Kangra-Lambagraon

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Kangra State
Kangra-Lambagraon Estate
कांगड़ा
Princely state until 1810.
Estate of Lambagraon (Annexed by the British Raj) after 1846
4300 BC–1948

Flag of Kangra

Flag

Location of Kangra
Kangra State in a 1911 map of Punjab
History
 -  Established 4300 BC
 -  Independence of India 1948
Area
 -  1931 324 km2 (125 sq mi)
Population
 -  1931 1,625,000 
Density 5,015.4 /km2  (12,989.9 /sq mi)
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Kangra-Lambagraon was a princely estate (jagir) of British India located in the present-day state of Himachal Pradesh. In 1947, the estate comprised 437 villages, encompassing an area of 324 km². It had with a Privy Purse of Rs 70,000/- and enjoyed a revenue of approx. Rs.1,76,000/-.

The rulers of the estate belonged to the ancient Katoch dynasty of Rajputs which had ruled the former Kangra State.[1] Trigarta Trigarta Kingdom, Jalandhar and Multan were other names by which the state was known in former times.

Kangra State was extinguished and annexed by Pañjab (Punjab) in 1810. Its ruler was granted the jagir of Lambagraon by Treaty of Jawalamukhi. In 1846 Kangra was annexed to British India.[2]

History[edit]

Early history of the Kangra State[edit]

According to legend, the state of Kangra, also called Bhim Kot, Nagar-Kot, Susarmapura, Katoch, Jalandhara and Trigarta, dates back to 4300 BC. The first modern recorded mention of the state, however, is from the 11th century AD. The Katoch dynasty are reputed to have ruled the town of Kangra and its vicinity since time immemorial. Several very extended interregnums are acknowledged.

State extinguished and annexed by Pañjab dynasty[edit]

During the period c.1620-1783 the area was placed under the control of a Mughal garrison. As the Mughal power waned, many former officers of the Mughal empire took autonomous charge of the areas under their power and this situation affected Kangra. Meanwhile (in 1758), Ghamand Chand, a supposed scion of the dispossessed family, attained a position of power in the Punjab plains, being appointed governor of Jalandhar by Ahmed Shah Abdali. Building upon this ascendency, Ghamand Chand's grandson Sansar Chand rallied an army, ousted the then ruler of Kangra, Saif Ali Khan, and gained possession of his patrimony. This came to pass in 1783, and Sansar Chand was aided by the Kanhaiya misl, one of several informal but armed militias of Sikhs that roamed the Punjab in that era.

During the campaign, Raja Sansar Chand and his mercenary force overran other nearby principalities and compelled the submission of their rulers. He reigned over a relatively large part of present-day Himachal Pradesh for perhaps two decades, but his ambitions brought him into conflict with the Gorkhas ruling the then nascent state of Nepal. The Gorkhas and the recently humbled hill-states allied to invade Kangra in 1806. The Raja was defeated and left with no territory beyond the immediate vicinity of the fortress of Kangra, which he managed to retain with the help of a small Sikh force sent to his aid by Ranjit Singh. In this despair, the Raja treated with Ranjit Singh at Jawalamukhi in 1809. By that treaty, Raja Sansar Chand surrendered his (now largely notional) state to Ranjit Singh, in return for a substantial fief to be held under the suzerainty of the latter. This estate consisted, in 1947, of 20 villages yielding a revenue of Rs. 40,000/- and encompassing an area of 324 km². Ranjit Singh duly established his rule over the land; Sansar Chand received in addition the estate of Lambagraon.

British era[edit]

As a result of the First Anglo-Sikh War (1846), the area between the Sutlej and Ravi rivers, including the hill states, were ceded by the Sikhs to the HEIC. Thus, Lambagraon estate was annexed by the British and was one of the feudatory estates placed under the Simla Hill States' Superintendency. In deference with the ruling dynasty's association with Kangra town (and given the fact that the estate fell within Kangra district) the estate was referred to as "Kangra-Lambagraon".

