Kansu Braves

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Kansu Braves
Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves 1900 Boxer Rebellion.jpg
Three Muslim soldiers from the Gansu Army
Active 1895–1901
Country China
Allegiance Qing dynasty
Branch Guards Army
Type Division
Size 10,000
Garrison/HQ Gansu, then Beijing
Nickname Kansu Braves
Equipment Krupp artillery, Mauser rifles, swords, halberds
Engagements Dungan revolt (1895–96)
Battle of Langfang
Siege of the International Legations (Boxer Rebellion)
Battle of Peking
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Dong Fuxiang (general in chief)
Ma Fuxiang, Ma Fulu, Ma Fuxing

The Kansu Braves (simplified Chinese: 甘军; traditional Chinese: 甘軍; pinyin: Gān Jūn; Wade–Giles: Kan Chün) or Gansu Army was a unit of 10,000 Chinese Muslim troops from the northeastern province of Kansu (now Gansu) in the last decades the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). Loyal to the Qing, the Braves were recruited in 1895 to suppress a Muslim revolt in Gansu. Under the command of General Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), they were transferred to the Beijing metropolitan area in 1898, where they officially became the Rear Division of the Guards Army, a modern army that protected the imperial capital.

The Braves, who wore traditional uniforms but were armed with modern rifles and artillery, played an important role in 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion. After helping to repel the Seymour Expedition – a multinational foreign force sent from Tianjin to relieve the Beijing Legation Quarter in early June – the Muslim troops were the fiercest attackers during the siege of the legations from June 20 to August 14.[1] They were decimated at the Battle of Peking, in which the Eight-Nation Alliance relieved the siege.

Origins in Gansu[edit]

In the spring of 1895, a Muslim revolt erupted in the southern parts of Gansu province.[2] Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), who had fought under Zuo Zongtang (1812–1885) in the suppression of a larger Muslim rebellion in the 1860s and 1870s, had by 1895 become Imperial Commissioner in Gansu and he now commanded the Muslim militias that Zuo had recruited locally.[3] In early July 1895, Dong commanded these troops in relieving the siege of Didao by Muslims rebels.[4]

When he attended Empress Dowager Cixi's sixtieth birthday celebrations in Beijing in August 1895, he was recommended to Cixi by the powerful Manchu minister Ronglu.[5] The Muslim rebels, who were armed with muzzleloaders and various white arms, were overwhelmed by the firepower of the modern Remington and Mauser rifles that Dong brought back from Beijing.[6] Dong also used his understanding of local politics to convince the rebels to return to their homes.[7] By the spring of 1896, Gansu was again pacified.[8]

Late in the afternoon it transpired that the Empress Dowager was not in the Imperial city at all, but out at the Summer Palace on the Wan-shou-shan--the hills of ten thousand ages, as these are poetically called. Tung Fu-hsiang, whose ruffianly Kansu braves were marched out of the Chinese city--that is the outer ring of Peking--two nights before the Legation Guards came in, is also with the Empress, for his cavalry banners, made of black and blue velvet, with blood-red characters splashed splendidly across them, have been seen planted at the foot of the hills. Tung Fu-hsiang is an invincible one, who stamped out the Kansu rebellion a few years ago with such fierceness that his name strikes terror to-day into every Chinese heart.

Indiscreet Letters from Peking, Bertram Lenox Simpson, p. 12[9][10]

But it is grave notwithstanding the laughter. Once in 1899, after the Empress Dowager's coup d'etat and the virtual imprisonment of the Emperor, Legation Guards had to be sent for, a few files for each of the Legations that possess squadrons in the Far East, and, what is more, these guards had to stay for a good many months. The guards are now no more, but it is curious that the men they came mainly to protect us against— Tung Fu-hsiang's Mohammedan braves from the savage back province of Kansu who love the reactionary Empress Dowager—are still encamped near the Northern capital.

