambridge University Press, 1990, p.272
  6. ^ Andrßás Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History, Central European University Press, 1999, p.238
  7. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1, Denis Sinor, pg 272
  8. ^ Henry Howorth, History of the Mongols: From the 9th to the 19th Century, vol 2, p.18
  9. ^ Thomas T. Allsen, "Prelude to the western campaigns: Mongol military operations in the Volga- Ural region, 1217- 1237", Architum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, pp. 5-24

See also[edit]