The princely estate of Kangra-Lambagraon acceded unto the Dominion of India in 1947; the following year, it was merged with its sister states of the erstwhile Simla superintendency to create a province named "Himachal Pradesh", administered by a Chief Commissioner.

Purported timeline of the Katoch dynasty[edit]

C. 4300 BC

C. 3000 BC

C. 1500 BC

  • (234th) Raja Susarma Chandra fought against the Pandavas in the Mahabharata war
  • He also built the fort of Kangra

C. 900 BC

C. 500 BC to

C. 275 BC

C. 100 AD

  • The Rajas of Kangra fought numerous battles against the Rajas of Kannauj

C. 470 AD

  • The Rajas of Kangras fought the Rajas of Kashmir for the supremacy in the hills

C. 643 AD

  • Hsuan Tsang visited the Kingdom of Kangra (then known as "Jallandhra")

C. 853 AD

  • Rajanaka Prithvi Chandra's reign

C. 903 AD

  • Coinage of Kangra from this period can be seen in the Himachal Museums

C.1009 AD

C. 1170 AD

  • Kingdom of Kangra is divided into two parts, Kangra and Jaswan
  • The Katoch armies fight against Muhammad of Ghor (the lands of Jalandhar were lost c.1220 AD)

C. 1341 AD

  • Rajanaka Rup Chandra's looting expeditions take him till the gates of Delhi
  • The Katoch kings fight Taimur
  • Tughlaqs grant the title of Mian to the Katoch Royal Family

C.1405 AD

  • Further division of the Kangra State; state of Guler is founded

C.1450 AD

  • Further Guler State is also divided and a new State namely SIBA is found.

C.1526 - 1556 AD

  • Sikandar Shah Suri and the Rajas of Kangra combine their forces against Akbar but are defeated
  • The Raja of Kangra renders his alliance to Emperor Akbar and in return in given the title of Maharaja
  • Later, the Mughals attack the fort of Kangra 52 times but fail to defeat it

C. 1620 AD

  • Mughals occupy the fort of Kangra
  • First European travelers to the court of Kangra

C. 1700 AD

C. 1750 AD

C. 1775 AD to C. 1820 AD

  • The golden age of Kangra under Raja Sansar Chand-II
  • Kangra miniature painting flourishes under him

C. 1820 AD

  • Decline of the Kangra state
  • Kangra fort occupied by the Sikhs after the Gorkha War but the Fort of Siba was re- captured by Raja Ram Singh after defeated the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

1846 AD

  • The Sikhs cede Kangra to the HEIC
  • The Katoch kings fight for their independence against the British. Raja Pramod Chand loses the battle and is taken prisoner to Almoda – he dies there

1924 AD

  • Maharaja Jai Chandra of Kangra-Lambagraon is granted the title of "Maharaja" as a hereditary distinction, and a salute of 11 guns as a personal honour.

1947 AD

  • Maharaja Dhruv Dev Chandra (last ruler of Kangra-Lambagraon) merges his estate with the Dominion of India, when India gains Independence

1972 AD

  • The Princely Order is abolished in India and the Rajas of Kangra-Lambagraon become ordinary citizens
  • The district of Kangra is merged with the newly founded state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Present titled Raja of Katochs is Raja Aditya Dev Chand Katoch.

Titles held by the Kangra family[edit]

  • Rajanaka (Supreme King)
  • Katoch (best in swordmanship)
  • Bada Raja (big king)
  • Mian (a Muslim honorific)
  • Maharaja (great king)
  • Dharam Rakshak (protector of the Hindu faith)
  • Nizam-i-Jaladhra (Governor of Jalandhar)
  • Chattarpati Naresh (king)
  • Bhadur (brave)
  • CSI Companion of the Star of India
  • KCIE (Knight Commander of the Indian Empire)
  • FRSA (Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts)
  • Dharam Rattan (Jewel of righteousness)
  • Alha Malik (high master)
  • Himachal Ratan (Jewel of the Himalayas)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 32°06′N 76°16′E / 32.100°N 76.267°E / 32.100; 76.267