Indiscreet Letters from Peking, Bertram Lenox Simpson, p. 10.[11]

Transfer to Beijing[edit]

General Dong Fuxiang

Following the killing of two German missionaries in Shandong in November 1897, foreign powers engaged in a "scramble for concessions" that threatened to split China into several spheres of influence.[12] To protect the imperial capital against possible attacks, Cixi had the Gansu Army transferred to Beijing in the summer of 1898.[13] She admired the Gansu Army because Ronglu, who was in her favors, had a close relation with its commander Dong Fuxiang.[14] On their way to Beijing, Dong's troops attacked Christian churches in Baoding.[13] After the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform (June 11–September 21, 1898) sponsored by the Guangxu Emperor, Cixi named Ronglu Minister of War and highest official in the Grand Council, and put him in charge of reforming the metropolitan armies.[15] Ronglu made Dong's militia the "Rear Division" of a new corps called the "Guards Army".[16] Dong Fuxiang was the only commander of the five divisions who did not hide his hostility toward foreigners.[17]

Beijing residents and foreigners alike feared the turbulent Muslim troops.[17] Some Westerners described the Gansu Braves as the "10,000 Islamic rabble",[18]"a disorderly rabble of about 10,000 men, most of whom were Mohammedans",[19][20] others as "ten thousand Mohammedan cutthroats feared by even the Chinese".[21] In late September and early October 1898, several minor clashes between the Gansu troops and foreigners heightened tensions in the capital.[13] Soldiers from the United States Marine Corps were among the new guards called from Tianjin to protect the Beijing Legation Quarter from possible assaults.[22][23] By late October, rumors were circulating that the Gansu Army was preparing to kill all foreigners in Beijing.[13] Responding to an ultimatum by the foreign ministers, Cixi had the Gansu troops transferred to the "Southern Park" (Nanyuan 南苑), which was also known as the "Hunting Park" because emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties had used it for large-scale hunts and military drills.[24][25] By the 1880s, this large expanse of land south of Beijing – it was several times larger than the walled city – had been partly converted into farmland, but it was conveniently located near the railroad that connected Beijing to Tianjin.[26][27] The Kansu braves were involved in a scuffle at a theatre.[28][29][30] At the section of railroad at Fungtai, two British engineers were almost beaten to death by the Muslim Kansu troops, and foreign ministers asked that they be pulled back since they were threatening the safety of foreigners.[31]

§ 26. At Peking much apprehension was felt from the disturbed political state, but the actual danger came from the turbulent soldiery brought to the capital to guard against the fear of foreign aggression, and of these the most turbulent were the Kansu troops of Tung Fu-siang, stationed in the southern Hunting Park. Men of this force attacked, on September 30th, a party consisting of members of the British and American legations, and the next day the foreign representatives decided to send for a guard of marines from each of their fleets. The viceroy at Tientsin refused to allow them to pass, but, as the envoys

[67] Sir C. MacDonald to Lord Salisbury, April 15th, 1898, China, Xo. 1, 1899, p. 102.

Hosea Ballou Morse, The International Relations of the Chinese Empire, Volume 3, p. 151.[32]

The Chinese government did protest, but without effect. The legation guards were insisted upon, and, as speedily as possible, they were provided from the war-ships of the several powers, and quartered in Peking. Then the Chinese authorities brought troops to the capital, and the sense of danger at the legations grew. On the 25th of October Minister MacDonald cabled to London: "A serious menace to the safety of Europeans is the presence of some 10,000 soldiers, who have come from the Province of Kansu, and are to be quartered in the hunting park, two miles south of Peking. A party of these soldiers made a savage assault on four Europeans (including Mr. C. W. Campbell, of this Legation), who were last Sunday visiting the railway line at Lukou Chiao. The foreign Ministers will meet this morning to protest against these outrages. I shall see the Yamcm to-day, and propose to demand that the force of soldiers shall be removed to another province, and that the offenders shall be rigorously dealt with."

On the 29th he telegraphed again: "The Foreign Representatives met yesterday, and drafted a note to the Yamfin demanding that the Kansu troops should be withdrawn at once. The troops in question have not been paid for some months, and are in a semi-mutinous state. They have declared their intention to drive all Europeans out of the north of China, and have cut the telegraph wires and destroyed portions of the railway line between Lukouchiao and Paoting Fu. Some disturbances have been caused by them on the railway to Tien-tsin, but the line has not been touched, and traffic has not been interrupted. In the city here all is quiet. The presence of these troops in the immediate vicinity of Peking undoubtedly constitutes a serious danger to all Europeans. The Yamfin gave me a promise that the force should be removed, but have not yet carried it into effect."

Alan Campbell Reiley, History for Ready Reference: From the Best Historians, Biographers, and Specialists; Their Own Words in a Complete System of History ..., p. 95.[33]

The Boxer Rebellion[edit]

Main article: Boxer Rebellion

Rise of the Boxers and return to the walled city[edit]

"Secondary Devils "—the term used to describe Chinese Christians. of the family in one of the main rooms, and told them not to get excited or scream. I had scarcely mustered them when nineteen of the Kansu braves came rushing in. Their swords and clothes were still dripping with blood, as if they had come from a shambles. I went forward to meet them, saying politely: 'I know what you have come.for: you are looking for secondary devils. However, none of us have "eaten" the foreign religion. You will see that we have an altar to the kitchen god in our back premises. The whole of our family is now here; will you not take a look through the house to see if there are any Christians in hiding?' I meant by this to imply that we should offer no opposition to their looting whatsoever they pleased. I also called a servant to prepare tea. Our guests received these overtures pleasantly enough, and after a few minutes of energetic looting they returned to my guest room, and some of them sat down to take tea. One of them remarked: 'You seem to be thoroughly respectable people: what a pity that you should reside near this nest of foreign converts and spies.' After a brief stay they thanked us politely, apologising for the intrusion, and retired with their booty. It was then about 2 p.m. We lost about $4,000 worth of valuables. Shortly afterwards, flames were bursting from our neighbour's premises, so I made up my mind to remove my family to a friend's house in the north of the city. In spite of these deeds of violence, even intelligent people still believed that the Kansu soldiery were a tower of defence for China, and would be more than able to repel any number of foreign troops. A friend of mine reckoned that 250,000 persons lost their lives in Peking that summer. I used to revile the Boxers in the family circle so much that my own kinsmen, who sympathised with them, would call me an 'Erh Mao Tzu,' and my cousin, fearing that the Boxers would murder me, induced me one day to kotow before one of their altars in the Nai Tzu-fu. To this day I have regretted my weakness in thus bowing the knee."

Sir Edmund Backhouse & John Otway Percy Bland, Annals & memoirs of the court of Peking: (from the 16th to the 20th century), Act III, Scene I.[34][35][36]

On 5 January 1900, Sir Claude MacDonald, the British Minister in Beijing, wrote to the Foreign Office about a movement called the "Boxers" that had been attacking Christian property and Chinese converts in Shandong and southern Zhili province.[37] In the early months of 1900, this "Boxer movement" took dramatic expansion in northern Zhili – the area surrounding Beijing – and Boxers even started to appear in the capital.[38][39] In late May, the anti-Christian Boxers took a broader anti-foreign turn, and as they became more organized, they started to attack the Beijing–Baoding railway and to cut telegraph lines between Beijing and Tianjin.[40]

The Qing court hesitated between annihilating, "pacifying", or supporting the Boxers. From May 27 to May 29, Cixi received Dong Fuxiang in audiences at the Summer Palace.[41] Dong assured her that he could get rid of the foreign "barbarians" if necessary, increasing the dowager's confidence in China's ability to drive out foreigners if war became unavoidable.[41] Meanwhile, an increase in the number of the legation guards – they arrived in Beijing on May 31 – further inflamed anti-foreign sentiment in Beijing and its surrounding countryside: for the first time, Boxers started to attack foreigners directly.[42] Several foreign powers sent warships under the Dagu Forts, which protected access to Tianjin and Beijing.[43][44]

On June 9, the bulk of the Kansu Braves escorted Empress Dowager Cixi back to the Forbidden City from the Summer Palace; they set camp in the southern part of city, in empty lands in front of the Temple of Heaven and the Temple of Agriculture.[45] Fearing the worst, Sir Claude MacDonald immediately sent a telegram calling for Admiral Seymour to send help from Tianjin.[45] On June 10, the anti-foreign and pro-Boxer prince Duan replaced the anti-Boxer and more moderate prince Qing as the head of the Tsungli Yamen, the bureau through which the Qing government communicated with foreigners.[46] On that same day the telegraph lines were cut off for good.[45]

It is, therefore, becoming patent to the most blind that this is going to be something startling, something eclipsing any other anti-foreign movement ever heard of, because never before have the users of foreign imports and the mere friends of foreigners been labelled in a class just below that of the foreigners themselves. And then as it became dark today, a fresh wave of excitement broke over the city and produced almost a panic. The main body of Tung Fuhsiang's savage Kansu braves—that is, his whole army-—re-entered the capital and rapidly encamped on the open places in front of the Temples of Heaven and Agriculture in the outer ring of Peking. This settled it, I am glad to say. At last all the Legations shivered, and urgent telegrams were sent to the British admiral for reinforcements to be rushed up at all costs.

Indiscreet Letters from Peking, Bertram Lenox Simpson, pp. 36-7.[11][47][48]

Assassination of Sugiyama Akira[edit]

On the morning of June 11, the British sent a large convoy of carts to greet the Seymour Expedition. The procession safely passed through the areas occupied by the Gansu troops inside the walled city and soon reached the Majiapu train station south of Beijing, where the relief troops were expected to arrive soon.[46] Except that it they never arrived, and the carts had to head back to the legations.[46] A smaller Italian delegation guarded by a few riflemen was narrowly escaped Dong Fuxiang's soldiers, who were lining up to block Beijing's main southern gate the Yongding Gate, but also managed to return safely.[49]

That same afternoon, the Japanese legation sent secretary Sugiyama Akira to the station unguarded to greet the Japanese troops. With his formal western suit and a bowler hat, Sugiyama made a conspicuous target.[50][51] The Kansu Muslim troops seized him from his cart near the Yongding Gate, hacked him into pieces, decapitated him, and left his mutilated body and severed head and genitals on the street.[52][53] George Morrison, the Beijing correspondent for the London Times, claimed that they also carved his heart out and sent it to Dong Fuxiang.[50][54] The Japanese legation lodged a formal protest at the Tsungli Yamen, which expressed its regrets and explained that Sugiyama had been killed by "bandits".[55]

Combat[edit]

Dong was extremely anti-foreign, and gave full support to Cixi and the Boxers. General Dong committed his Muslim troops to join the Boxers to attack foreigners in Beijing. They attacked the legation quarter relentlessly. They were also known for their intolerance towards the Opium trade. A Japanese chancellor, Sugiyama Akira, and several Westerners were killed by the Kansu braves.[56][57][58] The Muslim troops were reportedly enthusiastic about going on the offensive and killing foreigners.

The German diplomat in Beijing Clemens von Ketteler killed a Chinese civilian unconnected to the Boxers, for no apparent reason.[59] In response, Boxers and thousands of Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves went on a violent riot against the westerners.[60]

They were made out of 5,000 cavalry with the most modern repeating rifles.[61] Some of them went on horseback.[62]

The Kansu Braves and Boxers combined their forces to attack the foreigners and the legations.[63][64][65]

In contrast to other units besieging the legations, like Ronglu's troops who let supplies and letters slip through to the besieged foreigners, the "sullen and suspicious" Kansu braves seriously pressed the siege and refused to let anything through, shooting at foreigners trying to smuggle things through their lines.[66][67][68][69][70][71] Sir Claude Macdonald noted the "ferocity" of Dong Fuxiang's Kansu troops compared to the "restraint" of Ronglu's troops.[72]

Battle summary[edit]

Early on Sunday morning, 17th June, a week after we had started, the Taku Forts were taken by U the Allied Forces in order to relieve Tientsin. That city was invested by the Boxers who began to bombard it next day. Of this of course we were quite ignorant. But the Court in Peking must have received instant news of the fact, for on the afternoon of the 18th Captain von Usedom, the German officer in command of the troops left at Langfang, was attacked by the Imperial forces belonging to General Tung-fuh-siang's division. Their numbers were estimated at 7,000 and they were well armed _^ with modern rifles which they used with effect, so that we suffered considerable casualties.

Charles Clive Bigham Mersey (Viscount), A Year in China, 1899-1900, p. 177.[73]

Messages were then sent back to Lofa and Langfang, recalling trains 2, 3, and 4, the advance by rail being found to be impracticable, and the isolation and separate destruction of the trains a possibility. In the afternoon of June 18, train No. 3 came back from Lofa, and later in the evening Nos. 2 and 4 from Langfang. The latter had been unexpectedly attacked about half past 2 in the afternoon of June 18, by a force estimated at 5,000 men, including cavalry, large numbers of whom were armed with magazine rifles of the latest pattern. Captured banners showed that they belonged to the army of General Tung Fu Hsiang, who commanded the Chinese troops in the hunting park outside Pekin, showing that the Chinese imperial troops were being employed to defeat the expedition. This army was composed of especially picked men, 10,000 strong, commanded from the palace. They were said to be well armed, but indifferently drilled.

United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division, Publication, Issue 33, p. 528.[74][75][76]

The Muslim troops led by Dong Fuxiang defeated the hastily assembled Seymour Expedition of the 8 nation alliance at the Battle of Langfang on June 18. The Chinese won a major victory, and forced Seymour to retreat back to Tianjin with heavy casualties by June 26.[73][77][78][79] Langfang was the only battle the Muslim troops did outside of Beijing. After Langfang, Dong Fuxiang's troops only participated in battles inside of Beijing.[80]

Summary of battles of General Dong Fuxiang: Ts'ai Ts'un, July 24; Ho Hsi Wu, July 25; An P'ing, July 26; Ma T'ou, July 27.[81]

6,000 of the Muslim troops under Dong Fuxiang and 20,000 Boxers repulsed a relief column, driving them to Huang Ts'un.[82] The Muslims camped outside the temples of Heaven and Agriculture.[83]

The German Kaiser Wilhelm II was so alarmed by the Chinese Muslim troops that he requested the Caliph Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire to find a way to stop the Muslim troops from fighting. The Caliph agreed to the Kaiser's request and sent Enver Pasha (not the future Young Turk leader) to China in 1901, but the rebellion was over by that time.[84][85][86][87][88]

As the Imperial court evacuated to Xi'an in Shaanxi province after Beijing fell to the Alliance, the court gave signals that it would continue the war with Dong Fuxiang "opposing Court von Waldersee tooth and nail", and the court promoted Dong to Commander-in-chief.[89]

Organization and armament[edit]

They were organized into eight battalions of infantry, two squadrons of cavalry, two brigades of artillery, and one company of engineers.[90] They were armed with modern weaponry such as Mauser repeater rifles and field artillery.[91] They used scarlet and black banners.[92]

Notable people[edit]

List of people who served in the Kansu Braves

General Ma Fuxiang
Commander Ma Fuxing

Another Muslim general, Ma Anliang, Tongling of Hezhou joined the Kansu braves in fighting the foreigners.[93][94] Ma Anliang would go on to be an important Chinese warlord in the Ma clique during the Warlord Era.

The future Muslim General Ma Biao, who led Muslim cavalry to fight against the Japanese in the Second Sino-Japanese War, fought in the Boxer Rebellion as a private in the Battle of Peking against the foreigners. Another General, Ma Yukun, who commanded a separate unit, was believed to be the son of the Muslim General Ma Rulong by the Europeans. Ma Yugun fought with some success against Japan in the First Sino-Japanese War and in the Boxer Rebellion at the Battle of Yangcun and Battle of Tientsin.[95][96] Ma Yugun was under General Song Qing's command as deputy commander.[97]

When the imperial family decided to flee to Xi'an in August 1900 after the Eight-Nation Alliance captured Beijing at the end of the Boxer War the Muslim Kansu Braves escorted them. One of the officers, Ma Fuxiang, was rewarded by the Emperor, being appointed governor of Altay for his service. His brother, Ma Fulu and four of his cousins died in combat during the attack on the legations.[98] Ma Fuxing also served under Ma Fulu to guard the Qing Imperial court during the fighting.[99] Originally buried at a Hui cemetery in Beijing, in 1995 Ma Fulu's remains were moved by his descendants to Yangzhushan in Linxia County.[100]

In the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the Japanese asked the Muslim General Ma Hongkui to defect and become head of a Muslim puppet state under the Japanese, Ma responded through Zhou Baihuang, the Ningxia Secretary of the Nationalist Party to remind the Japanese military chief of staff Itagaki Seishiro that many of his relatives fought and died in battle against Eight Nation Alliance forces during the Battle of Peking, including his uncle Ma Fulu, and that Japanese troops made up the majority of the Alliance forces so there would be no cooperation with the Japanese.[101]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Travels Of A Consular Officer In North-West China. CUP Archive. p. 110. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Jonathan N. Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. pp. 142–3. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. 
  3. ^ Jonathan Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers. pp. 128 and 156–7. 
  4. ^ Jonathan Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers. p. 151. 
  5. ^ Jonathan Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers. pp. 156–7. 
  6. ^ Jonathan Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers. p. 157. 
  7. ^ Jonathan Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers. pp. 157–8. 
  8. ^ Jonathan Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers. pp. 164–5. 
  9. ^ WEALE, B.L. PUTNAM, ed. (1922). Indiscreet Letters From Peking (China Edition ed.). Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, Limited British Empire and Continental Copyright Excepting Scandinavian Countries by Putnam Weale from 1921. p. 12. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  10. ^ WEALE, B.L. PUTNAM, ed. (1922). Indiscreet Letters From Peking Being the Notes of an Eye-Witness, Which Set Forth in Some Detail, from Day to Day, the Real Story of the Siege and Sack of a Distressed Capital in 1900--the Year of Great Tribulation (China Edition ed.). Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, Limited British Empire and Continental Copyright Excepting Scandinavian Countries by Putnam Weale from 1921. p. 12. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  11. ^ a b WEALE, B.L. PUTNAM (1907). INDISCREET LETTERS FROM PEKING (YEAR 1919). pp. 36–7. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  12. ^ Joseph W. Esherick (1987). The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 123–4. ISBN 0-520-06459-3. 
  13. ^ a b c d Joseph W. Esherick (1987). The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. p. 182. 
  14. ^ Jonathan Lipman (1997). Familiar Strangers. p. 157, note 120. 
  15. ^ Jane E. Elliott (2002). Some Did It for Civilisation, Some Did It for their Country: A Revised View of the Boxer War. Chinese University Press. p. 498. ISBN 962-996-066-4. 
  16. ^ Jane E. Elliott (2002). Some Did It for Civilisation, Some Did It for their Country. p. 498. 
  17. ^ a b Jane E. Elliott (2002). Some Did It for Civilisation, Some Did It for their Country. p. 9. 
  18. ^ Lynn E. Bodin (1979). The Boxer Rebellion. Osprey. p. 26. ISBN 0-85045-335-6. 
  19. ^ Powell, Ralph L. (1972). The rise of Chinese military power, 1895-1912 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Kennikat Press. p. 103. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  20. ^ Papers on China, Volumes 3-4. Contributors Harvard University. East Asian Research Center, Harvard University. Committee on International and Regional Studies, Harvard University. East Asia Program, Harvard University. Center for East Asian Studies. East Asian Research Center, Harvard University. 1949. p. 240. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  21. ^ Chester M. Biggs (2003). The United States Marines in North China, 1894–1942. McFarland. p. 85. ISBN 0-7864-1488-X. 
  22. ^ Increase of legation guards: Joseph W. Esherick (1987). The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. p. 182. 
  23. ^ US Marine Corps: Chester M. Biggs (2003). The United States Marines in North China. p. 25. 
  24. ^ Official name Southern Park and explanation of the park's use: Susan Naquin (2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400–1900. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 317. ISBN 0-520-21991-0. 
  25. ^ Reason for the Gansu Army's transfer: Joseph Esherick (1987). The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. p. 182. 
  26. ^ Farmland: Susan Naquin (2000). Peking. p. 317. 
  27. ^ Railroad: see map in Diana Preston (2000). The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China's War on Foreigners that Shook the World in the Summer of 1900. New York: Berkley Books. p. 99. ISBN 0-425-18084-0. 
  28. ^ BLAND, J.O.P.; BACKHOUSE, E. (1910). CHINA UNDER THE EMPRESS DOWAGER. p. 360. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  29. ^ China Under the Empress Dowager: Being the History of the Life and Times of Tzŭ Hsi. Compiled by John Otway Percy Bland, Sir Edmund Backhouse. J.B. Lippincott. 1911. p. 360. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  30. ^ LAND, J.O.P.; BACKHOUSE, E. (1910). CHINA UNDER THE EMPRESS DOWAGER. p. 360. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  31. ^ "THE DEFENCE OF 'PEKING. PREPARING TO RESIST EXPEDITION.". THE WEST AUSTRALIAN (London). 16 June 1900. p. 5. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  32. ^ Morse, Hosea Ballou (1918). The International Relations of the Chinese Empire, Volume 3. Longmans, Green, and Company. p. 151. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  33. ^ Reiley, Alan Campbell (1901). Larned, Josephus Nelson, ed. History for Ready Reference: From the Best Historians, Biographers, and Specialists; Their Own Words in a Complete System of History .... Volume 6 of History for Ready Reference: From the Best Historians, Biographers, and Specialists; Their Own Words in a Complete System of History (revised ed.). C.A. Nichols Company. p. 95. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  34. ^ Backhouse, Sir Edmund; Bland, John Otway Percy (1914). Annals & memoirs of the court of Peking: (from the 16th to the 20th century). W. Heinemann. p. 454. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  35. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 113. Contributor Carl Sandburg Collections (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library). Atlantic Monthly Company. 1914. p. 80. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  36. ^ Backhouse, Sir Edmund; Bland, John Otway Percy (1914). Annals & memoirs of the court of Peking: (from the 16th to the 20th century). W. Heinemann. p. 454. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  37. ^ Paul A. Cohen (1997). History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-231-10651-3. 
  38. ^ Expansion of the Boxer movement: Paul A. Cohen (1997). History in Three Keys. pp. 41–2. 
  39. ^ Boxer arrival in Beijing: Joseph W. Esherick (1987). The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. p. 290. 
  40. ^ Paul A. Cohen (1997). History in Three Keys. p. 47. 
  41. ^ a b Lanxin Xiang (2003). The Origins of the Boxer War: A Multinational Study. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 207. ISBN 0-7007-1563-0. .
  42. ^ Joseph W. Esherick (1987). The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. p. 47. 
  43. ^ Paul A. Cohen (1997). History in Three Keys. pp. 47–8. 
  44. ^ Joseph W. Esherick (1987). The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. p. 287. 
  45. ^ a b c Diana Preston (2000). The Boxer Rebellion. p. 69. 
  46. ^ a b c Diana Preston (2000). The Boxer Rebellion. p. 70. 
  47. ^ Weale, B L Putnam (1907). Indiscreet Letters From Peking. Compiled by John Otway Percy Bland, Sir Edmund Backhouse. Dodd Mead And Company. pp. 36–7. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  48. ^ Weale, Bertram Lenox Putnam, ed. (1909). Indiscreet Letters from Peking: Being the Notes of an Eyewitness, which Set Forth in Some Detail, from Day to Day, the Real Story of the Siege and Sack of a Distressed Capital in 1900--the Year of Great Tribulation. Dodd, Mead. p. 29. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  49. ^ Lanxin Xiang (2003). The origins of the Boxer War: a multinational study. p. 252. 
  50. ^ a b Diana Preston (2000). The Boxer Rebellion. p. 71. 
  51. ^ Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis Crispin, eds. (1980). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0521220297. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  52. ^ Robert B. Edgerton (1997). Warriors of the rising sun: a history of the Japanese military. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 70. ISBN 0-393-04085-2. 
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